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  • 1.
    Ahmadi, Mozhgan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Knoef, Harrie
    Van De Beld, Bert
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Engvall, Klaus
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Development of a PID based on-line tar measurement method: Proof of concept2013In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 113, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a proof of concept was conducted for an on-line tar analyzer based on photo ionization detection (PID). Tar model compounds (naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, indane and indene) were used for the initial investigation of the analysis method. It was found that the analysis method has a high sensitivity and a linear behavior was observed between the PID response and the tar concentration over a wide concentration span. The on-line tar analysis method was successfully validated against the solid phase adsorption (SPA) method using a real producer gas.

  • 2.
    Ahmadi, Mozhgan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Brage, Claes
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Engvall, Klas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Develompent of an online tar measuring method using ionization potential2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ahmadi, Mozhgan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Brage, Claes
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Knoef, Harri A.M.
    Van de Beld, Bert
    Development of an online tar measuring method for quantitative analysis of biomass producer gas2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bellais, Michel
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Davidsson, K.O.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Pettersson, J. B. C.
    Pyrolysis of large wood particles: a study of shrinkage importance in simulations2003In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 82, no 12, p. 1541-1548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shrinkage models have been developed and included in a model for the pyrolysis of large wood particles. Shrinkage is modelled in three different ways: uniform shrinkage, shrinking shell and shrinking cylinders. These models and a reference model without shrinkage are compared with experimental data for mass loss versus time during pyrolysis of birch cylinders at different temperatures. In the experiments a wood particle was introduced into a pyrolysis furnace held at constant temperature. The particle mass and volume were recorded using a balance and a video camera. Uniform shrinkage slows down the pyrolysis whereas shrinking shell and cylinder models enhance the pyrolysis rate. The effect was sufficiently small to be neglected given the uncertainty about some wood physical properties.

  • 5.
    Bellais, Michel
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Influence of different shrinkage models and fuel geometry on heat transfer during rapid pyrolysis of solid biofuels2002In: Proceedings of the Finnish-Swedish FlameDays: Adapting Combustion Technology to New Fuels and Fuel Mixtures,september 2002, Vaasa, Finland: The Finnish and Swedish National Committees of The International Flame Research Foundation, IFRF, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Unit operations for production of clean hydrogen-rich synthesis gas from gasified biomass2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, p. S8-S15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rebuild of the Vaxjo Varnamo Biomass Gasification Center (VVBGC) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant into a plant for production of a clean hydrogen rich synthesis gas requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical and physical needs found in a gasified biomass environment. The CHRISGAS project has, in a multitude of areas, been responsible for the research and development activities associated with the rebuild. In this paper the present status and some of the issues concerning the upgrading of the product gas from gasified biomass into synthesis gas are addressed. The purpose is to serve as an introduction to the scientific papers written by the partners in the consortium concerning the unit operations of the process.

  • 7. Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mirmoshtaghi, Guilnaz
    Larsson, Eva K.
    Thorin, Eva
    Yan, Jinyue
    Engvall, Klas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Process Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Dong, C.
    Hu, X.
    Lu, Q.
    Modelling and simulation of biomass conversion processes2015In: 2013 8TH EUROSIM CONGRESS ON MODELLING AND SIMULATION (EUROSIM), 2015, p. 506-512Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By utilizing biomass gasification, the energy content of the biomass can be utilized to produce gas to be used for cogeneration of heat and power as well as other energy carriers such as fuels for vehicles. The concept is suitable for application to existing CHP plants as well as for utilizing spent liqour in small scale pulp and paper mills. The introduction would enable flexible energy utilization, use of problematic fuels as well as protects the environment by e.g. avoiding the release of toxic substances. In this paper, the possibilities to develop this concept is discussed. In this paper we compare different gasification processes with respect to what gas quality we get, and how the gasification can be modelled using different modelling approaches, and how these can be combined. Results from simulations are compared to experimental results from pilot plant operations in different scales and with different processes like CFB and BFB Technologies, athmospheric and pressurized, and using steam, air and oxygen as oxidizing media.

