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  • 1.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Efficiency and temperature of spray lubricated superfinished spur gearsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Efficiency and temperature of spur gears using spray lubrication compared to dip lubrication2017In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 231, no 11, p. 1390-1396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased machine efficiency is a requirement in today's world and geared transmissions are no exception. A back-to-back gear test rig was used to compare dip lubrication with spray lubrication regarding gearbox efficiency, mesh efficiency, gear temperature and surface roughness. Gears lubricated at the inlet of the mesh show a lower measured temperature when compared to spray lubrication at the outlet of the mesh. Spray lubrication, when compared to dip lubrication, yields the same efficiency for both rotating directions at the tested speeds of 0.5 to 20 m/s. Spray lubrication shows a significantly higher total gearbox efficiency at higher speeds, higher measured tooth temperature and no measurable change in surface roughness.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Efficiency and temperature of spur gears using spray lubrication compared to dip lubricationIn: Journal of Engineering TribologyArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    The effect of running-in on the efficiency of superfinished gears2016In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 93, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced gear contact losses are necessary to keep operating temperatures, as well as fuel consumption low. In this work, an FZG gear test rig was used to investigate the effect of running-in on superfinished gears with respect to efficiency. This was compared to ground gears where a higher contact pressure yielded higher efficiency. No difference was found between the two running-in procedures when analysing superfinished gears. The effect of running-in on gears decreased when the initial surface roughness was reduced, which initially had an Ra, Rz and Rpk value of 0.08, 0.75 and 0.08 μm respectively. Superfinished gears showed an overall higher efficiency; however, a distinctly lower efficiency was present below 2 m/s when compared to ground gears.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Sosa, Mario
    Sjöberg, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Effect of Assembly Errors in Back-to-Back Gear Efficiency Testing2014In: International Gear Conference 2014: 26th–28th August 2014, Lyon, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2014, p. 784-793Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As gear efficiency is improved in small steps, it is important to be able to distinguish actual improvements from scatter that can occur while testing. An FZG back-to-back gear test rig was used to investigate how the assembly and re-assembly of the same test setup affects the measurements. A spread in loss torque between one assembly and another of the same test setup were observed. Rig conditions also affected the spread in input torque. With knowledge of how the spread in loss torque varies due to assembly, test results could be distinguished between changes due to assembly and actual differences between tests.

  • 6.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Andersson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    A note on the pitting life of IQ steel versus 16MnCr5 steel in a back to back gear test rig2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IQ-steel is isotropic (i.e. equally strong in all directions), cleaner, and with less inclusions than 16MnCr5 regular gear steel (RS). IQ-steel is used in diesel inlets and for bearings but to date has not been used for gears. Previous studies, has shown good potential to increase the bending fatigue life of gears. The method in this study is a mechanical test procedure to determine the pitting load capacity of gear transmission lubricants, but with the focus on comparing the pitting load capacity of the two steel types IQ-steel with RS. Times to failures, photographs of the fatigue damage are presented in the study. Gear teeth from each steel type were analysed using SEM. The results, which are based on six tests in total (three IQ-steel and three RS-steel gear pairs), indicate that the IQ-steel may have at least similar surface capacity as the regular steel.

    Keywords: Pitting life, Gear, IQ-steel

  • 7.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Andersson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Investigation of pitting resistance in ultra clean IQ-Steel vs commonly used conventional steel; 158Q vs 16MnCr5: Back-to-back pitting tests2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    KTH Machine Design has conducted pitting tests on gears made out of two different types of steel in a standard back-to-back pitting test rig (FZG). The tested gears were produced from Ovako’s IQ-Steel in grade 158Q and compared to the behaviour of a reference steel, commonly used conventional steel in grade 16MnCr5 (reference steel, RS). The test method is a mechanical test procedure generally used to determine the pitting load capacity of gear transmission lubricants, but in this study the purpose was to compare the pitting load capacity of the two steel types. The report is based on the test procedure described in FVA – Information sheet Research Project No. 371 (Practice Relevant Pitting Test) with minor changes. Time to failure and photographs of the fatigue damages are presented in this report. One gear tooth from each steel type was analysed using SEM. The results, which are based on six tests in total (three gear pairs IQ-Steel and three RS-steel), indicate that the IQ-Steel has better surface durability than the reference steel. To better understand the mechanisms involved, further tests are suggested.

