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  • 1.
    Hansson, Susanne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    ARGET ATRP for Versatile Grafting of Cellulose Using Various Monomers2009In: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, Vol. 1, no 11, p. 2651-2659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, cellulose-based materials have attracted significant attention. To broaden the application areas for cellulose, polymers are often grafted to/from the surface to modify its properties. This study applies ARGET (activators regenerated by electron transfer) ATRP (atom transfer radical polymerization) when straightforwardly grafting methyl methacrylate (MMA), styrene (St), and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) from cellulose in the form of conventional filter paper In the presence of a sacrificial initiator. The free polymer, formed from the free initiator in parallel to the grafting, was characterized by H-1 NMR and SEC, showing that sufficient control is achieved. However, the analyses also indicated that the propagation from the surface cannot be neglected compared to the propagation of the free polymer at higher targeted molecular weights, which is an assumption often made. The grafted filter papers were evaluated with FT-IR, suggesting that the amount of polymer on the surface increased with increasing monomer conversion, which the FE-SEM micrographs of the substrates also demonstrated. Water contact angle (CA) measurements implied that covering layers of PMMA and PS were formed on the cellulose substrate, making the surface hydrophobic, in spite of low DPs. The CA of the PGMA-grafted filter papers revealed that, by utilizing either aprotic or protic solvents when washing the substrates, it was possible to either preserve or hydrolyze the epoxy groups. Independent of the solvent used, all grafted filter papers were essentially colorless after the washing procedure because of the low amount of copper required when performing ARGET ATRP. Nevertheless, surface modification of cellulose via ARGET ATRP truly facilitates the manufacturing since no thorough freeze-thaw degassing procedures are required.

  • 2. Hao, X. J.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Jesberger, M.
    Stenzel, M. H.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Davis, T. P.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Barner-Kowollik, C.
    Dendrimers as scaffolds for multifunctional reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer agents: Syntheses and polymerization2004In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 42, no 23, p. 5877-5890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis and characterization of novel first- and second-generation true dendritic reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agents carrying 6 or 12 pendant 3-benzylsulfanylthiocarbonylsulfanylpropionic acid RAFT end groups with Z-group architecture based on 1,1,1-hydroxyphenyl ethane and trimethylolpropane cores are described in detail. The multifunctional dendritic RAFT agents have been used to prepare star polymers of poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) and polystyrene (PS) of narrow polydispersities (1.4 < polydispersity index < 1.1 for PBA and 1.5 < polydispersity index < 1.3 for PS) via bulk free-radical polymerization at 60 degreesC. The novel dendrimer-based multifunctional RAFT agents effect an efficient living polymerization process, as evidenced by the linear evolution of the number-average molecular weight (M.) with the monomer-polymer conversion, yielding star polymers with molecular weights of up to M-n = 160,000 g mol(-1) for PBA (based on a linear PBA calibration) and up to M. = 70,000 g mol(-1) for PS (based on a linear PS calibration). A structural change in the chemical nature of the dendritic core (i.e., 1,1,1-hydroxyphenyl ethane vs trimethylolpropane) has no influence on the observed molecular weight distributions. The star-shaped structure of the generated polymers has been confirmed through the cleavage of the pendant arms off the core of the star-shaped polymeric materials.

  • 3.
    Hedfors, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Karl
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry.
    Martinelle, Mats
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry.
    Thiol end-functionalization of poly(epsilon-caprolactone), catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B2005In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 647-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) chemoselective catalyst in the Thiol End-Functionalization of Poly(ε-caprolacetone) was discussed. Thiol-functionalization of poly(ε-caprolacetone)(PCL) was made by an initiation reaction catalyzed by CALB in bulk. 2-Mercaptoethanol (1) was used to initiate the enzyme-assisted ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolacetone(2) to give the desired thiol-functionalized polymer. The structure of the terminated PCL was confirmed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance .

  • 4.
    Lindqvist, Josefina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nyström, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Antoni, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Intelligent Dual-Responsive Cellulose Surfaces via Surface-Initiated ATRP2008In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 2139-2145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel thermo-responsive cellulose (filter paper) surfaces of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and pH-responsive cellulose surfaces of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) have been achieved via surface-initiated ATRP. Dual-responsive (pH and temperature) cellulose surfaces were also obtained through the synthesis of block-copolymer brushes of PNIPAAm and P4VP. With changes in pH and temperature, these "intelligent" surfaces showed a reversible response to both individual triggers, as indicated by the changes in wettability from highly hydrophilic to highly hydrophobic observed by water contact angle measurements. Adjusting the composition of the grafted block-copolymer brushes allowed for further tuning of the wettability of these "intelligent" cellulose surfaces.

