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  • 1.
    David, Lindström
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Galvanized steel in outdoor constructions - metal runoff, corrosion and patina formation2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Goidanich, Sara
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Lindström, David
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Arenas, M. A.
    Departamento de Ingeniería de Superficies, Corrosión y Durabilidad, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM/CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    de Damborenea, J.
    Departamento de Ingeniería de Superficies, Corrosión y Durabilidad, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM/CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Sanchez Amaya, J. M.
    CASEM. Cadiz, Spain.
    Botana, F. J.
    CASEM. Cadiz, Spain.
    Le Bozec, N.
    French Corrosion insitute, Brest, France.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Copper-based alloys in outdoor applications: aspects on patina growth, composition and dissolution at different urban and marine sites in Europe2009In: EuCheMS International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Lindström, David
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science (closed 20081231).
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science (closed 20081231).
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science (closed 20081231).
    Multi-analytical investigation of stainless steel grade AISI 420 in simulated food contact2009In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 23-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Martensitic stainless steel grade AN 420 intended for cutlery knives and scissor blades has been investigated in all attempt to correlate microstructure and surface finish (polishing procedure) to metal release rates of the main alloy constituents, iron and chromium. Metallographic investigations proved the knife steel and, in particular the scissor steel to have very inhomogeneous microstructures. The knife steel contained bands of ferrite in the martensitic structure while the scissor steel revealed large amounts of tempered martensite and inclusions of manganese sulphides and silicon oxides. Samples of different surface finish were immersed in 3 vol% acetic acid at 40 degrees C from 1 to 10 days for metal release testing. simulating food contact. The largely inhomogeneous microstructure of the scissor steel results in high and greatly varying metal release rates. despite a fairly high chromium content Of the Surface oxide. Areas of inclusions seem to act as initiation points for accelerated metal release and the forming of a surface oxide depleted in chromium, but rich in copper. The generation Of high Surface temperatures during polishing was found beneficial from a metal release perspective as a result Of the formation of a surface oxide of improved passivating properties.

  • 4.
    Lindstrom, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Du, Sichen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Kinetic Study on Desulfurization of Hot Metal Using CaO and CaC22015In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The kinetics and reaction mechanisms of hot metal desulfurization using CaO and CaC2 were studied in a well-controlled atmosphere with a lab scale high temperature furnace. The growths of CaS around CaO and CaC2 were measured and compared at 1773 K (1500 degrees C). The parabolic rate constant was evaluated to be 5 x 10(-7) (cm s(-1)) on CaO particles, and 2.4 x 10(-7) (cm s(-1)) on CaC2. The bigger parabolic constant of CaO resulted in more efficient desulfurization. Agglomerates and big CaO particles led to 2CaO center dot SiO2 formation which hindered further utilization of CaO for desulfurization. The 2CaO center dot SiO2 formation was favoured by a high oxygen potential. Since the desulfurization reaction of CaO not only produced CaS but also oxygen, the local oxygen concentration around big CaO particles was higher than around small particles.

  • 5.
    Lindström, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    A Study on Desulfurization of Hot Metal Using Different Agents2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with desulfurization of hot metal using different agents. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of commonly used desulfurization agents such as fluidized CaO, CaC2, commercial-CaO, Mg, and mixtures of commercial-CaO-Mg. The possibility to use ZnO for desulfurization of hot metal was also investigated. The desulfurization mechanisms and kinetics of these agents were studied. A broad comparison of the desulfurization abilities of the agents was performed under the same experimental conditions. The experimental studies were carried out in a high temperature resistance furnace at 1773 K with good quenching ability and precise control of the oxygen partial pressure.

    The influence of ZnO in blast furnace slag on the sulfur removal potential was studied. It was found that ZnO does not stay in blast furnace slag under relevant oxygen potentials and consequently has no influence on its sulfur removal capacity.

    The reaction mechanism of Mg was studied by adding pure Mg into hot metal. It was found that most Mg (about 90 %) escaped as gas in less than two seconds, only providing a little desulfurization. MgS is not formed by homogenous nucleation, but on MgO particles originating from the surface of the added Mg metal.

    The growth of CaS around CaC2, fluidized CaO and commercial-CaO were measured and compared. The parabolic rate constants were evaluated to be 2.4∙10-7 [cm s-1] for CaC2, and 5∙10-7 [cm s-1] for fluidized CaO particles. The bigger parabolic rate constant of fluidized CaO explains why fluidized CaO achieved a much better desulfurization of hot metal than CaC2 under the same experimental conditions. Commercial-CaO performed less satisfactory in comparison to fluidized CaO powder. This was due to both its less reactive surface and agglomeration of the particles.

    Agglomerates and large CaO particles lead to 2CaO.SiO2 formation which hindered further utilization of CaO for desulfurization. The 2CaO.SiO2 formation was favored by a high oxygen potential. Since the desulfurization reaction of CaO not only produced CaS but also oxygen, the local oxygen concentration around big CaO particles was higher than around small particles.