  • 8.
    Li, Xinmin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Andersson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    A study of the efficiency of spur gears made of powder metallurgy materials - ground versus super-finished surfaces2016In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 95, no 1, p. 211-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power loss is one of the main concerns in gear transmission systems. In this study a recirculating power back-to-back FZG test rig was used to investigate the efficiency of spur gears made of powder metallurgy (PM) material using two different surface manufacturing methods (ground and super-finished). The results were compared with previously presented results of standard gear material from the same test rig. The influence of the material (Wrought steel or PM) and surface roughness on the gear mesh efficiency and the total efficiency of the gearbox were analyzed in detail. The Young's modulus for PM materials is lower than for conventional gear steel. This may influence gear tooth bending and the efficiency of the gear transmission. Gear contact simulation results showed that the influence of gear tooth bending on PM gear transmission efficiency can be ignored in the FZG gear geometry. Higher surface energy combined with a smoother surface led to a lower transmission efficiency for the super-finished powder metallurgy gear combination compared to the standard gear material.

  • 9.
    LI, XINMIN
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    A pin on disc study of the tribology characteristics of sintered versus standard gear materials2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Powder metallurgy allows complex component geometries which includes gears. There is however a lack of knowledge of the tribological performance of powder material gears compared to gears manufactured from standard gear materials. In this study, a pin on disc machine was used to simulate the sliding part of gear tooth contact both in boundary and mixed lubricated regions. A comparative study of the tribology characteristics of two kind of sintered gear materials with a standard gear material was performed. The comparison comprised of damage mechanisms, wear, friction and running-in between these materials in different pin on disc configuration (standard vs standard, sintered versus sintered and sintered versus standard). For the same gear materials combinations [RS-RS (16MnCr5), AQ-AQ (Distaloy AQ+0.2%C) and Mo-Mo (Astaloy 85Mo+0.2%C)], RS gear material has a lower friction coefficient. When it comes to PM and RS material combinations, both of the PM materials showed a lower friction coefficient, when the pins are made of PM materials in contrast if we have RS pin. Also for the wear rate, RS material always shows the lowest wear rate no matter the disc material. AQ and Mo gear materials have nearly the same wear rate. A distinct difference between different material combinations, both in friction and in wear rate, is observed during the running-in phase.

  • 10.
    Li, Xinmin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    A pin-on-disc study of the tribology characteristics of sintered versus standard steel gear materials2015In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Though powder metallurgy (PM) allows manufacturing of complex components, including gears, we lack knowledge of the tribological performance of PM versus standard steel gear materials. Using a pin-on-disc machine, we simulate the sliding part of gear tooth contact in boundary and mixed lubricated regions, comparing the tribological characteristics of two sintered gear materials with those of a standard gear material. The comparison considered damage mechanisms, wear, and friction between these materials in different configurations (i.e., standard versus standard, sintered versus sintered, and sintered versus standard). The results indicate that, for pairings of the same gear materials, i.e., RS–RS (16MnCr5), AQ–AQ (Distaloy AQ+0.2% C), and Mo–Mo (Astaloy 85Mo+0.2% C), RS has a lower friction coefficient. For PM and RS combinations, both PM pins have lower friction coefficients with RS disc material than do RS pins with PM disc materials. For the wear coefficient, at low and high speeds, RS pins always display better wear resistance than do AQ or Mo pins because of their high hardness and compacted microstructure. For RS–PM combinations, Mo pins display higher wear resistance than do AQ pins because their larger and more numerous pores enable good lubrication. Pins in the Mo–RS combination displayed the highest wear resistance, mainly because the pores in Mo discs hold lubricant, lubricating the contact surface and preventing adhesive wear. For the RS pin in the Mo–RS combination and the AQ pin in RS–AQ, the damage mechanism is slight adhesive wear and scuffing. For pins in the PM–PM, RS–PM, AQ–RS, and RS–RS combinations, the damage mechanism is a heavier scuffing-type adhesive wear.

  • 11.
    Lindholm, Per
    et al.
    KTH.
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH.
    The effect of elasticity in powder metal gears on tooth loading and mean coefficient of friction2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part C, journal of mechanical engineering science, ISSN 0954-4062, E-ISSN 2041-2983, Vol. 232, no 11, p. 2023-2031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Powder metal gears have a lower density than conventional steel gears due to their intrinsic porosity from the manufacturing process. This also results in a lower elasticity leading to larger deformations and lower contact pressure in a gear contact. By using different modelling tools (namely FEA and available commercial software), the load behavior along the line of action is studied to compare the influence of lower elasticity with standard wrought steel elasticity for FZG-C type gears. A further step is taken analyzing this effect on the mean coefficient of friction through the recalculation of the gear mesh power loss factor. Conclusions observed are differences in load distribution and marginal differences in the gear mesh power loss factor when comparing sintered and wrought steel FZG-C type gears. Sintered steel showed a marginally longer line of action and simultaneously a decrease of the single tooth contact length when compared to wrought steel, while differences in the gear mesh power loss factor proved non-essential due to the spread in previously measured experimental data.

