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  • 1.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Pelc, Mariusz
    University of Greenwich.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Context-Aware Adaptation in DySCAS2009In: Electronic Communications of the EASST, ISSN 1863-2122, E-ISSN 1863-2122, ISSN 1863-2122, Vol. 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DySCAS is a dynamically self-configuring middleware for automotivecontrol systems. The addition of autonomic, context-aware dynamic configurationto automotive control systems brings a potential for a wide range of benefits in termsof robustness, flexibility, upgrading etc. However, the automotive systems representa particularly challenging domain for the deployment of autonomics concepts, havinga combination of real-time performance constraints, severe resource limitations,safety-critical aspects and cost pressures. For these reasons current systems are staticallyconfigured. This paper describes the dynamic run-time configuration aspectsof DySCAS and focuses on the extent to which context-aware adaptation has beenachieved in DySCAS, and the ways in which the various design and implementationchallenges are met.

  • 2.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Enea Data AB.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Autonomic Middleware for Automotive Embedded Systems2009In: Autonomic Communication / [ed] Vasilakos, Athanasios V.; Parashar, Manish; Karnouskos, Stamatis; Pedrycz, Witold, Springer US , 2009, 169-210 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes DySCAS: an advanced autonomic platform-independent middleware framework for automotive embedded systems. The concepts and architecture are motivated and described in detail, focusing on the need for, and achievement of, high flexibility and automatic run-time reconfiguration. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, and performance challenges of the automotive domain. Self-management is achieved in terms of automatic configuration for context-aware behavior, resource-use efficiency, and self-healing to handle run-time detected faults. The self-management is governed by the use of policies distributed throughout the middleware components. The simulation techniques that have been used for extensive validation are described and some key results presented. A reference implementation is presented, illustrating the way in which the various concepts and mechanisms can be realized and orchestrated.

  • 3.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Leonhardi, Alexander
    Daimler AG.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Jahnich, Isabell
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Burton, Simon
    Redell, Ola
    Enea Data AB.
    Weber, Alexander
    Vollmer, Vasco
    A Future Dynamically Reconfigurable Automotive Software System2008In: Proceedings of the Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded software systems in vehicles are of rapidly increasing commercial importance for the automotive industry. Current systems employ a static run-time environment; due to the difficulty and cost involved in the development of dynamic systems in a high-integrity embedded control context. A dynamic system, referring to the system configuration, would greatly increase the flexibility of the offered functionality and enable customised software configuration for individual vehicles, adding customer value through plug-and-play capability, and increased quality due to its inherent ability to adjust to changes in hardware and software. We envisage an automotive system containing a variety of components, from a multitude of organizations, not necessarily known at development time. The system dynamically adapts its configuration to suit the run-time system constraints.This paper presents our vision for future automotive control systems that will be regarded in an EU research project, referred to as DySCAS (Dynamically Self-Configuring Automotive Systems). We propose a self-configuring vehicular control system architecture, with capabilities that include automatic discovery and inclusion of new devices, self-optimisation to best-use the processing, storage and communication resources available, self-diagnostics and ultimately self-healing. Such an architecture has benefits extending to reduced development and maintenance costs, improved passenger safety and comfort, and flexible owner customisation.Specifically, this paper addresses the following issues: The state of the art of embedded software systems in vehicles, emphasising the current limitations arising from fixed run-time configurations; and the benefits and challenges of dynamic configuration, giving rise to opportunities for self-healing, self-optimisation, and the automatic inclusion of users’ Consumer Electronic (CE) devices. Our proposal for a dynamically reconfigurable automotive software system platform is outlined and a typical use-case is presented as an example to exemplify the benefits of the envisioned dynamic capabilities.

  • 4.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Jahnich, Isabell
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Towards a Dynamically Reconfigurable Automotive Control System Architecture2007In: Embedded System Design: Topics, Techniques and Trends, 2007, 71-84 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a vehicular control system architecture that supports self-configuration. The architecture is based on dynamic mapping of processes and services to resources to meet the challenges of future demanding use-scenarios in which systems must be flexible to exhibit context-aware behaviour and to permit customization. The architecture comprises a number of low-level services that will provide the required system functionalities, which include automatic discovery and incorporation of new devices, self-optimisation to best-use the processing, storage and communication resources available, and self-diagnostics. The benefits and challenges of dynamic configuration and the automatic inclusion of users' Consumer Electronic (CE) devices are briefly discussed and the self-management and control-theoretic technologies that will be used are described in outline. A number of generic use-cases have been identified, each with several specific use-case scenarios. To demonstrate the extent of the flexible reconfiguration facilitated by the architecture, some of these use-cases are described, each exemplifying a different aspect of dynamic reconfiguration.

  • 5.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Ward, Paul
    The University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Hawthorne, James
    The University of Greenwich.
    Mariusz, Pelc
    The University of Greenwich.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    A Middleware Approach to Dynamically Configurable Automotive Embedded Systems2008In: ISVCS 2008: The First Annual International ICST Symposium on Vehicular Computing Systems, EUDL - European Union Digital Library , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an advanced dynamically configurable middleware for automotive embedded systems. The layered architecture of the middleware, and the way in which core and optional services provide transparency and flexible platform independent support for portability, is described. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, performance and safety challenges of the automotive domain. The use of policies to achieve flexible run-time configuration is explained with reference to the core policy technology which has been extended and adapted specifically for this project. The component model is described, focussing on how the configuration logic is distributed throughout the middleware and application components, by inserting ‘decision points’ wherever deferred logic or run-time context-sensitive configuration is required. Included in this discussion are the way in which context information is automatically provided to policies to inform context-aware behaviour; the dynamic wrapper mechanism which isolates policies, provides transparency to software developers and silently handles run-time errors arising during dynamic configuration operations.

