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  • 1. Alonso, M. A.
    et al.
    Setala, T.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Optimal pulses for arbitrary dispersive media2011In: Journal of the European Optical Society - Rapid Publications, ISSN 1990-2573, E-ISSN 1990-2573, Vol. 6, p. 11035-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A variational procedure is given for finding the pulses for which the initial temporal rms width and the rate of increase of this width are jointly minimized for propagation in non-absorbing media with arbitrary dispersive properties. We show that, while in linearly dispersive media the optimal pulses are Gaussian, in other situations such as a hollow metallic waveguide or for purely cubic dispersion departures from Gaussian behavior become evident. An interpretation of the results in terms of suitable phase-space representations is also given.

  • 2. Blomstedt, K.
    et al.
    Setala, T.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Effect of absorption on the spatial coherence in scalar fields generated by statistically homogeneous and isotropic sources2005In: Physical Review E, ISSN 1539-3755, Vol. 72, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the behavior of the spectral degree of coherence of fluctuating scalar wave fields generated by statistically homogeneous and isotropic sources within absorbing media. In the limit of negligible losses, the degree of coherence is shown to be of a known universal form (sinc function), whereas in the limit of infinite losses it is shown to asymptotically approach the degree of coherence of the source. The intermediate cases are studied for fields produced by sources with Gaussian and sinc-type coherence functions. These studies show that the concept of negligible losses is meaningful only when defined with respect to specific source distribution statistics, and that even for arbitrarily small nonzero losses, the coherence length of the field can be arbitrarily short.

  • 3. Blomstedt, K.
    et al.
    Setala, T.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Effective degree of coherence: general theory and application to electromagnetic fields2007In: Journal of Optics. A, Pure and applied optics, ISSN 1464-4258, E-ISSN 1741-3567, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 907-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of overall or effective degree of coherence has proven useful and insightful in the scalar theory of light. In this paper we extend the concept to fields represented over arbitrary vector (Hilbert) spaces. We show that the effective degree of coherence remains unaltered by scaled unitary mappings, which describe for instance many physical interactions. In the context of random, vector-valued electromagnetic fields the invariance implies that the effective degree of coherence assumes the same value in commonly used representation spaces. Thereby, in contrast to the local degree of coherence, this quantity can be taken as an intrinsic property of the electromagnetic wave field. In particular, the effective degree of coherence does not change when the field is scattered by a lossless medium and it can be determined from the far-field pattern. Hence the effective degree of coherence of electromagnetic fields is readily measurable.

  • 4. Blomstedt, Kasimir
    et al.
    Setala, Tero
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Arbitrarily short coherence length in wave fields within finite lossless source regions2007In: Physical Review E, ISSN 1539-3755, Vol. 75, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that it is possible to construct stochastic source distributions that generate wave fields with any desired spatial coherence properties inside a prescribed finite region, regardless of the refractive-index distribution therein. In particular, we demonstrate that there is no universal sinc-function form for the field correlations produced by statistically homogeneous and isotropic source distributions within large lossless regions, contrary to what is suggested by previous work. The results also disprove the commonly held belief that in lossless source regions the coherence length of the light is bounded below by the blackbody coherence length-that is, by approximately half the wavelength of the field.

  • 5.
    Burvall, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Kolacz, K.
    Jaroszewicz, Z.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Simple lens axicon2004In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 43, no 25, p. 4838-4844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the design of a cemented doublet-lens axicon made from spherical surfaces only. Compared with diffractive axicons, refractive cone axicons, and earlier lens axicons with aspheric surfaces, this element is inexpensive and easy to manufacture even with large apertures. The lens axicon is based on the deliberate use of the spherical aberration of the surfaces. The design principles of the element and its characterization, numerically and experimentally, are presented in detail. Although performance was traded for simplicity and robustness, the results show that the lens axicon has the main axicon properties: a narrow, extended line focus of relatively constant width.

