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  • 1.
    Bogdan, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Green, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Räsänen, Minna
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231).
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Cooperative Design of a Robotic Shopping Trolley2009In: The Good, the Bad and the Challenging: the user and the future of information and communication technologies, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Ertl, D.
    Goller, M.
    Green, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Towards HRI on the Move with Mixed Initiative2010In: Proceeding of New Frontiers in Human-Robot Interaction Symposium of the Convention Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour (AISB) 2010, 2010, p. 22-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Ertl, Dominik
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Göller, Michael
    Green, Anders
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Falb, Jürgen
    Kaindl, Hermann
    Evaluation of robot body movements supporting communication: Towards HRI on the move2011In: New Frontiers in Human–Robot Interaction / [ed] Kerstin Dautenhahn, Joe Saunders, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011, p. 185-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In designing socially interactive robots we have focused on robot movement and its role in multi-modal human-robot communication. In this chapter we describe design and evaluation of robot body movements supporting communication, investigating the idea of using speed and orientation adjustments as design elements in human-robot interaction. The scenario studied includes a robotic shopping trolley that offers products via speech and GUI to the user while both are moving in a supermarket-like environment. Our results show that if the robot slows down while making such offers, users are more prone to react upon them and to take the product. However, even from our early pre-study with mock-up robots we observed that users tended not to mention the robot’s slow-down movements, even if these movements were shown several times to them during a video-based debriefing. This phenomenon, that users react implicitly on the robot’s movements without being consciously aware of them, was confirmed during an experimental study with a fully integrated robot prototype. We discuss our results by reflecting on human-robot interaction design methods, and we draw implications from the lessons learned in the study of the design of robot behaviours. In particular, we list a whole set of challenges for HRI when both the user and the robot are moving.

  • 4.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Rossitto, Chiara
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Normark, Maria
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Jorge »Adler», Pedro
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Eklundh, Kerstin Severinson
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    On a Mission without a Home Base: Conceptualizing Nomadicity in Student Group Work2006In: COOPERATIVE SYSTEMS DESIGN: SEAMLESS INTEGRATION OF ARTIFACTS AND CONVERSATIONS - ENHANCED CONCEPTS OF INFRASTRUCTURE FOR COMMUNICATION / [ed] Hassanaly P, Herrmann T, Kunau G, Zacklad M, 2006, Vol. 137, p. 23-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are observing that the current body of CSCW research is focusing either on stable workplaces with a single cooperative unit or on mobile work, with highly mobile professionals. We are attempting to fill the gap between workplace and mobile with a field study of student work, which we regard as exhibiting a high degree of nomadicity. After comparing student work with centres of coordination and mobility work, we unpack the notion of nomadicity as a work condition, constituted by a complex of discontinuities, leading to work partitioning and re-assembly. We draw design and methodological implications.

  • 5.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    FingerPrint: supporting social awareness in a translucent sensor- mediated cue-based environment2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a pilot study that is part of an ongoing project which investigates social awareness support for project groups made of students who may choose to work at the university, at home or at part-time job offices. The study involved the design and early evaluation of a prototype which augments a cooperative application with various sensorial and computational cues about co-worker presence. The sensing devices were installed and annotated by the users themselves. Based on this experience and inspired by "technomethodology", we suggest implications for design of awareness support and context-enabled devices.

  • 6. Davoli, Paolo
    et al.
    Monari, Matteo
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Peer activities on Web learning platforms: Impact on collaborative writing and usability issues2009In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 229-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of groupware tools in e-learning practice is increasing, because of their educational relevance and of the importance of group abilities in today's job activities. The paper addresses some critical issues of asynchronous collaborative tools hosted in Web-learning platforms. A model to capture user quality perceptions for these tools is presented, and an investigation conducted in three case studies where e-learning platforms were used to share and comment on written works is reported in detail. Quantitative and qualitative data are used in a complementary way to capture the complexity of educational collaborative activities. The impact of technologies on work organization, writing and peer-feedback activities is discussed. Users dedicated more time to feedback activities than they would have in real-life contexts, and paid more attention to the style and content of their writing. Communication was more focused and honest than in real life (even though more distant and at the risk of misunderstanding), and its indirectness encouraged shy and impaired people. Usability problems emerged from platform design, educators' choices and server-side settings; Web-based systems seem to pose specific usability issues when users are required a strong active role; compatibility issues highlight the need for a closer Web standard compliance.

  • 7.
    Domeij, Rickard
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Knutsson, Ola
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Different ways of evaluating a Swedish grammar checker2002In: Proceedings of the third international conference on language resources and evaluation (LREC), 2002, p. 262-267Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different ways of evaluating a Swedish grammar checker are presented and discussed in this article. The first evaluationconcerns measuring the program's detection capacity on five text genres. The measures (precision and recall) are often used inevaluating grammar checkers. However, in order to test and improve the usability of grammar checking software, they need to becomplemented with user-oriented methods. Consequently, the second and the third evaluations presented in the article both involveusers. The second evaluation focuses on user reactions to grammar error presentations, especially with regard to false alarms anderroneous error identification. The third and last evaluation focuses on problems in supporting users' cognitive revision processes. Italso examines user motives behind choosing to correct or not to correct problems highlighted by the program. Advantages anddisadvantages of the different evaluation methods are discussed.