  • 6.
    Armengaud, Eric
    et al.
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Zoier, Markus
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Baumgart, Andreas
    OFFIS E. V., Germany.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, De Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Griessnig, Gerhard
    AVL List GmbH, Austria; Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Hein, Christian
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Ritter, Tom
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Tavakoli-Kolagari, Ramin
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Sweden.
    Model-based Toolchain for the Efficient Development of Safety-Relevant Automotive Embedded Systems2011In: SAE Technical Paper: Paper Number: 2011-01-0056, Society of Automotive Engineers, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced functionalities unthinkable a few decades ago are now being introduced into automotive vehicles through embedded systems for reasons like emission control, vehicle connectivity, safety and cooperative behaviors. As the development often involves stakeholders from different engineering disciplines and organizations, the complexity due to shared requirements, interdependencies of data, functions, and resources, as well as tight constraints in regards to timing, safety, and resource efficiency makes the system integration, quality control and assurance, reuse and change management increasingly more difficult. This calls for a more rigorous approach to the development of automotive embedded systems and components. This paper describes the CESAR reference technology platform (RTP) that supports the formalization of various engineering concerns in the development of safety-relevant embedded systems and thereby a model-based integration of various tools and methods to form seamless environments or toolchains for the development of such systems.

  • 7.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A reference architecture for cooperative driving2013In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 59, no 10: Part C, 1095-1112 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative driving systems enable vehicles to adapt their motion to the surrounding traffic situation by utilizing information communicated by other vehicles and infrastructure in the vicinity. How should these systems be designed and integrated into the modern automobile? What are the needed functions, key architectural elements and their relationships? We created a reference architecture that systematically answers these questions and validated it in real world usage scenarios. Key findings concern required services and enabling them via the architecture. We present the reference architecture and discuss how it can influence the design and implementation of such features in automotive systems.

  • 8.
    Berntsson, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Blom, Hans
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Cuenot, Philippe
    Siemens VDO.
    Donandt, Jörg
    Daimler AG.
    Eklund, Ulrich
    Volvo Cars.
    Freund, Ulrich
    ETAS GmbH.
    Frey, Patrick
    ETAS GmbH.
    Gérard, Sébastien
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Jansson, Pontus
    Mecel AB.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Selin, Dennis
    Volvo Cars.
    Servat, David
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Tessier, Patrick
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Törner, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corp..
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Weber, Matthias
    Carmeq GmbH.
    EAST-ADL 2.0 Specification2008Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This specification of the EAST ADL 2.0 is based on the EAST-ADL developed in the EAST EEA projectand has been further refined and harmonized with on-going modelling appraches in the automotiveindustry. It presents the modeling infrastructure, i.e. how the modeling elements should be represented inthe language and the UML representation. For each package a usage example is provided.The EAST-ADL 2.0 is harmonized with AUTOSAR.The metamodel and UML profile of EAST ADL 2.0 is defined in two steps: A domain (automotive)metamodel is defined, capturing only the domain specific needs of the language, without adding the UML2details. The basic concepts of UML are used for this purpose, such as classes, compositions andassociations. Based on the domain metamodel, a UML2 profile for the domain metamodel is defined,specifying stereotypes with properties and constraints.Comments on the content of this document are welcomed, and should be directed to <coordinator@atesst.org>.Please download the latest available specification and the XMI file ready for use in UML2 tools from the <atesst.org> website.

  • 9.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    De-Jiu, Chen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Integrating safety analysis into the model-based development tool chain of automotive embedded systems2010In: ACM SIGPLAN Notices, ISSN 0362-1340, Vol. 45, no 4, 125-132 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has a growing demand for the seamless integration of safety analysis tools into the model-based development tool chain for embedded systems. This requires translating concepts of the automotive domain to the safety domain. We automate such a translation between the automotive architecture description language EAST-ADL2 and the safety analysis tool HiPHOPS by using model transformations and by leveraging the advantages of different model transformation techniques. By means of this integration, the safety analysis can be conducted early in the development process, when the system can be redesigned to fulfill safety goals with relatively low effort and cost.

  • 10.
    Blom, Hans
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Hagl, Frank
    Continental Automotive DE.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Tagliabo, Fulvio
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Torchiaro, Sandra
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Tavakoli Kolagari, Ramin
    Nuremberg Institute of Technology.
    EAST-ADL: An Architecture Description Language for Automotive Software-Intensive Systems2013In: Embedded Computing Systems: Applications, Optimization, and Advanced Design / [ed] M. Khalgui, O. Mosbahi, & A. Valentini, Hershey: Information Science Reference, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is an Architecture Description Language (ADL) initially defined in several European-funded research projects and subsequently refined and aligned with the more recent AUTOSAR automotive standard. It provides a comprehensive approach for defining automotive electronic systems through an information model that captures engineering information in a standardized form. Aspects covered include vehicle features, requirements, analysis functions, software and hardware components, and communication. The representation of the system’s implementation is not defined in EAST-ADL itself but by AUTOSAR. However, traceability is supported from EAST-ADL’s lower abstraction levels to the implementation level elements in AUTOSAR. In this chapter, the authors describe EAST-ADL in detail, show how it relates to AUTOSAR as well as other significant automotive standards, and present current research work on using EAST-ADL in the context of fully-electric vehicles, the functional safety standard ISO 26262, and for multi-objective optimization.

  • 11.
    Chen, De Jiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Maffei, Antonio
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    De Sousa Dias Ferreira, João
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Akillioglu, Hakan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Khabazzi, Mahmood Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A Virtual Environment for the Management and Development of Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Systems2015In: IFAC DCDS15, IFAC Papers Online, 2015, Vol. 48, 29-36 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern machineries are often cyber-physical system-of-systems controlled by intelligent controllersfor collaborative operations on the productions of complex products. To assure theefficiency and effectiveness, a consolidation of concerns across managerial levels, product lifecyclestages, and product lines or families becomes necessary. This calls for a common informationinfrastructure in terms of ontology, models, methods and tools. For industrial manufacturerssubjected to increased cost pressure and market volatility, the availability of such an informationinfrastructure would promote their abilities of making optimized and proactive decisions andthereby their competitiveness and survivability. This paper presents a virtual environment thatconstitutes an information infrastructure for the management and development of evolvableproduction systems (EPS) in manufacturing. It adopts mature modeling frameworks throughEAST-ADL for an effective model-based approach. The contribution is centered on a meta-modelthat offers a common data specification and semantic basis for information management acrossproduct lifecycle, models and tools, both for resource planning and for anomaly treatment. Aprototype tool implementation of this virtual environment for validation is also presented.