    When small CaO particles were added together with Mg they quickly transformed to CaS. The Mg-gas helped to distribute the CaO particles in the hot metal and improved the kinetic conditions.

    The desulfurization abilities of some commonly used agents, namely fluidized CaO, CaC2, commercial-CaO, Mg, mixtures of commercial-CaO-Mg, and ZnO were studied and compared under the same experimental conditions. While fluidized CaO showed the best performance, commercial-CaO mixed with 20 mass % Mg achieved the second best desulfurization. Mg-granules performed slightly better than CaC2 and commercial-CaO, but somewhat less satisfactory compared to fluidized CaO and commercial-CaO-Mg mixtures. ZnO does not influence the sulfur concentration of hot metal.

  • 6.
    Lindström, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Chromium(III) and Chromium(VI) Surface Treated Galvanized Steel for Outdoor Constructions: Environmental Aspects2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 44, no 11, p. 4322-4327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term degradation of chromium(III) (Zn-Cr(III)) and chromium(VI)-based (Zn-Cr(VI)) surface treatments on galvanized steel and their capacities to hinder the release of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion at non-sheltered urban and marine exposure conditions for two years are investigated.

    Compared to bare zinc sheet, both surface treatments revealed high corrosion protection abilities and capacities to hinder the release of zinc, still evident after two years of exposure. The zinc barrier properties of the thinner Zn-Cr(VI) (10 nm) treatment were during the first 100 days of urban exposure slightly improved compared with Zn-Cr(III) (35 nm). However, their long-term protection capacities were inversed. 

    Released concentrations of total chromium correspond to annual release rates less than 0.000032 (Zn-Cr(III)) and 0.00014 g Cr m-2yr-1 (Zn-Cr(VI)) after one year of urban exposure. Ageing by indoor storage of the surface treatments prior to outdoor exposure reduced the released Cr concentrations from the surface treatments. No Cr(VI) was released from the aged surfaces but from the freshly exposed Zn-Cr(VI).  

    Marine exposure conditions resulted in a faster reduction of chromate to chromium(III)oxide compared with urban conditions, and a significantly lower amount of both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) released from Zn-Cr(VI) at the marine site compared with the urban site.

  • 7.
    Lindström, David J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science (closed 20081231).
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science (closed 20081231).
    Long-term barrier effects of Cr (III)- and Cr (VI)- treated zinc surfaces on metal release2008In: Int. Corros. Congr.: Corros. Control Serv. Soc., 2008, p. 2573-2583Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recently implemented legislation regarding handling of chemicals in the European Union, and a generally increased environmental awareness in the society have generated a need to quantify diffuse metal flows from metallic product surfaces. The use of Cr(VI) in surface treatments on external constructions (e.g. on galvanized steel) is questioned and powerfully restrained by this legislation. Therefore, environmentally friendly alternatives based on e.g. Cr(III) are now available on the market. In this study, corrosion-induced changes in barrier effects in terms of release of zinc and chromium and changes in surface properties with time were investigated for bare zinc sheet and continuously galvanized steel with surface treatments based on Cr(III) or Cr(VI) in long-term field exposures at an urban (Stockholm, Sweden) and a marine site (Brest, France). Essential key information is generated to assess potential adverse environmental effects caused by the use of these surface treatments. Preliminary results from the urban site show the Cr(VI)-based surface treatments, at least initially, to have a higher barrier effect for zinc release compared to the Cr(III)-based surface treatment. Both surfaces resulted in significantly lower release rates of zinc compared to bare zinc sheet. Chromium was released from both surface treatments (Cr(VI)≫Cr(III)) at significantly lower rates compared to zinc, whereby the rates decreased with time.

  • 8.
    Lindström, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Nortier, P.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Functions of Mg and Mg-CaO mixtures in hot metal desulfurization2014In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 76-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms of hot metal desulfurization using Mg and Mg-CaO mixtures were studied in a newly designed set-up. It was found that most of the added Mg quickly escaped in 2 s. MgS was not formed by homogeneous nucleation but by its formation on the MgO particles originated from oxide shell of the Mg particles. When tiny CaO particles were added together with Mg, the particles efficiently transformed to CaS. It was found that Mg-gas helped the distribution of the CaO particles in the hot metal and improved the kinetic condition. Most of the CaO particles smaller than 10 μm were completely transformed to CaS whereas CaO particles >10 μm still had CaO in the center after 20 s. The CaO particles as nuclei were also found to help Mg gas in forming MgS. The ratio of CaO and Mg added was found to have strong impact on the kinetic conditions of desulfurization. This ratio would need further study in any reactor of interest, as the kinetic conditions would differ considerably. The optimized ratio is expected to be a function of the size and geometry of the reactor, the position and the depth of the addition, the manner of addition and more. The hot metal desulfurization mechanisms using Mg and Mg-CaO mixtures were studied. Most added Mg quickly escaped in 2 s. MgS was not formed by homogeneous nucleation but by formation on oxide particles. When tiny CaO particles were added together with Mg, Mg-gas helped distribution of CaO particles in hot metal and improved kinetics. Most CaO particles sized <10 μm were completely transformed to CaS whereas CaO particles >10 μm still had CaO in the center after 20 s.