  • 8. Green, A
    et al.
    Hüttenrauch, H
    Oestreicher, L
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    Norman, M
    User centered design for intelligent service robots2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of a fetch-and-carry robot to assist physically impaired people in an office environment. Different methods involving users are employed in the project, including the task analysis, Hi-Fi simulation trials and focus group sessions. Through an iterative design process, a prototype robot system has been developed, with an enhanced robot platform including a graphical user interface and natural language interface. The users' need for continuous feedback from the robot has led to the development of an animated character (CERO), which relates the two interface components and indicates the robot's current state by using simple gestures

  • 9. Green, A.
    et al.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Designing for learnability in human-robot communication2003In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 644-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a future scenario where many devices can be controlled using the voice, easy and intuitive access will be crucial for avoiding cognitive overload when users are faced with many different systems and interaction models. We propose a model for interaction with spoken language interfaces applied to heterogeneous tasks for service robots, based on the idea of using a family of lifelike characters,, We argue that we can signal important features of the speech interface by using certain visual cues. The aim is to facilitate learning and transfer between interfaces. We discuss challenges for dialogue design affecting learnability in the light of the speech interface constructed for our full-scale robot prototype CERO.

  • 10. Green, A
    et al.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    Task-oriented dialogues for CERO: A user-centered approach2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a user-centered approach to the process of designing spoken dialogues for commanding robots. Using scenarios and synthetic dialogues followed by simulated trials with real users we built a spoken language interface for commanding an office robot. Initial evaluation with the implemented system has brought interesting questions concerning the feedback necessary for interacting with a robot that has no screen. We are using a small life-like character placed upon the robot who is able of displaying conversational gestures. We have performed initial evaluations on video recorded material which have raised issues concerning low-level feedback, timing and sequencing of commands in dialogue

  • 11.
    Green, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Eklundh, Kerstin Severinson
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Wrede, Britta
    Li, Shuyin
    Integrating miscommunication analysis in natural language interface design for a service robot2006In: 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vols 1-12, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2006, p. 4678-4683Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural language user interfaces for robots with cognitive capabilities should be designed to reduce the occurrence of miscommunication in order to be perceived as providing a smooth and intuitive interaction to its users. This paper describes how miscommunication analysis is integrated in the design process. Observations from 12 user sessions revealed that users misunderstand the robot's functionality; and that feedback sometimes is ill-timed with respect to the situation. We provide a set of design implications to prevent errors from occurring, to influence or adapt to users' behavior.

  • 12.
    Green, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Bogdan, Cristian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    With a new helper comes new tasks mixed-initiative interaction for robot-assisted shopping2009In: IHRCMICA-2009 Improving Human-Robot Communication with Mixed-Initiative and Context-Awareness: Proceedings of the Workshop on Improving Human-Robot Communication with Mixed-Initiative and Context-Awareness co-located with Ro-Man 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the CommRob project1 we are investigating Robot Assisted Shopping. We are considering the effects on usability when allowing for mixed-initiative dialogue. It is noted that when adding a robotic assistant to a scenario that was previously involving only one agent, two new tasks are created: collaborative interaction, and learning an interface. Evaluation of mixed-initiative dialogue becomes complicated because it is not straightforward to separate the overall task performance from the attributes brought by mixed-initiative interaction.

  • 13.
    Green, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Eklundh, Kerstin Severinsson
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Applying the wizard-of-oz framework to cooperative service discovery and configuration2004In: RO-MAN 2004: 13TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ROBOT AND HUMAN INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION, PROCEEDINGS, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2004, p. 575-580Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how the Wizard-of-Oz framework can be applied to a service robotics scenario. A scenario the Home Tour Scenario - involving a collaborative service discovery and configuration multimodal dialogue for the robot is described. The role of the wizard operators producing dialogue and robot movements is discussed as well as the specific simulation tools used: the Dialogue Production Tool and the Joystick Navigation Tool. Some attention will be paid to the pilot studies performed as a preparation for the unified Home Tour Scenario.

  • 14.
    Green, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Topp, Elin Anna
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Developing a Contextualized Multimodal Corpus for Human-Robot Interaction2006In: Proceedings of the fifth international conference on language resources and evaluation, 2006, p. 401-406Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development process of a contextualized corpus for research on Human-Robot Communication. The data have been collected in two Wizard-of-Oz user studies performedwith 22 and 5 users respectively in a scenario that is called the HomeTour. In this scenario the users show the environment (a single room, or a whole floor) to the robot using a combination of speech and gestures. The corpus has been transcribed and annotated with respect to gestures and conversational acts, thus forming a core annotation. We have also annotated or linked other types of data, e.g., laser range finder readings, positioning analysis, questionnaire data and task descriptions that form the annotated context of the scenario. By providing a rich set of different annotated data, thecorpus is thus an important resource both for research on natural language speech interfaces for robots and for research on human-robot communication in general.