  • 12. Mallipeddi, D.
    et al.
    Norell, M.
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Nyborg, L.
    Influence of running-in on surface characteristics of efficiency tested ground gears2017In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 115, p. 45-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of running-in load (0.9 or 1.7 GPa) on surface characteristics of ground spur gears, and on their development during subsequent efficiency testing (FZG rig), is examined. The effect was confined to less than 10 μm depth. Micropitting was associated with surface asperities and their plastic deformation; higher running-in load gave more micropitting, also after identical efficiency tests. Running-in increased unequal compressive residual stresses in both profile and axial directions, while after efficiency testing they approached equal levels. Deformation induced martensite is considered to form during running-in only at high load, still the amount after efficiency testing increased with running-in load. Higher surface content of phosphorous from extreme pressure additive (EP) occurred only after efficiency test following running-in at high load.

  • 13.
    Mallipeddi, Dinesh
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Ind & Mat Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Norell, Mats
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Ind & Mat Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Nyborg, Lars
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Ind & Mat Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Effect of Running-In (Load and Speed) on Surface Characteristics of Honed Gears2019In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial running-in cycles alter the surface integrity characteristics and influence gear performance. This article shows how the surface characteristics of honed spur gears evolved due to the combined effect of running-in load (0.9 or 1.7 GPa) and speed (0.5 or 8.3 m/s) in Forschungsstelle fur Zahnrader und Getriebebau tests. Running-in affected the surface layers to a depth of 5 mu m. High running-in load promoted plastic deformation of asperities, created microstructural changes associated with surface cracks, and relaxed residual stresses. It also enhanced the amount of phosphorous from extreme pressure (EP) additives at the surface. The surface contact fatigue failure-that is, micropitting-was promoted by running-in speed rather than load.

  • 14.
    Sjöberg, Sören
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Andersson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A study of the running-in and efficiency of ground gearsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Sjöberg, Sören
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Andersson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Analysis of efficiency of spur ground gears and the influence of running-in2016In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 93, p. 172-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performing gear transmissions are needed to reduce CO2 emissions. In this paper an FZG gear test rig was used to investigate how two running-in loads affects the gear mesh efficiency for two different temperatures. The gear surface roughness was investigated in parallel with testing. Higher efficiency was observed for tests using a high running-in load, and for low lubricant temperatures. The running-in load had a larger effect on the mesh efficiency than temperature. The high running-in load also yielded higher gear mesh efficiency and had a larger impact on surface parameters.

  • 16.
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Running-in of gears - surface and efficiency transformation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With ever shorter development times and market demands on overall system performance such as efficiency, reliability and low maintenance, accurate predictive tools are necessary and gear drives prove to be no exception. All these characteristics have an impact on a process which has remained a riddle: running-in. Even though no consensus on a definition of this phenomena is readily available, this thesis examines efficiency, surface roughness and simulation through the optics of running-in.

    Geared transmissions are known for their formidable efficiency and their extreme reliability. However, with an ever increasing power density, the ability to accurately predict mesh losses becomes of utmost importance. The accurate quantification of bearing losses as well as efficiency of ground and superfinished gears under dip lubrication are examined with respect to running-in. Results show a considerable influence on the calculation of gear mesh losses originating from which bearing loss model is chosen. Furthermore, when a larger running-in load is used on ground gears, an increase in efficiency can be observed during working operation, while for superfinished no significant changes are found. These efficiency/frictional changes are also shown to occur in the initial cycles of the running-in phase.

    From a surface transformation point of view running-in is shown to be a reduction of asperity tips in case hardened ground gears, while in superfinished gears no changes were seen. These gear surface changes were measured with a novel method with a surface profilometer in-situ before, after running-in and after efficiency testing. Results also show that such changes in ground gear roughness profile occur during the very initial cycles.

    In order to predict running-in, a simulation method was developed. Such method utilizes a 2D surface integral method to simulate contact between rough surfaces, but requires the use of surface hardness and an accurate lower cutoff wavelength. This cutoff wavelength proved to play a pivotal role in determining an accurate contact pressure at the proper level of granularity, hence a well defined real contact area. The predicted and measured run-in surfaces are compared and are found to be in accordance with each other.