  • 5.
    Lindqvist, Josefina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nyström, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Antoni, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Dual-Responsive Bio-Fiber Surfaces via ATRPIn: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Malmström, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindqvist, J.
    Nyström, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Antoni, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    ATRP as a tool to obtain functional surface modifications on bio-fiber surfaces. Dual responsive grafts2007In: Polymer Preprints, ISSN 0032-3934, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 173-174Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Malmström, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Lindqvist, Josefina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Nystrom, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Ostmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Antoni, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    POLY 597-ATRP as a tool to obtain functional surface modifications on biofiber based surfaces: Dual-responsive grafts2007In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 234Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Malmström, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nyström, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindqvist, Josefina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hansson, Susanne
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    POLY 500-Surface properties of cellulose readily tailored by ATRP2008In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 236Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Nystrom, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Lindqvist, Josefina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Antoni, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    POLY 598-Superhydrophobic biofiber surfaces obtained via ATRP and postfunctionalization reactions2007In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 234Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Nyström, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Antoni, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nordqvist, David
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Honeycomb Patterned Membranes from Polymer Modified Silica NanoparticlesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Nyström, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindqvist, J.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Antoni, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Superhydrohobic bio-fibre surfaces obtained via ATRP and postfunctioalizations reactions2007Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Nyström, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindqvist, Josefina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Antoni, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Bouncing Water Droplets on Superhydrophobic Cellulose SurfacesIn: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Nyström, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindqvist, Josefina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Antoni, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Superhydrophobic and self-cleaning bio-fiber surfaces via ATRP and subsequent postfunctionalization2009In: ACS applied materials & interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 816-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superhydrophobic and self-cleaning cellulose surfaces have been obtained via surface-confined grafting of glycidyl methacrylate using atom transfer radical polymerization combined with postmodification reactions. Both linear and branched graft-on-graft architectures were used for the postmodification reactions to obtain highly hydrophobic bio-fiber surfaces by functionalization of the grafts with either poly(dimethylsiloxane), perfluorinated chains, or alkyl chains, respectively, Postfunctionalization using alkyl chains yielded results similar to those of surfaces modified by perfluorination, in terms of superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning properties, and the stability of these properties over time. in addition, highly oleophobic surfaces have been obtained when modification with perfluorinated chains was performed.

  • 14.
    Nyström, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindqvist, Josefina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Superhydrophobic Bio-fibre Surfaces via Tailored Grafting Architecture2006In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, no 34, p. 3594-3596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superhydrophobic bio-fibre surfaces with a micro-nano-binary surface structure have been achieved via the surface-confined grafting of glycidyl methacrylate, using a branched "graft-on-graft'' architecture, followed by post-functionalisation to obtain fluorinated brushes.

  • 15.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Wood Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Wentin, Mats
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Wood Technology, Sweden.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Wood Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of lignin structures on the reactions with epoxidized vegetable oilsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Westin, Mats
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Grafting of 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone and epoxidized soybean oil to wood: Reaction conditions and effects on the color stability of Scots pine2012In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 97, no 9, p. 1779-1786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the photostabilizing effect of the reactive UV-absorber 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP) when used as a primer for wood. The present work further includes a study on the effect of HEPBP used in combination with an epoxy functionalized vegetable oil as a primer system. The study is based on reactions performed on pine veneers using 3-pentanone as a solvent and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) as a catalyst, varying the reaction time and temperature. Results from FTIR and SEC measurements indicate that a desired reaction between HEPBP and wood does occur and that there are synergetic effects when HEPBP and oil are combined. Color measurements also indicate that the use of HEPBP and epoxidized soybean oil as pretreatment for wood results in a lower color change after 400 h of artificial weathering. We conclude that using HEPBP in combination with epoxy functionalized soybean oil does improve photostability of wood exposed to artificial weathering.