  • 15. Gulliksen, Jan
    et al.
    Lantz, Ann
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    Oestreicher, L
    Design versus Design2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of des9'4 in the context of Human-Computer Interaction is dis444fx bas4 on definitions from indusB'"qf desus to the very practical problem of achieving usievingf in indus"'fxM projects in practice. Descti is an important quality of a product that today has not been receiving enough attention when it comes to computerisq artefactssq]qqfss]qqfssfsfBM"fs]fss a s[[Fq4 and this paper focus"q more on desqB9 as a creative procese of communication than on a pos4B[fx[4 product quality aslity f The Scandinavian tradition has herein been very influential in sfB["4'fx the importance of the us fF participating actively in a us]q centred desed procesfB The paper defines and disFB4"Bf usFB4"Bfx[[ dessB in the light of the theories of communication as put by Herbert Clark. Communication is identified as one of the key is s ues that need to be addres]fx in order to achieve well functioning ustioning fB desson The paper dis f'"M4 different terminology and gives examples'fx[BBqqfsx[BBqqfssfBM"fs]f Finally, mock-upsF prototypes and video are disq']"fx as tools for facilitating communication and cons]F4qfxF4 of common ground. Intro,12416 ThisfB'[B9fxF]MqqfsxF4]qqfsfBM"fs]fss HCI). HCI isB9q[fxF"qqfsaction f[4[4MfxF"qqfs evaluation and implementation of interactive computing somput for humanus and with thesef' of major phenomenasnomenafFM them [ACM, 1992]. HCIinvolves asB of procesfx' dialogues andactions employed by aus4 to interact with a computer to perform asB9MB[f tas [Baecker, Grudin, Buxton & Greenberg, 1994]. Hence, HCI deals with everything that in one way or the other can affect or influence the actualus of an ITsT -fMq But, in addition to the qualitydesit brings to the computer artefact itals involves the proces9" by which wesfB9] develop and cre...

  • 16. Hossjer, Amelie
    et al.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Making Space for a New Medium: On the Use of Electronic Mail in a Newspaper Newsroom2009In: Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ISSN 0925-9724, E-ISSN 1573-7551, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of computer-supported cooperative work, there are a continuously growing number of studies of the use of electronic media in groups and organisations. Despite the existence of this impressive body of research, there have been comparatively few in-depth studies of how the computer as a medium of communication is integrated in specific professional practices. The present study examines the role of electronic mail in a medium-sized Swedish newspaper office (newsroom) environment. Using an ethnographic perspective, the study attempts to combine two approaches: it is both focused on the social and communicative processes that are affected by the use of email and oriented toward the messages as such, looking at what kind of interaction is produced through particular email exchanges. Data have been collected during repeated observations, interviews and study of documents and artefacts in the newsroom environment over a period of almost 3 years. The picture that has emerged suggests that it is not the medium as such, but its interaction with other contextual preconditions that is decisive for the effects of the introduction of email. Important factors are the physical localization of co-workers in the near and remote editorial environment as well as their organisational roles in the time-critical news production process. Together, these relationships create a significantly more complex picture than previous studies of what happens when a new communication technology is introduced.

  • 17.
    Huettenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Green, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Topp, Elin A
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Investigating spatial relationships in human-robot interaction2006In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, NEW YORK, NY: IEEE , 2006, p. 5052-5059Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-presence and embodied interaction are two fundamental characteristics of the command and control situation for service robots. This paper presents a study of spatial distances and orientation of a robot with respect to a human user in an experimental setting. Relevant concepts of spatiality from social interaction studies are introduced and related to Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). A Wizard-of-Oz study quantifies the observed spatial distances and spatial formations encountered. However, it is claimed that a simplistic parameterization and measurement of spatial interaction misses the dynamic character and might be counterproductive in the design of socially appropriate robots.

  • 18. Hüttenrauch, H
    et al.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    Fetch-and-carry with Cero: Observations from a long-term user study with a service robot2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the motivation, methodology, and findings of a long-term usage study of CERO, a service robot intended to assist partly motion-impaired people with the transportation of light objects in an office environment. We describe the user's experiences with utilizing the robot over a period of 3 months, and the overall process of adapting service robot usage as part of a work-group setting. The results of the study suggest the need for different modes of operation of a robot. We also question the view of service robots as personalized devices only, and point out the importance of providing transitions between remote- and close proximity control in the use of service robots.