  • 12.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Architecture for Mechatronics Software Systems: A Survey of Related Concepts1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One promising approach to managing complexity and ensuring qualities of software systems is through software architecture, denoting the science and art of software structuring. In this report, some important concepts, theories, and methods of software architecture from software engineering will be studied. Since these technologies are developed with generic software applications in mind, there is generally a lack of support for many important aspects of embedded computer control, such as timing and constrained resources. This has limited the potential benefits of exploiting architecture-based reasoning in the development of embedded control software. Future research should focus on integrating embedded computer control specific semantics and implementation constraints with these general technologies.

  • 13.
    Chen, De-jiu
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Architecture for systematic development of mechatronics software systems2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 14.
    Chen, Dejiu
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Systems Modeling and Modularity Assessment for Embedded Computer Control Applications2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractThe development of embedded computer control systems(ECS) requires a synergetic integration of heterogeneoustechnologies and multiple engineering disciplines. Withincreasing amount of functionalities and expectations for highproduct qualities, short time-to-market, and low cost, thesuccess of complexity control and built-in flexibility turn outto be one of the major competitive edges for many ECS products.For this reason, modeling and modularity assessment constitutetwo critical subjects of ECS engineering.In the development ofECS, model-based design is currently being exploited in most ofthe sub-systems engineering activities. However, the lack ofsupport for formalization and systematization associated withthe overall systems modeling leads to problems incomprehension, cross-domain communication, and integration oftechnologies and engineering activities. In particular, designchanges and exploitation of "components" are often risky due tothe inability to characterize components' properties and theirsystem-wide contexts. Furthermore, the lack of engineeringtheories for modularity assessment in the context of ECS makesit difficult to identify parameters of concern and to performearly system optimization.

    This thesis aims to provide a more complete basis for theengineering of ECS in the areas of systems modeling andmodularization. It provides solution domain models for embeddedcomputer control systems and the software subsystems. Thesemeta-models describe the key system aspects, design levels,components, component properties and relationships with ECSspecific semantics. By constituting the common basis forabstracting and relating different concerns, these models willalso help to provide better support for obtaining holisticsystem views and for incorporating useful technologies fromother engineering and research communities such as to improvethe process and to perform system optimization. Further, amodeling framework is derived, aiming to provide a perspectiveon the modeling aspect of ECS development and to codifyimportant modeling concepts and patterns. In order to extendthe scope of engineering analysis to cover flexibility relatedattributes and multi-attribute tradeoffs, this thesis alsoprovides a metrics system for quantifying componentdependencies that are inherent in the functional solutions.Such dependencies are considered as the key factors affectingcomplexity control, concurrent engineering, and flexibility.The metrics system targets early system-level design and takesinto account several domain specific features such asreplication and timing accuracy.

    Keywords:Domain-Specific Architectures, Model-basedSystem Design, Software Modularization and Components, QualityMetrics.

  • 15.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    EAST-ADL: An Architecture-centric Approach to the Design, Analysis, Verification and Validation of Complex Embedded Systems2012In: Architecture-Driven Semantic Analysis of Embedded Systems, Dagstuhl Reports, Vol. 2, Issue 7 / [ed] Feiler, Peter ; Hugues, Jérôme ; Sokolsky, Oleg, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl Publishing, Germany, 2012, 34-34 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is a domain specific Architecture Description Language (ADL) for safety-criticaland software-intensive embedded systems. The language enables a formalized and traceabledescription of a wide range of engineering concerns throughout the entire lifecycle of systems.This makes it possible to fully utilize the leverage of state-of-the-art methods and tools forthe development of correct-by-construction system functions and components in a seamlessand cost efficient way.This talk focuses on the recent advances of EAST-ADL in supporting the description,analysis, verification&validation of complex embedded systems for the purposes of require-ments engineering, application design, and safety engineering. The approach is architecturecentric as all behavior descriptions are formalized and connected to a set of standardizeddesign artifacts existing at multiple levels of abstraction. This talk presents the languagedesign, its theoretical underpinning and tool implementation. From a bigger perspective, thecontribution makes it possible for embedded system and software developers to maintainvarious engineering concerns coherently, while exploiting mature state-of-the-art technologiesfrom computer science and other related domains for a model-based design.

  • 16.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Model-based Contract and Service for Self-managed Components in Cyber-Physical Systems2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern automotive vehicles represent one category of cyber-physical systems that are inherently safety&time-critical. Future automotive technology will to an increasingly large extent be based on an integration of general purpose components for shortening the innovation loops and enabling efficient product evolution. Nevertheless, the adoption of general purpose solutions in automotive vehicles will not be a trivial task. Currently, while domain-specific frameworks like AUTOSAR and ISO26262 facilitate component-based system development based on well-formulated assumptions and interfaces, challenges remain in the areas of contract synthesis, conformity assessment, and diagnostics when issues like mode behaviors, timing, and failures are of concern.  This talk presents the EAST-ADL modeling framework and discusses an EAST-ADL based approach to system modularity and risk analysis in order to integrate separately developed electronic components into safety-critical automotive systems. Special attention is paid to the synthesis of both component contracts and the associated runtime services for lifecycle and quality management, anomaly treatment according to ISO26262.