  • 6.
    Burvall, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Martinsson, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Friberg, Ari
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Communication modes applied to axicons2004In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 377-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication modes, which constitute a convenient method for the propagation and information analysis of optical fields, are formulated in the generalized axicon geometry. The transmitting region is the axicon’s annular aperture, and the observation domain is the optical axis containing the focal line segment. We show that in rotational symmetry one may employ the prolate spheroidal wave functions to represent the communication modes. Further, in usual circumstances the modes can be approximated by quadratic waves in the aperture domain and by sinc functions in the image domain. Both the exact communication modes and the approximate technique are confirmed numerically, with linear axicons as examples.

  • 7.
    Burvall, Anna
    et al.
    Applied Optics, Dept. of Experimental Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland.
    Martinsson, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Friberg, Ari
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Communication modes for information content analysis2004In: LFNM 2004: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LASER AND FIBER-OPTICAL NETWORKS MODELING / [ed] Sukhoivano, IA, IEEE conference proceedings, 2004, p. 112-114Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximate modes which give physical understanding for the communication modes theory,are discussed. For the geometry consisting of two line or square apertures, perpendicular to the optical axis, this approximation leads to exactly the same modes as Gabor's theory would yield.

  • 8.
    Burvall, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Martinsson, Per
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Friberg, Ari
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Communication modes in large-aperture approximation2007In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 611-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simplified versions of the communication modes in the Fresnel domain are derived when the system apertures are large. The approximate modes, which are in the form of spherical waves and sinc functions with a spherical curvature, give physical insight into the communication modes approach and the basic limits of free-space optical communication systems. They also show that Gabor's information theory is readily derived from the communication modes.

  • 9.
    Burvall, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Martinsson, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Communication modes in axicon imaging2004In: Riao/Optilas 2004: 5th Iberoamerican Meeting On Optics And 8th Latin American Meeting On Optics, Lasers, And Their Applications, Pts 1-3: Ico Regional Meeting / [ed] Marcano, A; Paz, JL, 2004, Vol. 5622, p. 1133-1137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication modes are an increasingly frequently used technique for studying the radiation, propagation, and scattering of light. The method is unusual in the way that it gives the information content and the resolution of the fields. It also allows for the possibility of including the noise considerations in the calculations. We present a brief summary of the communication modes method, together with our latest contribution: the communication modes for the axicon geometry.

  • 10. Carney, P. S.
    et al.
    Fischer, D. G.
    Foley, J. T.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Shchegrov, A. V.
    Visser, T. D.
    Wolf, E.
    Comment - Evanescent waves do contribute to the far field2000In: Journal of Modern Optics, ISSN 0950-0340, E-ISSN 1362-3044, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 757-758Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Chamaillard, K.
    et al.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Dainty, C.
    Coherency matrix theory application in statistical studies of light scattering by small rough particles2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A statistical analysis of the Stokes parameters after light scattering by small randomly rough grains shows a linear regression law between Is 2 and Qs 2. A physical interpretation based on the coherence matrix is proposed.

  • 12. Chamaillard, K.
    et al.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Dainty, Chris
    Coherency matrix description for statistical linear regression of Stokes parameters in rough small-particle scattering2010In: Optics Communications, ISSN 0030-4018, E-ISSN 1873-0310, Vol. 283, no 22, p. 4519-4524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A statistical analysis of the Stokes parameters in light scattering by randomly rough small particles shows a linear regression law between the squares of the first two components I-s and Q(s) of the Stokes vector. While the coefficients of this linear regression contain physical characteristics of the particles, they cannot be directly interpreted in terms of the degree of polarization of the scattered field. We propose an interpretation of this relationship between the Stokes parameters on the basis of the general coherence-density matrix formalism. The link between the statistical regression results and the polarization properties of the stochastic scattered components of the field is established through the coherency matrix elements.