  • 19.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Bogdan, Cristian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Green, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Ertl, Dominik
    Falb, Jürgen
    Kaindl, Hermann
    Göller, Michael
    Evaluation of Robot Body Movements Supporting Communication2010In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on New Frontiers in Human-Robot Interaction - A Symposium at the AISB 2010 Convention, 2010, p. 42-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In designing socially interactive robotswe have focused on robot movement and its role in multi-modal human-robot communication. In this paper we describe a user-centred design and evaluation process, investigating the idea of using speed and orientation adjustments as design elements in human-robot interaction. The scenario studied includes a robotic shopping trolley that offers products to the user while both are moving in a supermarket-like environment. Our results show that if the robot slows down while making such offers, users are more prone to react upon them. However, in an early pre-study, performed only with a robot mock-up, we observed that users tended not to notice the robot's slow-down movements while offers are made, even if these movements were shown several times to them during a video-based debriefing. This phenomenon, that users react implicitly on the robot'smovements without being consciously aware of them, was confirmed during an experimental study with a fully integrated robot prototype.We discuss our results by reflecting on human-robot interaction design methods, and we propose implications from the lessons learnt in the study of the design of robot behaviours.

  • 20.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Green, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Norman, Mikael
    Oestreicher, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Involving users in the design of a mobile office robot2004In: IEEE transactions on systems, man and cybernetics. Part C, Applications and reviews, ISSN 1094-6977, E-ISSN 1558-2442, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the experiences from the iterative design of a fetch-and-carry-robot, to be used by motion-impaired people in an office environment. A user-centered approach was chosen, involving several steps of information elicitation to inform the design. We describe the main elements of the design process, the communication and interaction components of the final prototype system, and an evaluation of the system in the form of a longitudinal study. Results from this study confirmed that continuous testing with users is extremely important in the design process for service robots. The trials have also revealed that interaction design for robots should not focus only on the individual user, but that other members in the environment can be seen "secondary users" or "bystanders" who tend to relate to the robot actively in various ways. We conclude that these social and collaborative issues should be studied in future research.

  • 21.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Green, Anders
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Report on user study on the role of posture and postioning in HRI2006Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    To help or not to help a service robot2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports an experimental study in which people who had never encountered our service robot before were requested to assist it with a task. We call these visiting users "bystanders" to differentiate them from people who belong to the social setting and group in which the robot is operated in and thus are familiar with the robot. In our study 32 subjects were exposed to our robot and requested by it to provide a cup of coffee as part of a delivery mission. We anticipated that people in general would help the robot, dependent upon whether they were busy or had received a demonstration of the robot as introduction. Our results indicate that the willingness of bystanders to help a robot not only is a consequence of the robot initiated interaction, but equally depends on the situation and state of occupation people are in when requested to interact with and assist the robot.

  • 23.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    To help or not to help a service robot2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports an experimental study in which people who had never encountered our service robot before were requested to assist it with a task. We call these visiting users "bystanders" to differentiate them from people who belong to the social setting and group in which the robot is operated in and thus are familiar with the robot. In our study 32 subjects were exposed to our robot and requested by it to provide a cup of coffee as part of a delivery mission. We anticipated that people in general would help the robot, dependent upon whether they were busy or had received a demonstration of the robot as introduction. Our results indicate that the willingness of bystanders to help a robot not only is a consequence of the robot initiated interaction, but equally depends on the situation and state of occupation people are in when requested to interact with and assist the robot.

  • 24.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    To help or not to help a service robot - Bystander intervention as a resource in human-robot collaboration2006In: Interaction Studies, ISSN 1572-0373, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 455-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mobile service robot performing a task for its user(s) might not be able to accomplish its mission without help from other people present in the shared environment. In previous research, collaborative control has been studied as an interactive mode of operation with a robot, compensating for its limitations in autonomy. However, few studies of robots requesting assistance by detecting potential collaborators, directing its attention to them, addressing them, and finally obtaining help from them, have previously been performed in real-world use contexts. This study focuses on a fetch-and-carry robot, Cero, which has been designed to operate in an office environment as an aid for motion-impaired users. During its missions, the robot sometimes needs help with loading or unloading an object. The main question for the study was: under what conditions are people willing to help when requested to do so by the robot? We were particularly interested in bystanders, i.e. people who happened to be in the environment but who did not have any official business with the robot (they neither knew anything about the robot, nor did they have access rights to the robot or its functions). To answer these questions and to provide a better understanding of human-robot help-seeking situations, we conducted an experimental study in which subjects who had not encountered our service robot before were requested to assist it with a task. The results of the study confirm that bystanders can to some degree be expected to help in robot missions, but that their willingness to help the robot depends on the situation and state of occupation that people are in when requested to interact with and assist the robot.