  • 17.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Anthony, Richard
    The University of Greenwich.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Friesen, Viktor
    Daimler AG.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    An Architectural Approach to Autonomics and Self-management of Automotive Embedded Electronic Systems2008In: 4th European Congress ERTS: Embedded Real Time Software 2008, SIA (Société des Ingénieurs de l'Automobile - French Automotive Engineers Society) , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded electronic systems in vehiclesare of rapidly increasing commercial importance forthe automotive industry. While current vehicularembedded systems are extremely limited and static,a more dynamic configurable system would greatlysimplify the integration work and increase quality ofvehicular systems. This brings in features likeseparation of concerns, customised softwareconfiguration for individual vehicles, seamlessconnectivity, and plug-and-play capability.Furthermore, such a system can also contribute toincreased dependability and resource optimizationdue to its inherent ability to adjust itself dynamicallyto changes in software, hardware resources, andenvironment condition. This paper describes thearchitectural approach to achieving the goals ofdynamically self-configuring automotive embeddedelectronic systems by the EU research projectDySCAS. The architecture solution outlined in thispaper captures the application and operationalcontexts, expected features, middleware services,functions and behaviours, as well as the basicmechanisms and technologies. The paper alsocovers the architecture conceptualization bypresenting the rationale, concerning the architecturestructuring, control principles, and deploymentconcept. In this paper, we also present the adoptedarchitecture V&V strategy and discuss some openissues in regards to the industrial acceptance.

  • 18.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Anthony, Richard
    The University of Greenwich.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Friesen, Viktor
    Daimler AG.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Developing a Context-aware Architecture in DySCAS2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software systems in vehicles are of rapidly increasing commercial importance for the automotive industry. Current vehicular embedded systems exhibit a fixed software structure and the possibilities for software upgrades are limited. Due to increasing expectations of context-awareness, dependability, flexibility, cost efficiency and time-to-market; we argue that it is now necessary to enable advanced features that are based on dynamic configuration.To reach the goals of dynamically self-configuring automotive systems, we propose an architecture which is currently being developed in the EC funded DySCAS project. We describe the proposed architecture, with a focus on its support for adaptive behavior. To illustrate the type and extent of adaptability achievable, a set of generic use case classes are briefly described and the requirements they place on the architecture and in particular the adaptive aspects, are discussed.The architecture is based on a distributed hierarchical control and decision strategy, which through the policy-based middleware functions and underlying technologies allows separation-of-concerns, on-line reconfiguration, seamless connectivity, plug-and-play capability, and also increased dependability and resource optimization. Decision points are concerned with both application and resource aspects and are dispersed throughout a distributed platform, allowing the embedding of numerous policies to make context-aware decisions whilst avoiding excessive complexity. The approach is scalable and provides additional freedom for engineers to define the dynamic configuration characteristics.The developed architecture is so far on a functional level and has been validated against system requirements. Current work concentrates on defining the corresponding software architecture, considering automotive platforms and constraints.

  • 19.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Kenneth, Östberg
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    A Systematic approach to Risk Management in ITS Context: Challenges and Research Issues2014In: Radioelectronic and Computer Systems, 2014, No 5 ( 69 ), Ukraine, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) with autonomic functions that are cyber-physical in nature is of rapidly increasing importance for traffic efficiency and safety. Current engineering approaches to such functions often rely on worst-case assumptions, originally used for safety engineering, due to the difficulty and cost involved in precisely modeling and analyzing the system boundaries and emergent behaviors in a highly dynamic configuration of system-of-systems. This can lead to the loss of many of the benefits in regard to traffic efficiency, but also to conditions where the transport system as a whole is prone to unacceptable high risks. We envisage a systematic approach to the development of autonomous functions in ITS resting on the basis of a formal modeling framework. This paper presents our vision for achieving such a goal on the basis of EAST-ADL, which is an ISO26262 compatible architecture modeling language and methodology for the development and management of automotive Electrics & Electronics systems. Especially, this paper elaborates on some key challenges and outlines related research issues to be regarded in a Swedish research initiative, referred to as SARMITS (Systematic Approach to Risk Management in ITS Context).

  • 20.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Östberg, Kenneth
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Brezhniev, Eugene
    National Aerospace University KhAI, Kharkiv, Centre for Safety Infrastructure Oriented Research and Analysis, Ukraine.
    Kharchenko, Vyacheslav
    National Aerospace University KhAI, Kharkiv, Centre for Safety Infrastructure Oriented Research and Analysis, Ukraine.
    Towards an Ontology-Based Approach to Safety Management in Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems2015In: Theory and Engineering of Complex Systems and Dependability: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX, June 29 – July 3 2015, Brunów, Poland / [ed] Zamojski, W., Mazurkiewicz, J., Sugier, J., Walkowiak, T., Kacprzyk, J., Springer, 2015, Vol. 365, 107-115 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected increase in transports of people and goods across Europe will aggravate the problems related to traffic congestion, accidents and pollution. As new road infrastructure alone would not solve such problems, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) has been considered as new initiatives. Due to the complexity of behaviors, novel methods and tools for the requirements engineering, correct-by-construction design, dependability, product variability and lifecycle management become also necessary. This chapter presents an ontology-based approach to safety management in Cooperative ITS (C-ITS), primarily in an automotive context. This approach is supposed to lay the way for all aspects of ITS safety management, from simulation and design, over run-time risk assessment and diagnostics. It provides the support for ontology driven ITS development and its formal information model. Results of approach validation in CarMaker are also given in this Chapter. The approach is a result of research activities made in the framework of Swedish research initiative, referred to as SARMITS (Systematic Approach to Risk Management in ITS Context).

  • 21.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    A Modeling Framework for Automotive Embedded Control Systems2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is part of a larger effort to define a modeling approach suitable for complex embedded control systems for which modeling techniques are in the progress of maturing. Modeling constitutes an indispensable part of engineering, forming an important basis for documentation, communication, and design automation. In order to describe and compare different modeling techniques, a framework has been developed. The current state of the framework is presented together with lessons learned. We will illustrate the framework with an automotive application. The framework combines a generic concept of systems and the modeling concepts that have been extracted from a study of 12 modeling approaches covering different levels of design and disciplines. Future work will refine the framework by studying additional modeling techniques and by considering more domain specific modeling needs in automotive systems.