  • 9.
    Lindström, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Nortier, Patrice
    Glaser, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Study on the Possibility of Using ZnO for Hot Metal Desulfurization2013In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 84, no 5, p. 419-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of using ZnO for desulfurization in hot metal was evaluated. A lab scale experimental setup was designed so that different desulfurizing agents could be added to hot metal for evaluation of their desulfurizing power. The setup had good control of both temperature and the gaseous atmosphere. It also provided stirring of the metal bath with an impeller as well as quenching facility to maintain the metal composition at high temperature. Desulfurization of hot metal using CaO powder showed evidently the applicability of the new setup. On the other hand, additions of ZnO into the hot metal under various experimental conditions showed no effect on desulfurization. The results were in contradiction to the suggestion found in literature. A thorough examination of the thermodynamic data employed by the previous work was carried out. The data used in the literature were found to be subjected to fundamental mistakes. The present experimental results convincingly rule out the possibility of using ZnO as a desulfurization agent.

  • 10.
    Lindström, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Long-term use of galvanized steel in external applications. Aspects of patina formation, zinc runoff, barrier properties of surface treatments, and coatings and environmental fate2011In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 173, p. 139-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Galvanized steel structures are used in a large variety of external constructions in the modern urban society, and their beneficial properties from a corrosion and oxidation perspective are well known. Less investigated is the extent of their contribution to the diffuse dispersion of zinc in the society and also to the environmental fate of corrosion-induced released zinc. This paper presents long-term runoff rates of zinc from galvanized steel surfaces with main focus on hot-dipped galvanized steel exposed for up to 10 years at nonsheltered urban atmospheric conditions. The long-term capacities of a naturally formed patina and the presence of surface treatments and coatings to hinder and reduce corrosion-induced zinc runoff from galvanized steel are elucidated. The environmental interaction of zinc runoff and concrete surfaces in pavement and urban storm drain systems is highlighted and the high capacity of concrete to retain released zinc presented.

  • 11.
    Lindström, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Kinetic study on desulfurization of hot metal using CaO and CaC2Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The kinetics and reaction mechanisms of hot metal desulfurization using CaO and CaC2 were studied in a well-controlled atmosphere with a lab scale high temperature furnace. The growths of CaS around CaO and CaC2 were measured and compared at 1773 K. The parabolic rate constant was evaluated to be 5∙10-7 [cm s-1] on CaO particles, and 2.4∙10-7 [cm s-1] on CaC2. The bigger parabolic constant of CaO resulted in more efficient desulfurization. Agglomerates and big CaO particles led to 2CaO.SiO2 formation which hindered further utilization of CaO for desulfurization. The 2CaO.SiO2 formation was favoured by a high oxygen potential. Since the desulfurization reaction of CaO not only produced CaS but also oxygen, the local oxygen concentration around big CaO particles was higher than around small particles.

  • 12.
    Lindström, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Study on Desulfurization Abilities of Some Commonly Used Desulfurization Agents2015In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The desulfurization abilities of some commonly used agents, namely fluidized CaO, CaC2, commercial-CaO, Mg, MgO, CaO center dot MgO, and mixtures of commercial-CaO-Mg were studied and compared under the same experimental conditions in a laboratory furnace at 1773 K. The desulfurization mechanisms of CaO center dot MgO, commercial-CaO, and mixtures of commercial-CaO and Mg were also studied. While fluidized CaO showed the best performance, commercial-CaO mixed with 20 mass% Mg achieved the second best desulfurization. Mg-granules performed slightly better than CaC2 and commercial-CaO, but somewhat less satisfactory compared to fluidized CaO and commercial-CaO-Mg mixtures. Since only the CaO portion in CaO center dot MgO functioned to take up sulfur, additional 70% mass had to be added to achieve the same desulfurization level. The poor ability of commercial-CaO in comparison to fluidized CaO powder was due to both its less reactive surface and agglomeration of the particles.

  • 13.
    Lindström, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Study on the Possibility of Using ZnO to Increase the Desulfurization Potential of Blast Furnace Slag and Sulfide Capacities2013In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc oxide has recently been suggested to be a potential material for hot metal desulfurization. The present work was carried out to examine whether ZnO could help the remaining blast furnace (BF) slag to capture sulfur. For this purpose, slags prepared with relatively high ZnO content was equilibrated with either liquid silver or liquid copper under controlled oxygen potential at 1773?K. It was found that most of the ZnO escaped during the experiment, indicating thereby that ZnO could not increase the desulfurization potential of the BF slag in the case of hot metal. The experimental data were used to evaluate the sulfide capacities of the studied slags. In some of the slags equilibrated with silver, the MgO activities were evaluated.

  • 14.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Lindström, David
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Frigörelse av zink från varmförzinkat stål i utomhusapplikationer2008In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658XArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Lindström, David
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Varmförzinkat stål i samhället2008In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. MajArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 15 of 15
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