  • 8. Davidsson, K. O.
    et al.
    Pettersson, J. B. C.
    Bellais, Michel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    The Pyrolysis Kinetics of a Single Wood Particle2008In: Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion, Wiley-Blackwell, 2008, p. 1129-1142Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental results from birchwood and pinewood pyrolysis in a new single particle reactor are presented. Apparent lunetic parameters for the mass-loss of wood particles (5-800 mg) at temperatures from 300 to 860°C are determined. Kinetic parameters for the evolution of CO, CO2, H2O, H2 and CH4, are also established. The drylng process was examined and it was found that drying and pyrolysis increasingly overlap in time as temperature rises and that the overlap is substantial above 450 °C.

  • 9. Davidsson, K. O.
    et al.
    Pettersson, J. B. C.
    Bellais, Michel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    The pyrolysis kinetics of a single wood particle2001In: IEA bioenergy, Vol. 2, p. 1129-1142Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Engvall, Klas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Dahlquist, E.
    Biomass and black liquor gasification2013In: Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy: Combustion, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Torrefaction and Fermentation, CRC Press , 2013, p. 175-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern society is profoundly dependent on fossil feed stocks to produce multiple products, such as transportation fuels, fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, detergents, synthetic fibers, plastics, fertilizers, lubricants, solvents, waxes, etc., as well as heat and power (Demirbas, 2006). The fossil resources are not endless. Their price is increasing continuously due to increasing scarcity, and not regarded as sustainable from an environmental point of view (Kamm, 2006). A versatile resource, especially in terms of producing carbon-based products, to replace fossil feedstocks is biomass (Vlachos, 2010) or other sources originating form biomass, such as black liquor (BL). Conversion of biomass to other products can be performed either by biochemical or thermochemical processes. In the case of large-scale production of, for example, carbon-based products, thermo-chemical conversion is considered more efficient compared to biochemical processes (Zhang, 2010). Techniques for thermo-chemical conversion can be divided into pyrolysis, gasification, combustion and liquefaction. Among these techniques, gasification is a versatile platform for production of multiple products, as illustrated in Figure 6.1. 

  • 11. Knoef, Harri A.M
    et al.
    Van de Beld, Bert
    Ahmadi, Mozhgan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Brage, Claes
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Development of an online tar measuring method for quantitative analysis of biomass producer gas2009In: Proceedings of the 17th European Biomass conference & Exhibition, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Engvall, Klas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Rosén, Christer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Defluidisation of fluidised beds during gasification of biomass2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no SUPPL. 1, p. S63-S70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Defluidisation and agglomeration during fluidised bed gasification of biomass is analysed and discussed. It is argued that the agglomeration and defluidisation processes, in principle, closely resemble those that determine the behaviour of glass during glass processing. Crucial properties for working with glass melts are the viscosity, stickiness, surface tension, etc. It is, however, (very) difficult to theoretically quantify these properties through thermodynamics or other theoretical means. Hence it will be problematic to theoretically predict agglomeration and defluidisation. Models for predicting defluidisation must therefore probably be of an empirical nature. As a consequence of this, a number of fluidised bed gasification tests were empirically analysed with respect to defluidisation. In total 145 tests were evaluated; of these 51 defluidised or exhibited some kind of bed disturbance. A number of fuels and bed materials were included in the analysis using a multivariate statistical approach.Based on the analysis an empirical regression equation for predicting the defluidisation temperature during fluidised bed gasification is suggested.