  • 22.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Trucks Technology.
    Tolvanen, Juha-Pekka
    MetaCase.
    Advances in Automotive System Modeling: EAST-ADL2013In: EETimes Europe Automotive, 222902939Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Naseer Qureshi, Tahir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Hagl, Frank
    Continental Automotive DE.
    An architectural approach to the analysis, verification and validation of software intensive embedded systems2013In: Computing, ISSN 0010-485X, E-ISSN 1436-5057, Vol. 95, no 8, 649-688 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is a domain specific Architecture Description Language (ADL) for safety-critical and software-intensive embedded systems. The language allows a formalized and traceable description of a wide range of engineering concerns throughout the entire lifecycle of system development. This makes it possible to fully utilize the leverage of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the development of correct-by-construction system functions and components in a seamless and cost efficient way. This paper focuses on the recent advancement of EAST-ADL in supporting an architecture-centric analysis, verification&validation of complex behaviors for the purposes of requirements engineering, application design, and safety engineering. The approach is architecture centric because all behavior descriptions are formalized and connected to a set of standardized design artifacts sitting at multiple levels of abstractions. We present the language design to support this, the theoretical underpinning and tool implementation. To show the capability of EAST-ADL, we also introduce an algorithm and its implementation for transforming the EAST-ADL behavior models to SPIN models for logic model checking. Exploiting mature state-of-the-art technologies from computer science, electronic engineering, and other related domains for a model-based incremental system development, the contribution enables the developers of embedded systems and software to maintain various engineering concerns coherently using EAST-ADL.

  • 24.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Johansson, Rolf
    SP Technical Research Institute, Sweden.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Blom, Hans
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Walker, Martin
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Torchiaro, Sandra
    Centro Ricerche Fiat (CRF), Italy.
    Tagliabo, Fulvio
    Centro Ricerche Fiat (CRF), Italy.
    Sandberg, Anders
    Mecel AB, Sweden.
    Integrated safety and architecture modeling for automotive embedded systems2011In: Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, ISSN 0932-383X, Vol. 128, no 6, 196-202 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is an architecture description language (ADL) for model-based development of automotive embedded systems.The formalization of domain-specific engineering information and methodology brings a potential for a wide range of benefitsfor information management, system design and integration, tool interaction, documentation and communication. This paper describesthe EAST-ADL language support for safety requirements, faults/failures, hazards and safety constraints in the context of ISO/DIS 26262reference safety lifecycle. Based on the language support, the safety related information can be derived and managed seamlessly alongwith its target nominal system architecture model with multiple abstraction levels and view extensions. Through model transformationand tool integration, automated safety analysis is allowed.

  • 25.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull.
    Sandberg, Anders
    Mecel AB.
    Törner, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corp..
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Modelling Support for Design of Safety-Critical Automotive Embedded Systems2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and demonstrates an approach that promises to bridge the gap between model-based systems engineering and the safety process of automotive embedded systems. The basis for this is the integration of safety analysis techniques, a method for developing and managing Safety Cases, and a systematic approach to model-based engineering - the EAST-ADL2 architecture description language. Three areas are highlighted: (I) System model development on different levels of abstraction. This enables fulfilling many requirements on software development as specified by ISO-CD-26262 (2) Safety Case development in close connection to the system model (3) Analysis of mal-functional behaviour that may cause hazards, by modelling of errors and error propagation in a (complex and hierarchical) system model.

  • 26.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Developing Dependable Automotive Embedded Systems using the EAST-ADL2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of embedded automotive systemscalls for a more rigorous approach to systemdevelopment compared to current state of practice. Acritical issue is the management of the engineeringinformation that defines the embedded system. TheEAST-ADL1 is an architecture description languagefor automotive embedded systems. The languageemphasizes information management as a basis forsystematic design and verification. It is currently beingrefined in the ATESST2 project.

  • 27.
    Chen, Dejiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lu, Zhonghai
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Electronic and embedded systems.
    A methodological framework for model-based self-management of services and components in dependable cyber-physical systems2017In: 12th International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems, DepCoS-RELCOMEX 2017, Springer, 2017, Vol. 582, 97-105 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern automotive vehicles featuring ADAS (Advanced Driving Assistant Systems) and AD (Autonomous Driving) represent one category of dependable CPS (Cyber-Physical Systems). For such systems, the adaptation of generic purpose COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) services and components has been advocated in the industry as a necessary means for shortening the innovation loops and enabling efficient product evolution. This will however not be a trivial task due to the system safety- and time-criticality. This calls on one hand for formal specification of systems, and on the other hand for a systematic approach to module design, supervision and adaptions. Accordingly, we propose in this paper a novel method that emphasizes an integration of system models, formal contracts, and embedded services for effective self-management of COTS. The key modeling technologies include the EAST-ADL for formal system description and the A-G contract theory for module specification.

  • 28.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Mahmud, Nidhal
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Walker, Martin
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Systems Modeling with EAST-ADL for Fault Tree Analysis through HiP-HOPS2013In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes: (IFAC-PapersOnline), 2013, Vol. 4, 91-96 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is a domain-specific modeling framework with methodology and language supportfor the engineering of automotive embedded systems. In regard to functional safety, it aims toprovide the maximum possible support for ISO 26262 so that all safety related information can beconsolidated seamlessly in a common system model together with the requirements specification.This paper describes the EAST-ADL support for the modeling of plausible error behaviors as anorthogonal system view. We introduce in particular an integration of such EAST-ADL modelswith the HiP-HOPS method for automated temporal fault tree analysis.