  • 17.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Wood Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Westin, Mats
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Wood Technology, Sweden.
    Reactive UV-absorber and epoxy functionalized soybean oil for enhanced UV-protection of clear coated wood2014In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 110, p. 405-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work investigates the photostabilising effect of a pretreatment consisting of 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP) and epoxy functionalized soybean oil (ESBO), reacted on to Scots pine veneers coated with two different acrylic top coats. Two different pretreatment procedures were used, varying in reaction time and temperature. Results from FTIR and SEC analysis indicate that a large amount of reactant was present on the veneers after treatment with either of the two reaction procedures. Furthermore, coating of the pretreated surfaces was possible and the pretreatment does not seem to affect the adhesion between the coating and the wood substrate. Both accelerated ageing and natural exposure was used to study the resistance to photodegradation, and the results were analysed using colour measurements, FTIR and SEM. These analyses all show that 1400 h of accelerated ageing degrades neither the wood nor the coating to any larger extent. However, after 4000 h of UV exposure some signs of degradation are visible but to a lesser extent for pretreated samples. For the samples exposed to natural weathering during 14 months the performance was good in terms of photostabilisation, however all samples suffer from mould to different extents. Pretreated samples show smaller and more evenly distributed areas of mould compared to the references, which show slightly more mould. The combined coating/pretreatment system is thus assumed to have an effect in terms of photostabilization of the coated wood.

  • 18.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Wood Technology, Sweden.
    Matsunaga, H.
    Kataoka, Y.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Matsumura, J.
    Westin, Mats
    Östmark, Emma
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    A SEM study on the use of epoxy functional vegetable oil and reactive UV-absorber as UV-protecting pretreatment for wood2015In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 113, no SI, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the ageing performance of a UV protective system for wood, comprising the reactive UV absorber 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP) and epoxy functional vegetable oils (linseed and soybean oil). Scots pine samples of radial or cross-sectional surfaces were treated using a combination of the two components, or using only one of the oils. The treated samples were then aged in a Weather-Ometer for 2 x 60 h and analysed using VPSEM to follow the degradation of the wood substrate in the exact same spot before, during and after ageing. The results of the radial surfaces show slightly less degradation of samples treated with a combination of HEPBP and oil, and for the cross-sectional surfaces an even stronger protective effect is visible. For samples treated with only one of the two oils, no improvement was detectable. The radial surfaces were also analysed using FTIR where the results indicate presence of the protective treatment even after 120 h of exposure. Overall the combined pretreatment of HEPBP and epoxy functional linseed oil was concluded to have a photo-stabilising effect of the wood substrate.

  • 19. Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ibach, Rebecca E.
    Clemons, Craig M.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Englund, Finn
    The use of esterified lignin for synthesis of durable composites2011In: Proceedings of the 7th meeting of the Nordic-Baltic Network in Wood Material Science and Engineering (WSE), 2011, p. 173-178Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Östmark, E
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Harrisson, S
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Polymer Technology.
    Wooley, K L
    Hawker, C J
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Polymer Technology.
    Modification of hydroxyethyl cellulose using dendrons or ATRP. Template for molecular rods?2004In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 228, p. U437-U437Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Tuning Properties of Surfaces and Nanoscopic Objects using Dendronization and Controlled Polymerizations2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, dendronization and grafting via controlled polymerization techniques, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and ring-opening polymerization (ROP), have been explored. Modification of surfaces and cellulose using these techniques, which enable grafting of well-defined polymer architectures, has been investigated. The interest in using cellulose stems from its renewability, biocompatibility, high molecular weight, and versatile functionalization possibilities.

    Dendronization was performed using disulfide-cored didendrons of 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid (bis-MPA) on gold surfaces, for the formation of self-assembled monolayers. It was found that the height of the monolayer increased with increasing dendron generation and that the end-group functionality controlled the wettability of the modified surface.

    Superhydrophobic cellulose surfaces could be obtained when a ‘graft-on-graft’ architecture was obtained using ATRP from filter paper after subsequent post-functionalized using a perfluorinated compound. The low wettability could be explained by a combination of a high surface roughness and the chemical composition.

    Biobased dendronized polymers were synthesized through the ‘attach to’ route employing dendronization of soluble cellulose, in the form of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC). The dendronized polymers were studied as nanosized objects using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and it was found that the dendron end-group functionality had a large effect on the molecular conformation on surfaces of spun cast molecules.

    ATRP of vinyl monomers was conducted from an initiator-functionalized HPC and an initiator-functionalized first generation dendron, which was attached to HPC. The produced comb polymers showed high molecular weight and their sizes could be estimated via AFM of spun cast molecules on mica and from dynamic light scattering in solution, to around 100-200 nm. The comb polymers formed isoporous membranes, exhibiting pores of a few micrometers, when drop cast from a volatile solvent in a humid environment. HPC was also used to initiate ROP of ε-caprolactone, which was chain extended using ATRP to achieve amphiphilic comb block copolymers. These polymers could be suspended in water, cross-linked and were able to solubilize a hydrophobic compound.