  • 25.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Severinson Eklundh,, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Green, Anders
    Topp, Elin A.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Christensen, Henrik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    What's in the gap?: Interaction Transitions that make the HRI work2006In: Proceedings of the 15th IEEE international symposium on robot and human interactive communication, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis from a Human Robot Interaction (HRI) study on spatial positioning and interaction episode transitions. Subjects showed a living room to a robot to teach it new places and objects. This joint task was analyzed with respect to organizing strategies for interaction episodes. Noticing the importance of transitions between interaction episodes, small adaptive movements in posturewere observed. This finding needs to be incorporated into HRI modules that plan and execute robots’ spatial behavior in interaction, e.g., through dynamic adaptation of spatial formations and distances depending on interaction episode.

  • 26.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Topp, Elin Anna
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    The Art of Gate-Crashing Bringing HRI into users' homes2009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Special purpose service robots have already entered the market and their users homes. Also the idea of the general purpose service robot or personal robot companion is increasingly discussed and investigated. To probe human-robot interaction with a mobile robot in arbitrary domestic settings, we conducted a study in eight different homes. Based on previous results from laboratory studies we identified particular interaction situations which should be studied thoroughly in real home settings. Based upon the collected sensory data from the robot we found that the different environments influenced the spatial management observable during our subjects' interaction with the robot. We also validated empirically that the concept of spatial prompting can aid spatial management and communication, and assume this concept to be helpful for Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) design. In this article we report on our exploratory field study and our findings regarding, in particular, the spatial management observed during show episodes and movement through narrow passages.

  • 27. Kaindl, H.
    et al.
    Ertl, D.
    Falb, J.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Green, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Göller, M.
    Multimodal communication involving 2D-space movement2010In: 4th International Conference on Cognitive Systems, CogSys 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28. Kim, H
    et al.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    Collaboration between writer and reviewer through change representation tools2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Change representation concerns how changes of text are presented in writing tools. Change representation in collaborative writing can play an important role for the collaborators' understanding of changes of text. We have conducted a laboratory study where 10 pairs of a writer and a reviewer produced argumentative letters by using the change representation functions. We have also set different conditions in the experimental task: (a) two ways of representing changes, indication and display, and (b) two collaboration models, the writer- and the reviewer-initiative models. A primary source of the data was obtained though interviews with the participants. The paper reports their experience of collaboration in writing with change representation tools, relevant design conclusions, and lessons learned from the study.

  • 29.
    Knutsson, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Cerratto Pargman, Teresa
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Westlund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Designing and developing a language environment for second language writers2007In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 1122-1146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field study carried out with learners who used a grammar checker in real writing tasks in an advanced course at a Swedish university. The objective of the study was to investigate how students made use of the grammar checker in their writing while learning Swedish as a second language. Sixteen students with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds participated in the study. A judgment procedure was conducted by the learners on the alarms from the grammar checker. The students' texts were also collected in two versions; a version written before the session with the grammar checker, and a version after the session. This procedure made it possible to study to what extent the students followed the advice from the grammar checker, and how this was related to their judgments of its behavior. The results obtained demonstrated that although most of the alarms from the grammar checker were accurate, some alarms were very hard for the students to judge correctly.

    The results also showed that providing the student with feedback on different aspects of their target language use; not only on their errors, and facilitating the processes of language exploration and reflection are important processes to be supported in second-language learning environments.

    Based on these results, design principles were identified and integrated in the development of Grim, an interactive language-learning program for Swedish. We present the design of Grim, which is grounded in visualization of grammatical categories and examples of language use, providing tools for both focus on linguistic code features and language comprehension.

  • 30. Kollberg, P
    et al.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    Studying writers’ revision patterns with S-notation analysis2001In: Contemporary tools and techniques for studying writing, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 89-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes a computer-based technique for analysing revision and text production strategies, called S-notation. On the basis of a keystroke record, a representation is created of all revisions made in a text during a writing session, including their order and internal structure. The resulting representation is embedded in an interactive program, which enables both qualitative and quantitative analyses of revisions made during a writing session. The tools described also support automatic identification of connected episodes of revision, which are relevant for the study of individual and task-specific writing strategies. We present the methodological and theoretical rationale behind the development of the method, and the basic principles for the creation of the S-notation. Subsequently, we describe how the tools can be used to answer particular research questions, including a discussion of the limitations of a purely formal treatment of revision. A multi-level framework is outlined for how to gain knowledge of revision processes using different kinds of data. Finally, we summarize studies made by ourselves as well as other researchers using S-notation analysis

  • 31. Kristoffersson, A.
    et al.
    Coradeschi, S.
    Loutfi, A.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH.
    An Exploratory Study of Health Professionals' Attitudes about Robotic Telepresence Technology2011In: Journal of technology in human services, ISSN 1522-8835, E-ISSN 1522-8991, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 263-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the results from a video-based evaluation study of a social robotic telepresence solution for elderly. The evaluated system is a mobile teleoperated robot called Giraff that allows caregivers to virtually enter a home and conduct a natural visit just as if they were physically there. The evaluation focuses on the perspectives from primary healthcare organizations and collects the feedback from different categories of health professionals. The evaluation included 150 participants and yielded unexpected results with respect to the acceptance of the Giraff system. In particular, greater exposure to technology did not necessarily increase acceptance and large variances occurred between the categories of health professionals. In addition to outlining the results, this study provides a number of indications with respect to increasing acceptance for technology for elderly. 

