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  • 1.
    Bahri, Leila
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Identity related threats, vulnerabilities and risk mitigation in online social networks: A tutorial2017In: CCS '17 Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, Vol. Part F131467, p. 2603-2605Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This tutorial provides a thorough review of the main research directions in the field of identity management and identity related security threats in Online Social Networks (OSNs). The continuous increase in the numbers and sophistication levels of fake accounts constitutes a big threat to the privacy and to the security of honest OSN users. Uninformed OSN users could be easily fooled into accepting friendship links with fake accounts, giving them by that access to personal information they intend to exclusively share with their real friends. Moreover, these fake accounts subvert the security of the system by spreading malware, connecting with honest users for nefarious goals such as sexual harassment or child abuse, and make the social computing environment mostly untrustworthy. The tutorial introduces the main available research results available in this area, and presents our work on collaborative identity validation techniques to estimate OSN profiles trustworthiness.

  • 2.
    Bahri, Leila
    et al.
    KTH.
    Carminati, B.
    Ferrari, E.
    Bianco, A.
    Enhanced audit strategies for collaborative and accountable data sharing in social networks2018In: ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, ISSN 1533-5399, E-ISSN 1557-6051, Vol. 18, no 4, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data sharing and access control management is one of the issues still hindering the development of decentralized online social networks (DOSNs), which are now gaining more research attention with the recent developments in P2P computing, such as the secure public ledger-based protocols (Blockchains) for monetary systems. In a previous work, we proposed an initial audit-based model for access control in DOSNs. In this article, we focus on enhancing the audit strategies and the privacy issues emerging from records kept for audit purposes. We propose enhanced audit and collaboration strategies, for which experimental results, on a real online social network graph with simulated sharing behavior, show an improvement in the detection rate of bad behavior of more than 50% compared to the basic model.We also provide an analysis of the related privacy issues and discuss possible privacy-preserving alternatives.

  • 3.
    Bahri, Leila
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Carminati, Barbara
    Ferrari, Elena
    Univ Insubria, Dept Theoret & Appl Sci, Varese, Italy..
    Knowledge-based approaches for identity management in online social networks2018In: WILEY INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEWS-DATA MINING AND KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY, ISSN 1942-4787, Vol. 8, no 5, article id e1260Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When we meet a new person, we start by introducing ourselves. We share our names, and other information about our jobs, cities, family status, and so on. This is how socializing and social interactions can start: we first need to identify each other. Identification is a cornerstone in establishing social contacts. We identify ourselves and others by a set of civil (e.g., name, nationality, ID number, gender) and social (e.g., music taste, hobbies, religion) characteristics. This seamlessly carried out identification process in face-to-face interactions is challenged in the virtual realms of socializing, such as in online social network (OSN) platforms. New identities (i.e., online profiles) could be created without being subject to any level of verification, making it easy to create fake information and forge fake identities. This has led to a massive proliferation of accounts that represent fake identities (i.e., not mapping to physically existing entities), and that poison the online socializing environment with fake information and malicious behavior (e.g., child abuse, information stealing). Within this milieu, users in OSNs are left unarmed against the challenging task of identifying the real person behind the screen. OSN providers and research bodies have dedicated considerable effort to the study of the behavior and features of fake OSN identities, trying to find ways to detect them. Some other research initiatives have explored possible techniques to enable identity validation in OSNs. Both kinds of approach rely on extracting knowledge from the OSN, and exploiting it to achieve identification management in their realms. We provide a review of the most prominent works in the literature. We define the problem, provide a taxonomy of related attacks, and discuss the available solutions and approaches for knowledge-based identity management in OSNs. This article is categorized under: Fundamental Concepts of Data and Knowledge > Human Centricity and User Interaction Application Areas> Internet and Web-Based Applications Application Areas> Society and Culture