  • 13. Link, Siim
    et al.
    Arvelakis, Stelios
    Paist, Aadu
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Rosén, Christer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Effect of leaching pretreatment on the gasification of wine and vine (residue) biomass2018In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 115, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilization of biomass residues for energetic purposes increases the share of renewables in the total energy balance. Gasification is one of the thermochemical processes that converts solid biomass to valuable gaseous products. Prior to the gasification process, biomass material could be treated to improve the quality or composition of the product gas. Our focus is on fluidized bed gasification of untreated vine and pretreated vine residue and pretreated wine residue. Natural and artificial leaching were used as pretreatment methods. Our results showed that CO and H-2 content in the product gas are higher in leached (16.9 and 10.0% respectively) vine residue than in untreated material (14.5 and 7.7% respectively). The naturally leached wine residue was found to have the highest CO content (18.1%) and relatively high H2 content (9.7%) in the product gas, but lower CH4 (1.0%) and CO2 content (5.6%). The results of tar measurements indicated that the leaching pre-treatment lowers the tar content in the evolved product gas, e.g. by 36% in the case of vine residues. As a result, the controlled leaching pretreatment is recommended as an effective way of upgrading the composition of agricultural biomass.

  • 14. Link, Siim
    et al.
    Arvelakis, Stelios
    Paist, Aadu
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Atmospheric fluidized bed gasification of untreated and leached olive residue, and co-gasification of olive residue, reed, pine pellets and Douglas fir wood chips2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 94, p. 89-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluidized bed gasification of untreated and pre-treated olive residue and pre-treated olive residue mixed with reed, pine pellets and Douglas fir wood chips is studied. Leaching is used as a pre-treatment process targeted on the elimination of alkali metals such as K and Na as well as chlorine to reduce/eliminate the ash-related problems during gasification. The leaching pre-treatment process could affect the producer gas composition toward the lower or higher yield of CO and H-2 of the producer gas depending on the moisture content of parent fuels. The lower total tar yield of the producer gas in the case of leached olive residue was observed compared to untreated olive residue. At the same time, there are present wider varieties of different tar components in the producer gas of the leached olive residue compared to the untreated one. The distinctions in tar composition and content between the leached and untreated olive residue are attributed to the alkali and alkali earth metal and chorine chemistry affected by leaching pre-treatment. The addition of woody fuels and reed at elevated proportions resulted in the lower LHV value compared to the leached olive residue. The tar content of the producer gas is seen to increase adding reed and woody fuels to the leached olive residue, i.e. the producer gas contained additional variety of tar components whereas phenol becomes one of the key components determining the total tar content, apart from benzene, toluene and naphthalene. This is seen to be due to the higher cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin as well as higher chlorine content of the reed and woody fuels compared to the leached olive residue. The olive residue is seen to be better fuel for gasification compared with woody fuels and reed. Even more, we believe that the leached olive residue is better compared to all other tested fuel/mixtures in this study. It is seen that the proportions of different fuels in the mixture play role in the composition of the producer gas.

  • 15.
    Nemanova, Vera
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Abedini, Araz
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Engvall, Klas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Co-gasification of petroleum coke and biomass2014In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 117, no Part A, p. 870-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification may be an attractive alternative for converting heavy oil residue - petroleum coke into valuable synthetic gas. Due to the low reactivity of petroleum coke, it is maybe preferable to convert it in combination with other fuels such as biomass. Co-gasification of petroleum coke and biomass was studied in an atmospheric bubbling fluidised bed reactor and a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) at KTH Royal University of Technology. Biomass ash in the blends was found to have a catalytic effect on the reactivity of petroleum coke during co-gasification. Furthermore, this synergetic effect between biomass and petcoke was observed in the kinetics data. The activation energy Ea determined from the Arrhenius law for pure petcoke steam gasification in the TGA was 121.5 kJ/mol, whereas for the 50/50 mixture it was 96.3, and for the 20/80 blend - 83.5 kJ/mol.

