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  • 1.
    Amlinger, Hanna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Reduction of Audible Noise of a Traction Motor at PWM Operation2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A dominating source for the radiated acoustic noise from a train at low speeds is the traction motor. This noise originates from electromagnetic forces acting on the structure resulting in vibrations on the surface and thus radiated noise. It is often perceived as annoying due to its tonal nature. To achieve a desirable acoustic behavior, and also to meet legal requirements, it is of great importance to thoroughly understand the generation of noise of electromagnetic origin in the motor and also to be able to control it to a low level.

    In this work, experimental tests have been performed on a traction motor operated from pulse width modulated (PWM) converter. A PWM converter outputs a quasi-sinusoidal voltage created from switched voltage pulses of different widths. The resulting main vibrations at PWM operation and their causes have been analyzed. It is concluded that an appropriate selection of the PWM switching frequency, that is the rate at which the voltage is switched, is a powerful tool to influence the noise of electromagnetic origin. Changing the switching frequency shifts the frequencies of the exciting electromagnetic forces. Further experimental investigations show that the trend is that the resulting sound power level decreases with increasing switching frequency and eventually the sound power level reaches an almost constant level. The underlying physical phenomena for the reduced sound power level is different for different frequency ranges. It is proposed that the traction motor, similar to a thin walled cylindrical structure, shows a constant vibration over force response above a certain frequency. This is investigated using numerical simulations of simplified models. Above this certain frequency, where the area of high modal density is dominating, the noise reducing effect of further increasing the switching frequency is limited.

  • 2.
    Amlinger, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Botling, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Operational deflection shapes of a PWM-fed traction motor2016In: Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Springer, 2016, p. 209-217Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational deflection shapes of an asynchronous traction motor for railway applications are investigated. The radiated noise from the tractionmotor on a train is, especially at low speeds, dominated by noise generated by electromagnetic forces. The tested motor is fed by a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) frequency converter for which the voltage is modulated as a series of pulses that are switched with a certain frequency. In this case, PWM force lines can be expected to influence the radiated noise. Therefore, detailed knowledge about the frequencies and deflection shapes of vibrations generated by PWM forces is of great importance for understanding and controlling the radiated noise and its spectral content. Vibration levels are measured on the stator shield and the operational deflection shapes are studied for several PWM switching frequencies and motor speeds. The deflection shapes with the largest vibration levels are determined. These are then compared to the expected excitation resulting from the pure PWM force lines. Changing the switching frequency, will shift the frequencies of the exciting forces. An appropriate selection of the PWM switching frequency is therefore important for the resulting acoustic radiation from the motor. © The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2016.

  • 3.
    Amlinger, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Impact of PWM switching frequency on the radiated acoustic noise from a traction motor2017In: 2017 20th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, ICEMS 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The radiated acoustic noise from a traction motor at low speeds is dominated by the noise of electromagnetic origin. For a motor operated from pulse width modulated (PWM) converters, the switching frequency of the converter will have a large impact on the noise. The total harmonic distortion of the motor phase currents and thus also the exciting forces, will decrease with increasing switching frequency. Furthermore, changing the switching frequency will shift the frequencies of the exciting forces, hence have an influence on the coincidence with structural resonances of the motor. Tests have been performed on a traction motor and a decrease in sound pressure level with increasing switching frequency has been quantified and analyzed.

  • 4.
    Amlinger, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Reduction of radiated acoustic noise of a traction motor at PWM converter operationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Botling, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Amlinger, Hanna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Vibro-acoustic modal model of a traction motor for railway applications2016In: Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Springer, 2016, p. 197-208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vibro-acoustic modal model of a traction motor for railway applications is presented based on an experimental modal analysis of the system. Noise requirements for railway traction motors are getting more and more demanding as part of the overall levels of new rolling stock. It is therefore of great interest to understand and predict the vibro-acoustic behaviour of electromagnetic noise generated by traction motors. The modal parameters are derived from an experimental modal analysis. The primary source for the radiated sound of the tested traction motor is the radial deflections of the stator shield. The modal parameters for the radial deflections are implemented in a reduced order modal model in a state space format using Matlab/Simulink. Only the structural modes that have a match in both the frequency and the spatial domain with the excited electromagnetic force will cause important vibro-acoustic response. This makes it possible to create an accurate and efficient reduced order modal model with only a fraction of the total number of structural modes. The simulation results from the modal model are compared to measurements of operational deflection shapes and acoustic measurements of the motor. © The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2016.

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