  • 32. Kristoffersson, A.
    et al.
    Coradeschi, S.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Loutfi, A.
    Sense of presence in a robotic telepresence domain2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotic telepresence offers a means to connect to a remote location via traditional telepresence with the added value of moving and actuating in that location. Recently, there has been a growing focus on the use of robotic telepresence to enhance social interaction among elderly. However for such technology to be accepted it is likely that the experienced presence when using such a system will be important. In this paper, we present results obtained from a training session with a robotic telepresence system when used for the first time by healthcare personnel. The study was quantitative and based on two standard questionnaires used for presence namely, the Temple Presence Inventory (TPI) and the Networked Minds Social Presence Intentory. The study showed that overall the sense of social richness as perceived by the users was high. The users also had a realistic feeling regarding their spatial presence.

  • 33. Kristoffersson, A.
    et al.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Loutfi, A.
    Measuring the Quality of Interaction in Mobile Robotic Telepresence: A Pilot's Perspective2013In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 89-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a method for measuring the quality of interaction in social mobile robotic telepresence. The methodology is in part based on Adam Kendon's theory of F-formations. The theory is based on observations of how bodies naturally orient themselves during interaction between people in real life settings. In addition, two presence questionnaires (Temple Presence Inventory and Networked Minds Social Presence Inventory), designed to measure the users' perceptions of others and the environment when experienced through a communication medium are used. The perceived presence and ease of use are correlated to the spatial formations between the robot and an actor. The proposed methodology is validated experimentally on a dataset consisting of interactions between an elder (actor) and 21 different users being trained in piloting a mobile robotic telepresence unit. The evaluation has shown that these tools are suitable for evaluating mobile robotic telepresence and also that correlations between the tools used exist. Further, these results give important guidelines on how to improve the interface in order to increase the quality of interaction.

  • 34. Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Loutfi, Amy
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Assessment of interaction quality in mobile robotic telepresence An elderly perspective2014In: Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems, ISSN 1572-0373, E-ISSN 1572-0381, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 343-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we focus on spatial formations when interacting via mobile robotic telepresence (MRP) systems. Previous research has found that those who used a MRP system to make a remote visit (pilot users) tended to use different spatial formations from what is typical in human-human interaction. In this paper, we present the results of a study where a pilot user interacted with ten elderly via a MRP system. Intentional deviations from known accepted spatial formations were made in order to study their effect on interaction quality from the local user perspective. Using a retrospective interviews technique, the elderly commented on the interaction and confirmed the importance of adhering to acceptable spatial configurations. The results show that there is a mismatch between pilot user behaviour and local user preference and that it is important to evaluate a MRP system from two perspectives, the pilot user's and the local user's.

  • 35. Lohse, M.
    et al.
    Hanheide, M.
    Wrede, B.
    Walters, M.L.
    Koay, K.L.
    Syrdal, D.S.
    Green, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Dautenhahn, K.
    Sagerer, G.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Evaluating extrovert and introvert behaviour of a domestic robot – a video study2008In: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN, 2008, p. 488-493Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) research is here presented into social robots that have to be able to interact with inexperienced users. In the design of these robots many research findings of human-human interaction and human-computer interaction are adopted but the direct applicability of these theories is limited because a robot is different from both humans and computers. Therefore, new methods have to be developed in HRI in order to build robots that are suitable for inexperienced users. In this paper we present a video study we conducted employing our robot BIRON (BIelefeld RObot companioN) which is designed for use in domestic environments. Subjects watched the system during the interaction with a human and rated two different robot behaviours (extrovert and introvert). The behaviours differed regarding verbal output and person following of the robot. Aiming to improve human-robot interaction, participants' ratings of the behaviours were evaluated and compared.

  • 36.
    Moll, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Sallnäs Pysander, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hellström, Sten-Olof
    KTH.
    The Effects of Audio and Haptic Feedback on Collaborative Scanning and Placing2014In: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 177-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study aimed at exploring the effects of different modality combinations on collaborative task performance and employed joint task-solving strategies in a shared interface. The modality combinations visual/haptic, visual/audio and visual/haptic/audio were compared in an experiment in which users solved a task together, working in pairs in adjacent rooms. The application used contained a flat surface in a 3D interface on which piles of cubes were randomly placed in a grid. The task involved scanning for empty cells and placing continuously falling cubes until all empty cells were filled. The cubes and the flat surface were designed in such a way that they could be felt and heard and thus could be recognized by different kinds of haptic and audio feedback cues. This made it possible to scan the environment and read both absolute and relative positions in the grid. A quantitative analysis of task performance and a qualitative analysis of video recordings and interview data were performed. Results showed that task completion times were significantly faster in the visual/haptic/audio condition compared with the other conditions and that there were also significantly fewer errors, result checks of one's own actions and double checks of the partner's actions in the visual/haptic/audio condition than in the other conditions. Qualitative results show that participants work simultaneously to a larger extent in the visual/haptic/audio condition and that less communication occurred in the visual/haptic/audio condition compared with the other conditions. We argue that more modalities improved the awareness of the environment resulting in the participants feeling more confident with their interaction in the environment in the visual/haptic/audio condition. This resulted in improved task performance. The visual/audio feedback was better suited for solving the task than the visual/haptic feedback even though haptic feedback gave a significant added value in the visual/haptic/audio condition.