  • 29.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Meinke, Karl
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Östberg, Kenneth
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Baumann, Christoph
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    A Knowledge-in-the-Loop Approach to Integrated Safety&Security for Cooperative System-of-Systems2015In: IEEE Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Information Systems, IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A system-of-systems (SoS) is inherently open inconfiguration and evolutionary in lifecycle. For the nextgeneration of cooperative cyber-physical system-of-systems,safety and security constitute two key issues of public concernthat affect the deployment and acceptance. In engineering, theopenness and evolutionary nature also entail radical paradigmshifts. This paper presents one novel approach to thedevelopment of qualified cyber-physical system-of-systems, withCooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) as one target.The approach, referred to as knowledge-in-the-loop, aims toallow a synergy of well-managed lifecycles, formal qualityassurance, and smart system features. One research goal is toenable an evolutionary development with continuous andtraceable flows of system rationale from design-time to postdeploymenttime and back, supporting automated knowledgeinference and enrichment. Another research goal is to develop aformal approach to risk-aware dynamic treatment of safety andsecurity as a whole in the context of system-of-systems. Key basetechnologies include: (1) EAST-ADL for the consolidation ofsystem-wide concerns and for the creation of an ontology foradvanced run-time decisions, (2) Learning Based-Testing for runtimeand post-deployment model inference, safety monitoringand testing, (3) Provable Isolation for run-time attack detectionand enforcement of security in real-time operating systems.

  • 30.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Panfilenko, Dmitri Valeri
    DFKI - German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    Khabbazi, Mahmood R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sonntag, Daniel
    DFKI - German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    A Model-Based Approach to Qualified Process Automation for Anomaly Detection and Treatment2016In: 21st IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technology & Factory Automation, ETFA 2016, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, 7733731Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern machineries are becoming complex cyberphysicalsystems with increasingly intelligent support for processautomation. For the dependability and performance, acombination of measures for fault avoidance, robust architecture,and runtime anomaly handling is necessary. These in turn callfor a formalization of knowledge across different system lifecyclestages and a provision of novel methods and tools for qualifiedsystem synthesis and effective risk management. This paperpresents a model-based approach to qualified process automationfor the operation and maintenance of production systems. Thecontribution is centered on the formalizations of a wide range ofsystem concerns, and thereby a consolidation of the rationalebehind the design of run-time process logic in BPMN2.0. Inparticular, the approach allows an integration of formal systemdescriptions, FTA and FEMA based anomaly analysis, andexecutable process models for effective anomaly detection andtreatment. The approach adopts mature modeling methods andtools through EAST-ADL. In this paper, a prototype tool-chainwith MetaEdit+ Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM) Workbench,HiP-HOPS Analysis Tool and Camunda BPM Platform is alsopresented.

  • 31.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Introduction to Distributed Real-Time Control2000Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Enea Data AB.
    Anthony, Richard
    The University of Greenwich.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    Volvo Technology AB.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Friesen, Viktor
    Daimler AG.
    DySCAS System Specification - Part II: Specification of DySCAS MiddlewareReference Architecture2008Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive definition of theDySCAS Middleware Reference Architecture, including the DySCASArchitecture Model together with the underlying DySCAS Component Model andDySCAS Information Model. The component model provides a standardizedapproach to the interfaces, internal structure and behaviours of middlewareservices. The information model constitutes an ontology and effective means forcapturing and formulating the meta-information of system configuration. Suchinformation is typically concerned with the system architecture specification andoperation status that is necessary for run-time configuration management.This document serves as a guide for understanding the functionalities andsemantics of this reference architecture in detail.

  • 33.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Enea Data AB.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Naseer Qureshi, Tahir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Anthony, Richard
    The University of Greenwich.
    Blom, Hans
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Pihl, Claes
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Granath, Johan
    Movimento AB.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Systemite AB.
    Helt, Albert
    Daimler AG.
    Jahnich, Isabell
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    DySCAS System Architecture2007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable provides an architectural strategy and overall system design forthe DySCAS middleware system as a first step towards a complete systemspecification. The DySCAS Basic Architecture captures both the systemconceptualization and an initial function-level outline without consideringimplementation and technology details. It defines the middleware system in termsof its application and operational contexts, expected features, middleware servicesthat group functions, behaviours, as well as the structuring and implementationdecisions that are most crucial to satisfy the given set of requirements. In thisdocument, we also outline some fundamental strategies for binding themiddleware components to the target platforms and infrastructures and forhandling potential errors at both initialization-time and rum-time, while taking thetechnology support and domain needs into consideration.This deliverable also covers the rationale behind the architecture solutions andprovides a generic framework that relates architecture principles and styles, wellknownmechanisms, and reference models to the expected functionalities andqualities of DySCAS. The aim is to consolidate the proposed solutions and also tofacilitate the communications between DySCAS partners and to third-parties.

  • 34.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    System Architecture in a Mechatronics Perspective1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    A metrics system for quantifying operational coupling in embedded computer control systems2004In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM international conference on Embedded software, 2004, 184-192 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One central issue in system structuring and quality prediction is the interdependencies of system modules. This paper proposes a novel technique for determining the operational coupling in embedded computer control systems. It allows us to quantify dependencies between modules, formed by different kinds of relationships in a solution, and therefore promotes a more systematic approach to the reasoning about modularity. Compared to other existing coupling metrics, which are often implementation-technology specific such as confining to the inheritance and method invocation relationships in OO software, this metrics system considers both communication and synchronization and can be applied throughout system design. The metrics system has two parts. The first part supports a measurement of coupling by considering individual relationship types separately. The quantification is performed by considering the topology of connections, as well as the multiplicity, replication, frequency, and accuracy of component properties that appear in a relationship. The second part provides a methodology for combining coupling by individual relationship types into an overall coupling, where domain specific heuristics and technology constraints are used to determine the weighting.

  • 36.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    A systematic approach for identifying operational relationships in embedded computer control systems2004In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 30TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE / [ed] Steinmetz R; Mauthe A, IEEE , 2004, 32-39 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded computer control systems are a kind of safety critical real-time system, formed by a synergetic integration of various functions, technologies, and engineering disciplines. To modularize the design and to define the embodiments of functional modules in terms of software components, a more precise modeling of systems and support for assessments of modularity and related tradeoffs in designs is necessary. However, little support exists in this area. Existing system models and modularity metrics such as coupling and cohesion are often either too general or too specific by targeting only a specific implementation technology. This paper proposes a meta-level model for the systems and a fine-grained classification of relationship patterns established by communication, synchronization, and implementation. The work emphasizes a system perspective and aims to support a more precise assessment of coupling, considered as one of the most important criterion for component creation and integration as well as structuring.