  • 4.
    Bahri, Leila
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Girdzijauskas, Sarunas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Trust Mends Blockchains: Living up to Expectations2019In: IEEE 39th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), Dallas, July 7-10 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the heart of Blockchains is the trustless leader election mechanism for achieving consensus among pseudoanonymous peers, without the need of oversight from any third party or authority whatsoever. So far, two main mechanisms are being discussed: proof-of-work (PoW) and proof-of-stake (PoS). PoW relies on demonstration of computational power, and comes with the markup of huge energy wastage in return of the stake in cyrpto-currency. PoS tries to address this by relying on owned stake (i.e., amount of crypto-currency) in the system. In both cases, Blockchains are limited to systems with financial basis. This forces non-crypto-currency Blockchain applications to resort to “permissioned” setting only, effectively centralizing the system. However, non-crypto-currency permisionless blockhains could enable secure and self-governed peer-to-peer structures for numerous emerging application domains, such as education and health, where some trust exists among peers. This creates a new possibility for valuing trust among peers and capitalizing it as the basis (stake) for reaching consensus. In this paper we show that there is a viable way for permisionless non-financial Blockhains to operate in completely decentralized environments and achieve leader election through proof-of-trust (PoT). In our PoT construction, peer trust is extracted from a trust network that emerges in a decentralized manner and is used as a waiver for the effort to be spent for PoW, thus dramatically reducing total energy expenditure of the system. Furthermore, our PoT construction is resilient to the risk of small cartels monopolizing the network (as it happens with the mining-pool phenomena in PoW) and is not vulnerable to sybils. We evluate security guarantees, and perform experimental evaluation of our construction, demonstrating up to 10-fold energy savings compared to PoW without trading off any of the decentralization characteristics, with further guarantees against risks of monopolization.

  • 5.
    Bahri, Leila
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Girdzijauskas, Sarunas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    When Trust Saves Energy - A Reference Framework for Proof-of-Trust (PoT) Blockchains2018In: WWW '18 Companion Proceedings of the The Web Conference 2018, ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 1165-1169Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blockchains are attracting the attention of many technical, financial, and industrial parties, as a promising infrastructure for achieving secure peer-to-peer (P2P) transactional systems. At the heart of blockchains is proof-of-work (PoW), a trustless leader election mechanism based on demonstration of computational power. PoW provides blockchain security in trusless P2P environments, but comes at the expense of wasting huge amounts of energy. In this research work, we question this energy expenditure of PoW under blockchain use cases where some form of trust exists between the peers. We propose a Proof-of-Trust (PoT) blockchain where peer trust is valuated in the network based on a trust graph that emerges in a decentralized fashion and that is encoded in and managed by the blockchain itself. This trust is then used as a waiver for the difficulty of PoW; that is, the more trust you prove in the network, the less work you do.

  • 6.
    Kefato, Zekarias
    et al.
    Trento Univesrity.
    Sheikh, Nasrullah
    Trento University.
    Bahri, Leila
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Soliman, Amira
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Girdzijauskas, Sarunas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Montresor, Alberto
    Trento University.
    CAS2VEC: Network-Agnostic Cascade Prediction in Online Social Networks2018In: The 5th International Symposium on Social Networks Analysis, Management and Security (SNAMS-2018), IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Kefato, Zekarias
    et al.
    Trento University.
    Sheikh, Nasrullah
    Trento University.
    Bahri, Leila
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Soliman, Amira
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Girdzijauskas, Sarunas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Montresor, Alberto
    Trento University.
    CaTS: Network-Agnostic Virality Prediction Model to Aid Rumour Detection2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8. Tran, N. H.
    et al.
    Phung, C. V.
    Nguyen, B. Q.
    Bahri, Leila
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    An effective privacy-preserving data coding in peer-to-peer network2018In: International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications, ISSN 0975-2293, E-ISSN 0974-9322, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 55-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coding Opportunistically (COPE) is a simple but very effective data coding mechanism in the wireless network. However, COPE leaves risks for attackers easily getting the private information saved in the packets, when they move through the network to their destination nodes. Hence, a lightweight cryptographic approach, namely SCOPE, was proposed to consolidate COPE against the honest-but-curious and malicious attacks. Honest-but-curious attack serves adversaries who accurately obey the protocol but try to learn as much private information as possible for their curiosity. Additionally, this kind of attack is not destructive consequently. However, it may leave the backdoor for the more dangerous attacks carrying catastrophes to the system. Malicious attack tries to learn not only the private information but also modifies the packet on harmful purposes. To cope with this issue, in this work, a lightweight cryptographic approach improves COPE, namely SCOPE, that is defensive to the both attacks. The private information in the COPE packet are encrypted by Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), and an additional information is inserted into SCOPE packets served for the authentication process using the lightweight hash Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA). We then prove our new protocol is still guaranteed to be a secure method of data coding, and to be light to effectively operate in the peer-to-peer wireless network.

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