  • 37. Nijenhuis, N
    et al.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Vand der Geest, T
    The Use of Audio and Video in Synchronous Computer-Supported Collaborative Writing2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the use of audio and video and the support of common ground was investigated in the context of the planning stage in the writing process. The  esearch question for this study was: “Compared to the use of an audio communication modality, how is common ground supported by a video communication modality when people are planning a document together with the use of a collaborative writing tool?” To study how common ground was supported by an audio and video communication modality, the following definition of common ground was used: For a conversation to be effective the communicators need to understand each other, that means they are noticing and hearing each other, they understand what was said and what was meant. In total 45 participants took part in this study. The task was to make an outline about Sweden. A questionnaire was used to measure the support for common ground, satisfaction with the interaction and satisfaction with the outcome. Task performance was measured with the quality of the outlines. The outlines were reviewed and sorted on quality. The results for this study show that common ground is well supported by both communication modalities, but differences in support for common ground do exist. It is argued that video supports the creation and maintenance of common ground better in complex situations, which demand intensive collaboration, especially for non-native speakers of English.

  • 38.
    Oestreicher, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    User Expectations on Human-Robot Co-operation2006In: Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2006. ROMAN 2006. The 15th IEEE International Symposium on, 2006, p. 91-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are sometimes considered as candidates for being ideal helpers in various situations. As robot technology advances quickly it might be tempting to assume that robots will soon widely used in homes dealing with all sorts of tasks, from small assignments to more complex tasks. However, it is still not clear what people expect a robot to do in their homes. This paper describes the results from two studies that investigate the public opinion towards service robots, both as a general domestic worker, and as a support for people with special needs.

  • 39.
    Rodriguez, Henrry
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Eklundh Severinsson, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Supporting individual views and mutual awareness in a collaborative writing task: The case of col•laboració2007In: Writing and Cognition: Research and Applications, Brill Academic Publishers, 2007, p. 322-334Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Rodriguez, Henrry
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Gustafsson, Nils-Erik
    KTH.
    Using a dialogue space for achieving lightweight participatory design of collaborative tools2006In: HCI Related Papers of Interaccion 2004 / [ed] NavarroPrieto, R; Vidal, JL, 2006, p. 179-194Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Rodriguez, Henrry
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Giving the Main Role to Web Documents in a Distributed Text Based Persistent Conversation2005In: Proceedings of HCI International 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Rodriguez, Henrry
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Visualizing patterns of annotation in document-centered collaboration on the Web2006In: Writing and Digital Media / [ed] Luuk Van Waes, Mariëlle Leijten, Christine M. Neuwirth, Elsevier, 2006, p. 131-144Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sharing documents with others and getting comments on them are frequent activities for most authors. We present Col-lecci6;1A web-based asynchronous, groupware tool that supports sharing and annotation of documents in small or medium sized-groups. Eash document is associated with its own space for commenting, in which a text-based dialouge can be formed among the participants. A site in Col-lecci6 is called a domain, and consists of a collection of documents and a set of comments in connection with each document. Case studies of the use of the system have shown that a domain is often complex as a discourse enviroment, as the system supports several parallel document discussions. We present a visualization model, Domain Interactivity Diagram (DID), as an aid for analysing patterns of annotation and referncing in these dialouges. This model is especially adapted to document-centred discourse, and highlights the role of the author in communication about a document. One aim of the DID is to show the extent to which documents he/she has commented on. A more ambitious aim has been to support to coherence in the discourse developed within a domain.

  • 43.
    Rositto, Chiara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Designing for "nomadic" student group work2007In: Proceedings of Working with Computing Systems, 2007, p. 110-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from two case studies aiming at understanding nomadic work in the context of students’ collaborative activities. By drawing on data collected by adopting ethnographic methods, we present and discuss a notion of nomadicity as characterized by discontinuities. Eventually, we explore some considerations for design that we address as relevant for the settings we have studied.

  • 44. Rossitto, Chiara
    et al.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Severinson-Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Understanding Constellations of Technologies in Use in a Collaborative Nomadic Setting2014In: Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ISSN 0925-9724, E-ISSN 1573-7551, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 137-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how people make sense of and use constellations of technologies in a nomadic setting, and it illustrates how maintaining and orchestrating a variety of applications and devices becomes an essential part of nomadic practices. The data were collected over a period of 3 years at a technical university by means of two field studies. Particular attention is drawn to how the situated orchestration of devices and applications within a group's constellation reflects university students' concern to manage their projects at a number of locations, as well as issues of time and circulation of resources. The analysis brings into focus how constellations of technologies emerge and dissolve within collaborative ensembles that only exist for the duration of a project, and how this can cause appropriation issues within groups.