  • 37.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Towards A Framework for Architecting Mechatronics Software Systems2001In: Proceedings of 7th IEEE International Conferenceon Engineering of Complex Computer Systems / [ed] Andler, Sten F., Hinchey, Michael G., Offutt, Jeff, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2001, 170-179 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As mechatronics software systems become larger and more complex, the need to ensure system consistency and completeness with respect to the requirements and to manage system complexity becomes more important. From a system point of view, complexity depends on the number and the multiplicity of system constituent units and their relationships. In this paper, the initial results from our efforts to adopt the concept of software architecture in the development of mechatronics software systems for the purpose of managing complexity and ensuring system qualities are presented. A design framework for architecting mechatronics software systems is being developed. The design framework includes two models: (1) an architecture model, and (2) a decision model. The architecture model aims to provide an effective basis for managing complexity and performing architecture based system development. The decision model aims to provide a basis for reasoning about how to meet flexibility-related qualities in the development.

  • 38.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Elicitation of relevant analysis and V&V techniques2007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this task is to collect engineering scenarios that is of particular concern for thelanguage and tool development work in ATESST. Such scenarios will form the basis for identifyingand formulating more detailed requirements as well as for supporting the verification and validationof project results.The task is carried out by both industrial and academic participants. The subtasks concerningscenario capturing are mainly performed by the industrial participants in order to embrace the endusers’demands and to ensure the industrial significances. The academic participants havecontributed a scheme for scenario description and consolidated the industrial inputs.This document provides a complete description of 36 engineering scenarios captured by theproject partners. It concludes with a list of requirements on EAST-ADL, which are derived eitherdirectly from these engineering scenarios or from other related domain and technologyconsiderations.

  • 39.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Towards Model-Based Engineering of Self-Configuring Embedded Systems2010In: Model-based engineering of embedded real-time systems / [ed] Giese, H; Karsai, G; Lee, E; Rumpe, B; Schatz, B, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, 1st Edition, Vol. 6100, 345-353 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In self-configuring embedded systems, upgrades, attachment of devices, relocation ofapplications and adjustment of performance parameters can be carried out during run-timefor the purposes of information/function integration, maintenance, performance, resourceefficiency, and robustness. We describe a model-based engineering approach to support thedevelopment of such systems. Essential ingredients include a combined usage of a systemmodel, simulation combined with a number of formal techniques, and run-time models used as a basis for on-line decision making, with the overall goal to ascertain flexible, yet dependable, system behavior.

  • 40.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Shi, Jianlin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Sébastien, Gérard
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Servat, David
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Strömberg, Mikael
    Systemite AB.
    Årzen, Karl-Erik
    Lund University.
    Model integration in the development of embedded control systems - A characterization of current research efforts2006In: 2006 IEEE Conference on Computer-Aided Control System Design, Vols 1 and 2, IEEE conference proceedings, 2006, 283-289 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of advanced embedded control systems requires a systematic approach in handling their increasing complexity and in particular integration of the different aspects and parts of a product worked on by different experts. Several variants of model-based approaches are today advocated to facilitate systems integration. This paper describes a number of representative efforts that address multiple concerns or views including modeling languages such as AADL and EAST-ADL as well as model integration environments such as GeneralStore, ToolNet, and Fujaba. We present a characterization of the approaches and thereby highlight their commonalities and differences regarding basic integration mechanisms and engineering support. We conclude with a prospect for future work.

  • 41.
    Cuenot, Philippe
    et al.
    Siemens VDO.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Gérard, Sébastien
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Servat, David
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Tavakoli Kolagari, Ramin
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Weber, Matthias
    Carmeq GmbH.
    Managing Complexity of Automotive Electronics Using the EAST-ADL2007In: 12TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING COMPLEX COMPUTER SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS, IEEE Computer Society, 2007, 353-358 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of embedded automotive systems calls for a more rigorous approach to system development compared to current state of practice. A critical issue is the management of the engineering information that defines the embedded system. Development time, cost efficiency, quality and dependability all benefit from appropriate information management. System modeling based on an architecture description language is a way to keep the engineering information within one information structure. The EAST-ADL was developed in the EAST-EEA project (www.easteea.net) and is an architecture description language for automotive embedded systems. It is currently refined in the ATESSTproject (www.atesst.org). This paper gives an overview of the EAST-ADL and accounts for some recent refinements as developed in the ATESST project. Areas covered include the relation to other standardization initiatives such as UML2.0, AADL, AUTOSAR, SysML, Marte profile, requirements management and variability.

  • 42.
    Cuenot, Philippe
    et al.
    Siemens VDO.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Gérard, Sébastien
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Tavakoli Kolagari, Ramin
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Weber, Matthias
    Carmeq GmbH.
    Towards Improving Dependability by Using an Architecture Description Language2007In: Architecting Dependable Systems IV, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, Vol. 4615, 39-65 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of embedded automotive systems calls for a more rigorous approach to system development compared to current state of practice. A critical issue is the management of the engineering information that defines the embedded system. Development time, cost efficiency, quality and most importantly, dependability, all benefit from appropriate information management. System modeling based on an architecture description language is a way to keep the engineering information in one information structure. The EAST-ADL was developed in the EAST-EEA project (www.east-eea.org) and is an architecture description language for automotive embedded systems. It is currently refined in the ATESST project (www.atesst.org). This chapter describes how dependability is addressed in the EAST-ADL. The engineering process defined in the EASIS project (www.easis-online.org) is used as an example to illustrate the support for engineering processes in EAST-ADL.