  • 16.
    Nemanova, Vera
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Brundu, M.
    Nordgreen, Thomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Biomass gasification in an atmospheric fluidised bed: Probability to employ metallic iron as a tar reduction catalyst.2009In: 17th European Biomass Conference, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Nordgreen, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Elemental iron as a tar breakdown catalyst in conjunction with atmospheric fluidized bed gasification of biomass: A thermodynamic study2006In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 890-895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallic iron as a catalyst for tar cracking in biomass gasification has been investigated. Based on previous studies showing that iron must be in its elemental form to catalyze the tar breakdown reactions, thermodynamic calculations suggest the existence of an operating window where iron is neither oxidized nor contaminated by carbon deposits. A straightforward biomass gasification model has been derived and used in conjunction with thermodynamics for making plots that illustrate the mentioned operating window, which is achievable under real conditions. Experiments made under these specific calculated conditions confirm that elemental iron effectively acts as a tar breakdown catalyst, resulting in an improved gas yield and a decrease in tar concentration. The desired operating window is governed mainly by adjusting the oxygen input (i.e., the equivalence ratio) and the temperature.

  • 18.
    Nordgreen, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Metallic iron as a tar breakdown catalyst related to atmospheric, fluidised bed gasification of biomass2006In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 85, no 06-maj, p. 689-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tar formation is a major drawback when biomass is converted in a gasifier to obtain gas aimed for utilisation in power production plants or for production of chemicals. Catalytic cracking is an efficient method to diminish the tar content in the gas mixture. In this study, the capability of metallic iron and iron oxides to catalytically crack tars has been experimentally examined. To obtain metallic iron, small grains of hematite (Fe2O3) were placed in a secondary reactor downstream the gasifier and reduced in situ prior to catalytic operation. The fuel used in the atmospheric fluidised bed gasifier was Swedish birch with a moisture content of approximately 7 wt%. The influence of temperature in the range 700-900 degrees C and), values (i.e. equivalence ratio, ER) between 0 and 0.20 have been investigated. In essence, the results show that raising the temperature in the catalytic bed to approximately 900 degrees C yields almost 100% tar breakdown. Moreover, increasing the). value also improves the overall tar cracking activity. The iron oxides did not demonstrate any catalytic activity.

  • 19.
    Sjöström, Krister
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Gasification of Biofuels2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Svenson, J.
    et al.
    Pettersson, J. B. C.
    Omrane, Alaa
    KTH.
    Ossler, F.
    Aldén, M.
    Bellais, Michel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Surface temperature of wood particles during pyrolysis2006In: Science in thermal and chemical biomass conversion, CPL Press , 2006, p. 1174-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Valero, David
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Tar cracking capability of iron in biomass gasification2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22. Zevenhoven-Onderwater, M.
    et al.
    Backman, R.
    Skrifvars, B. J.
    Hupa, M.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Rosén, Christer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Engvall, Klas
    Hallgren, A.
    The ash chemistry in fluidised bed gasification of biomass fuels. Part II: Ash behaviour prediction versus bench scale agglomeration tests2001In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 80, no 10, p. 1503-1512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is part II in a series of two. Ash behaviour modelling of the gasification of four biomass fuels is compared with pilot-scale experiments carried out in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and an atmospheric test rig of Termiska Processer AB (TPS). Experiments were provocative with respect to agglomeration of the bed material. Thus, in the experiments, the agglomeration was allowed to happen without any corrective changes in the operation. Small-scale experiments showed clear defluidisation in five cases. Some degree of bed disturbance or agglomeration occurred in seven out of 13 cases. In nine of these cases, agglomerates were also found in the samples analysed with SEM/EDX analyses. In six out of 13 cases, the thermodynamic multi-phase multi-component equilibrium calculations were in agreement with SEM/EDX analysis, i.e. predicted fort-nation of agglomerates. In two cases, no or small amounts of agglomerates were predicted, nor were these found with SEM/EDX analysis. In two cases out of 13, the modelling predicted some degree of agglomeration while no agglomerates could be detected with SEM/EDX analysis. However, in these cases, agglomerates were found in the pilot-scale experiments. Thus it is shown that the thermodynamic multi-phase multi-component equilibrium calculations are a useful prediction tool for the formation of agglomerates in (pressurised) fluidised bed gasification of biomass fuels thereby enhancing the understanding of the chemistry involved.

1 - 22 of 22
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