  • 45.
    Rossitto, Chiara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Managing work at several places: a case of project work in a nomadic group of students2007In: Proceedings of ECCE 2007, the European Conference of Cognitive Ergonomics, 2007, p. 45-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation -- This paper explores the collaborative and spatial practices of university students engaged in project work. Regarding students as nomadic workers, we attempt to elucidate how their activities are shaped by the lack of a stable and fixed location where work can be carried out.

    Research approach -- The data presented in this paper were collected by means of ethnographically-informed methods.

    Findings/Design -- The results elucidate how students manage their collaborative activities at different locations and how they use artifacts and technology in order to do so.

    Research limitations/Implications -- Only Swedish students participated in the field study discussed in this paper. Cultural attributes, related to privacy for instance, might contribute to the distinction between private and public places.

    Originality/Value -- This work highlights the relationships between group activities and the places they are bound to, with a main focus on how these relationships are mediated by technological artifacts.

    Take away message -- The nomadic work described suggests that design efforts should be oriented towards an integration of different applications and/or technological devices.

  • 46.
    Räsänen, Minna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Bogdan, Cristian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Green, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Report on User and Stakeholder Requirements: CommRob Project : Deliverable D7.12008Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Sallnäs Pysander, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Bjerstedt-Blom, Kajsa
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Winberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Navigation and control in haptic applications shared by blind and sighted users2006In: Haptic And Audio Interaction Design, Proceedings / [ed] McGookin, D; Brewster, S, Glasgow: Springer, 2006, Vol. 4129, p. 68-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Haptic feedback in shared virtual environments can potentially make it easier for a visit ally impaired person to take part in and contribute to the process of group work. In this paper a task driven explorative evaluation is presented. of collaboration between visually impaired and sighted persons in three applications that provide haptic and visual feedback. The results show that all pairs could perform all the tasks in these applications even though a number of difficulties were identified. The conclusions made can inform design of applications for cooperation between visually impaired and sighted users.

  • 48.
    Sallnäs Pysander, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Moll, Jonas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Severinson-Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Group work about geometrical concepts among blind and sighted pupils using haptic interfaces2007In: World Haptics 2007: Second Joint EuroHaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, Proceedings, 2007, p. 330-335Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study presented in this paper two haptic and visual prototypes for learning about geometrical concepts in group work in primary school have been designed and evaluated The aim was for the prototypes to support collaborative learning between sighted and visually impaired pupils. The first prototype was a 3D environment, that supported learning of spatial geometry. The second prototype was a flattened 3D environment that supported learning to distinguish between angles. The two prototypes were evaluated in four schools with small groups of pupils - two sighted and one visually impaired. The results showed that the support for the visually impaired user was good and that co-operation and learning are satisfactorily supported. However, a number of interesting problems were also discovered that need to be investigated further. A promising result was that the power of the touch-based haptic interface for supporting visually impaired people was made clear.

  • 49.
    Sallnäs Pysander, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Moll, Jonas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Haptic Interface for Collaborative Learning Among Sighted and Visually Impaired Pupils in Primary School2006In: ENACTIVE / 06, Enaction & Complexity, 2006, p. 85-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study presented here two software prototypes for learning about geometrical concepts in primary school were evaluated. Both prototypes have a combined haptic and visual user interface, so as to support visually impaired pupils in group work together with sighted classmates. The aim of the prototypes was to facilitate the visually impaired pupils’ inclusion in school. The overall goal of the study was to evaluate the collaboration in a shared haptic environment regarding usability, interaction, learning and inclusion in a group work process with visually impaired and sighted pupils. The prototype and the evaluation are described in more detail in Moll (2006).

  • 50.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Green, A.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Social and collaborative aspects of interaction with a service robot2003In: Robotics and Autonomous Systems, ISSN 0921-8890, E-ISSN 1872-793X, Vol. 42, no 04-mar, p. 223-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To an increasing extent, robots are being designed to become a part of the lives of ordinary people. This calls for new models of the interaction between humans and robots, taking advantage of human social and communicative skills. Furthermore, human-robot relationships must be understood in the context of use of robots, and based on empirical studies of humans and robots in real settings. This paper discusses social aspects of interaction with a service robot, departing from our experiences of designing a fetch-and-carry robot for motion-impaired users in an office environment. We present the motivations behind the design of the Cero robot, especially its communication paradigm. Finally, we discuss experiences from a recent usage study, and research issues emerging from this work. A conclusion is that addressing only the primary user in service robotics is unsatisfactory, and that the focus should be on the setting, activities and social interactions of the group of people where the robot is to be used.

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