  • 43.
    Cuenot, Philippe
    et al.
    Siemens VDO.
    Frey, Patrick
    ETAS GmbH.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Servat, David
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Tavakoli Kolagari, Ramin
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Developing Automotive Products Using the EAST-ADL2: an AUTOSAR Compliant Architecture Description Language2008In: Ingénieurs de l'Automobile (Automobile Engineers), ISSN 0020-1200, no 793Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current development trends in automotivesoftware feature increasing standardization of theembedded software structure. But it still remains thecritical issue of the overall engineering informationmanagement to control the system definition andmanage its complexity. System modeling based onan Architecture Description Language (ADL) is away to keep these assets within one informationstructure. The original EAST-ADL was developed inthe EAST-EEA project (www.east-eea.org) and basicconcepts were reused in the AUTOSARstandardization initiative. The original EAST-ADL iscurrently refined in the ATESST project(www.atesst.org) to EAST-ADL2. This paperpresents the results of the language extensionprovided by the EAST-ADL2 domain model andfocuses on its possible extension of the AUTOSARstandard to support decomposition of E/Eautomotive systems.

  • 44.
    Cuenot, Philippe
    et al.
    Siemens VDO.
    Frey, Patrick
    ETAS GmbH.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Servat, David
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Tavakoli Kolagari, Ramin
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Developing Automotive Products Using the EAST-ADL2, an AUTOSAR Compliant Architecture Description Language2008In: Proc. 4th European Congress ERTS (EMBEDDED REAL TIME SOFTWARE), SIA (Société des Ingénieurs de l'Automobile - French Automotive Engineers Society) , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current development trends in automotivesoftware feature increasing standardization of theembedded software structure. But it still remains thecritical issue of the overall engineering informationmanagement to control the system definition andmanage its complexity. System modeling based onan Architecture Description Language (ADL) is away to keep these assets within one informationstructure. The original EAST-ADL was developed inthe EAST-EEA project (www.east-eea.org) and basicconcepts were reused in the AUTOSARstandardization initiative. The original EAST-ADL iscurrently refined in the ATESST project(www.atesst.org) to EAST-ADL2. This paperpresents the results of the language extensionprovided by the EAST-ADL2 domain model andfocuses on its possible extension of the AUTOSARstandard to support decomposition of E/Eautomotive systems.

  • 45.
    El-khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    A Survey of Modeling Approaches forEmbedded Computer Control Systems2003Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Feng, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Verifying System Behaviors in EAST-ADL2 with the SPIN ModelChecker2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL2 is a domain-specific architecture descriptionlanguage to support the model-based developmentof automotive embedded systems. It emerged to manage thecomplexity of software and electronics in advanced automotiveapplications. The language focuses on the structural definitionfor functional specifications. Behavior is defined only on thecomponent level, in terms of functional blocks and their triggersand interfaces. The behavioral definition inside each functionalblock is not prescribed. This paper shows one approachto augment the language with precise syntax and semanticsfor behavior, and develops a procedure that transforms thecomposed behavioral model to the SPIN model for logicmodel checking. The contribution improves the modeling andverification capability of EAST-ADL2.

  • 47.
    Feng, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Self Configuration of Dependent Tasks for Dynamically Reconfigurable Automotive Embedded Systems2008In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, 3737-3742 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The configurations of an automotive embedded system are normally fixed in production and remain static over the vehicle lifetime. Future scenarios, however, call for more flexible configuration support. DySCAS (Dynamically Self-Configuring Automotive Systems) project aims to introduce context-awareness and self-management features into automotive embedded systems via middleware technologies. Contributing to online configuration decisions, this paper formalizes a fundamental self-configuration problem. It forms a basis for managing the cross interdependencies of configurational items, assessing the system-wide impacts of changes, and making dynamic decisions about new configurations.

  • 48.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH-Royal Insititute of Technology.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    An  Investigation of Functionalities of the Future Toolchain of Aerospace Industry2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is advocated as one important means to deal with increasing product complexity. In this paper, we investigate the increasing interest and use of MBSE in the aerospace domain. The growth of MBSE tools causes new challenges in the corresponding tool-chain development including data and information management, tool’s applicability identification, tool-integration, etc. In this paper, a literature survey into trends and usages of large-scale MBSE tool-chains is presented. It is found that the key functionalities include functional roles, elements, abstraction levels and tool integration techniques. Additionally, we propose a methodology to provide guidance in optimizing future MBSE tool-chain functionalities for the aero-industry. In closing, we present a case study in order to illustrate the decision-making process required to develop expected tool-chains by the proposed methodology.

  • 49.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH-Royal Insititute of Technology.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Model-driven and Tool-integration Framework for Whole Vehicle Co-simulation Environments2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the design of automotive vehicle systems, modeling and simulation technologies have been widely used for supporting their conceptualization and evaluation. Due to the increasing complexity of such systems, the overall quality management and design process optimization are becoming more important. This in particular brings the necessity of integrating various domain-specific physical models that are traditionally based on different formalisms and isolated tools. In this paper, we present the initial concepts towards a model-driven tool-integration framework with automated managed simulation services in the system development. We exploit EAST-ADL and some other existing state-of-the-art modeling technologies as the reference frameworks for a formal system description, with the content includingrequirements, design solutions, extra-functional constraints, and verification and validation cases. Given such a formal specification, dedicated co-simulation services will be developed to provide the support for automated configuration and execution of simulation tools.

  • 50.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wang, Jian
    A Tool Integration Language to Formalize Co-simulation Tool-chains for Cyber-physical System (CPS)2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-simulation has grown from point-to-point between simulation tools for specific purposes to complex tool-chains which often require additional functionalities, e.g., process management, data management, and tool integration. With these additional functionalities, the related design activities could be controlled and implemented by uni- ed platforms to improve eciency and effectiveness. Due to increasing complexity and size of co-simulation tool-chains, a systematic approach is needed to formalize their evolution in order to analyze functionalities and evaluate their structures before development. In this paper, we extend a proposed domain specific language, - named Tool Integration Language (TIL) - to describe co-simulation tool-chain architectures on a high abstraction level aiming to promote the eciency and e effectiveness of co-simulation tool-chain development by the use of Model-based System Engineering (MBSE). We introduce how the extended TIL formalizes structures and present two industrial cases of co-simulation tool-chain from previous experiences and describe them using the TIL. Finally, we conclude this paper and introduce future work -a further extension of TIL supporting MBSE tool-chain development.

12 1 - 50 of 93
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