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  • 22.
    Östmark, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Harrisson, Simon
    Center for Materials Innovation, Department of Chemistry, Washington University in Saint Louis.
    Wooley, Karen L.
    Center for Materials Innovation, Department of Chemistry, Washington University in Saint Louis.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Comb Polymers Prepared by ATRP from Hydroxypropyl Cellulose2007In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 1138-1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) was used as a core molecule for controlled grafting of monomers by ATRP, the aim being to produce densely grafted comb polymers. HPC was either allowed to react with an ATRP initiator or the first generation initiator-functionalized 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid dendron to create macroinitiators having high degrees of functionality. The macroinitiators were then "grafted from" using ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) or hexadecyl methacrylate. Block copolymers were obtained by chain extending PMMA-grafted HPCs via the ATRP of tert-butyl acrylate. Subsequent selective acidolysis of the tert-butyl ester moieties was performed to form a block of poly(acrylic acid) resulting in amphiphilic block copolymer grafts. The graft copolymers were characterized by H-1 NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies, DSC, TGA, rheological measurements, DLS, and tapping mode AFM on samples spin coated upon mica. It was found that the comb (co)polymers were in the nanometer size range and that the dendronization had an interesting effect on the rheological properties.

  • 23.
    Östmark, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindqvist, Josefina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nyström, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Dendronized Hydroxypropyl Cellulose: Synthesis and Characterization of Biobased Nanoobjects2007In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 3815-3822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dendronized polymers containing a cellulose backbone have been synthesized with the aim of producing complex molecules with versatile functionalization possibilites and high molecular weight from biobased starting materials. The dendronized polymers were built by attaching premade acetonide-protected 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid functional dendrons of generation one to three to a hydroxypropyl cellulose backbone. Deprotection or functionalization of the end groups of the first generation dendronized polymer to hydroxyl groups and long alkyl chains was performed, respectively. The chemical structures of the dendronized polymers were confirmed through analysis using H-1 NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. From SEC analysis, the dendronized polymers were found to have an increasing polystyrene-equivalent molecular weight up to the second generation (M-n = 50 kg mol(-1)), whereas the polystyrene-equivalent molecular weight for the third generation was lower than for the second, although the same grafting density was obtained from H-1 NMR spectroscopy for the second and third generations. Tapping-mode atomic force microscopy was used to characterize the properties of the dendronized polymers in the dry state, exploring both the effect of the polar substrate mica and the less polar substrate highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). It was found that the molecules were in the size range of tens of nanometers and that they were apt to undertake a more elongated conformation on the HOPG surfaces when long alkyl chains were attached as the dendron end-groups.

  • 24.
    Östmark, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Macakova, Lubica
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface Chemistry.
    Auletta, Tommaso
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface Chemistry.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface Chemistry.
    Dendritic Structures Based on Bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic Acid as Platforms for Surface Reactions2005In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 4512-4519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present results related to the self-assembly of different generations of disulfide-cored 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid-based dendritic structures onto gold surfaces. These molecular architectures, ranging from generation 1 to generation 3, contain removable acetonide protecting groups at their periphery that are accessible for hydrolysis with subsequent formation of OH-terminated surface-attached dendrons. The deprotection has been investigated in detail as a versatile approach to accomplish reactive surface platforms. A special focus has been devoted to the comparison of the properties of the layers formed by hydrolysis of the acetonide moieties directly on the surface and in solution, prior to the layer formation.

  • 25.
    Östmark, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nyström, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindqvist, Josefina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    POLY 73-Hydroxypropyl cellulose as multifunctional initiator for controlled polymerizations2008In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 236Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Östmark, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nyström, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Unimolecular Nanocontainers Prepared by ROP and Subsequent ATRP from Hydroxypropylcellulose2008In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 4405-4415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) is used as a macroinitiator for ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone for the synthesis of a high molecular weight comb polymer consisting of a cellulose backbone and PCL grafts. The PCL end groups are converted into initiating sites for ATRP and chain extension of the PCL block is performed through grafting of tert-butyl acrylate to different lengths. The comb block copolymers are thereafter converted to amphiphilic polymers through deprotection of the tert-butyl group by acidic treatment, resulting in PCL-block-PAA grafts. These block copolymers are suspended in water and cross-linked using a water-soluble diamine to different attempted cross-link densities. Initial studies of the solubilization and encapsulation capacities of the amphiphilic polymers are performed using the hydrophobic model compound pyrene.

1 - 26 of 26
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