  • 17.
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Running-in of gears from a surfacetransformation and efficiency point of view2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements today for machines have moved beyond functionality intoefficiency and reliability, gears are no exception. The presented work focuseson the analysis of the measurement, evolution and effect of running-in on geardrives from a surface roughness and efficiency point of view. With no consen-sus on a definition or observation of running-in of gear drives, measurementsof both efficiency and surface transformation during the predefined running-inis explored. A verified methodology on how to separate form, waviness androughness is presented. Two finishing methods, namely generation groundand superfinished, are analyzed in terms of efficiency and surface characteris-tics as manufactured, after running-in and after efficiency testing in order todetermine the effects of load level during running-in.Results show that separation of form can be achieved with a carefullychosen polynomial, while waviness is more subject to how the user definesa cut-off wavelength for the surface roughness. Ground gears show distinctsmoothening in terms of surface roughness at high running-in load, and nogeneral trend for low load. This behavior is also reflected in the efficiencysince higher loads gave overall lower efficiency after running-in when com-pared to lower loads. Superfinished gears in contrast show no running-in ef-fects in terms of efficiency. Additionally, ground gears exhibit general changein friction and surface roughness during the first cycles of running-in whenanalyzing high load. Overall gains in efficiency can be obtained from running-in; however, at most speeds improvements from polishing a surface, in thiscase superfinishing, proved to lead to higher efficiency.

  • 18.
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    The hunt for the correct cell size: Lower wavelength cutoff effect on contact simulation with a focus on running-inManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the ever increasing drive for higher power density, efficiency and reliability the need to properly predict properties such as real contact area and pressure have become a necessity. These two properties are intrinsically linked to a lowercutoff wavelength, or the level of discretization, used when performing a contact simulation. This article exposes amethod to determine the minimum cutoff wavelength (utilized here in a rough gear contact employing surface hardness)using an initial and a run-in surface. Results in this article show the cutoff wavelength for different gear manufacturingmethods as well as the similarities found between the apparent contact area.

  • 19.
    Sosa, Mario
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Andersson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Effect of different bearing models on gear mesh loss and efficiencyIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Sosa, Mario
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Gear Web Design with focus on Powder Metal - Sound characteristics and web design: Sound characteristics  and web design2013In: International Conference on Gears: Europe invites the world : time and venue: October 7th to 9th, 2013, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Garching (near Munich), Germany, VDI Verlag , 2013, Vol. 2, p. 1199-1208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented work focuses on gear web design using powder metal (PM) by utilizing the finite element method (FEM) to reduce weight and inertia taking into account root bending strength and tooth deflection.A topological optimization is used to determine feasible candidates for different web designs which have as objective to reduce volume. Similar geometric topologies were shown during different loading conditions; and hence, this topology was chosen as a suitable candidate. This candidate was further developed into a parametric model which incorporated the same overall shape shown in the topological optimization. A shape optimization procedure was used utilizing the parametric model having as state variables root bending strength and tooth deflection; and as objective the decrease in inertia, and in consequence weight, of the gear. To analyze a gear which is thoroughly studied, a similar gear to the FZG C type gear is used.Another aspect studied in this paper is the damping properties of three different gears, wrought, conventional PM and double density. Their damping properties are measured using their reverberation time and their frequency response function.Sound characteristics results show that a significant increase in dampening can be observed in PM gears when compared to conventional wrought gears. Finally results from the shape optimizations show how gears can be designed with PM to reduce weight and inertia, with marginal effects on strength and stiffness.

  • 21.
    Sosa, Mario
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    In situ surface characterization of running-in of involute gears2015In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 340-341, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gear life and operation are largely determined by the properties of the contacting surfaces, which inevitably change over the gear life. The initial topography transformation, a characteristic effect of running-in, is very important. This paper focuses on how the running-in of the surface topography can be characterized and what methodology can be used for this purpose. To characterize running-in, gears were run in an FZG back-to-back test rig and the changes in surface topography were measured in situ using a Form Talysurf Intra. This enables the same gear tooth surface to be measured with enough precision to follow its development through the different stages of running-in. Gear tooth surfaces as manufactured were measured on three occasions: in initial manufactured condition, after a standard running-in procedure, and after an efficiency test. Running-in was characterized both qualitatively by plotting roughness profiles and quantitatively by analyzing a selected set of roughness parameters. This paper demonstrates that: the asperity peaks were worn off in the initial running-in stage; roughness, waviness, and form can be separated using a carefully chosen polynomial fit and the Gaussian filter; surface topography can be examined initially, after running-in, and after operation in situ; and complete wear of the initial surface can be observed in specific circumstances.

  • 22.
    Sosa, Mario
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). System- O Komponentdesign.
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). System- O Komponentdesign.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). System- O Komponentdesign.
    In situ running-in analysis of ground gears2016In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 352-353, p. 122-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial contact state between two interacting gears proves of interest due to empirical evidence indicating difference in life and efficiency in the long term due to the initial operation. Presented here is an analysis of the initial contact state of spur gears, made of case carburized 16MnCr5 steel, by the use of in situ surface measurements and friction measurements in a back-to-back test rig during the running-in cycles. Furthermore a method to estimate wear during running-in is proposed. Results show that the most significant changes in roughness and friction occurred during the first initial cycles at high load.

  • 23.
    Sosa, Mario
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    In situ running-inanalysis of ground gearManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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