  • 13.
    Dong, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Hu, Jun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. Zhejiang University, China.
    Ye, Fei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Influence of nanoparticles concentration on fluorescence quenching in gold/rhodamine 6G nanoassemblies2009In: 2009 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, ACP 2009, Optical Society of America, 2009, p. 5377045-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorescence enhancement of dye solution doped with gold nanoparticles is a well-known effect. However, depending on size and concentration, nanoparticles can also deteriorate dye lasing properties due to increased quenching of the excited molecules. Here we report experimental results on such dependence of fluorescence degradation on the nanoparticle concentration.

  • 14.
    Dong, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101), Optics (Closed 20120101).
    Iyer, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101), Optics (Closed 20120101).
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101), Optics (Closed 20120101).
    Friberg, Ari
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101), Optics (Closed 20120101).
    3D fabrication of waveguide and grating coupler in SU-8 by optimized gray scale electron beam lithography2010In: 2010 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, ACP 2010, 2010, p. 542-543Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gray scale electron beam lithography is optimized for simple and accurate prototyping of 3D waveguides and grating output couplers in SU-8. Gratings with complex profiles and free of lag effect can be realized with this technique.

  • 15.
    Dong, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Iyer, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Friberg, Ari
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Aalto University, Finland.
    Gray scale E-beam lithography to fabricate 3D microsized waveguide and grating coupler in SU-82010In: Frontiers in Optics, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gray scale electron beam lithography is applied to prototype 3D waveguides and grating output couplers in SU-8 with simple and accurate method. The lag effect in reactive ion etching of Silicon-on-insulator gratings is avoided here.

  • 16.
    Dong, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Pinos, Andrea
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Li, Shanghua
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Measurement of radiative lifetime in CdSe/CdS core/shell structured quantum dots2009In: 2009 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, ACP 2009, 2009, p. 5377385-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiative lifetime of chemically synthesized colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots is measured. Influence of the core size on the electron-hole pair separation is analyzed. A long radiative lifetime and the existence of electron-hole pair separation suggest high potential of these dots as gain material to achieve lasing under continuous-wave excitation.

  • 17.
    Dong, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Friberg, Ari
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    One-step fabrication of polymer components for microphotonics by gray scale electron beam lithography2011In: J EUR OPT SOC-RAPID PUBL, ISSN 1990-2573, Vol. 6, p. 11010-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate an application of gray scale electron beam lithography (EBL) for the fabrication of polymer waveguides and grating output couplers with depth variable features, using the SU-8 resist. The technique is mainly applicable for multi-level binary profile, where groove depths of the structure are controlled by choosing a proper exposure dose. Unlike reactive ion etching which is limited by the lag effect, the gray scale EBL allows free combination of groove widths and depths. Shrinking effect which is critical in polymer couplers' writing is taken into account and can be compensated. For better fabrication feasibility, the grating couplers can be simultaneously produced with waveguides with no inter-step alignment required. Therefore, this is a promising technique in manufacturing grating output couplers for polymer based waveguides with high performance in terms of mode matching/confinement and coupling efficiency.

  • 18.
    Dong, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Sergeyev, Sergey
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Spatial light modulator as a reconfigurable intracavity dispersive element for tunable lasers2010In: Central European Journal of Physics, ISSN 1895-1082, E-ISSN 1644-3608, ISSN 1895-1082 print, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 228-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An improved approach for narrow-band wavelength selection in tunable lasers is described. To provide the tunability, a reconfigurable diffractive optical element (DOE) based on a programmable spatial light modulator (PSLM) is applied. With a proper choice of the phase transfer function of the PSLM, the device can be used as a dispersive intra-cavity component for precise tuning within the lasing spectral band of a solid-state dye laser. The suggested design allows avoiding the mechanical movement of any cavity components. The tunability performance and simulation are demonstrated using the Fourier optics method.

  • 19.
    Dong, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Hu, Jun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Zhou, Sicheng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Li, Shanghua
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Photoluminescence from quasi-type-II spherical CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots2013In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 105-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spherical CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) are found to be flexible in the transition between the type-I regime and the type-II regime with different core/shell dimensions. The quasi-type-II feature of the colloidal dots is confirmed with time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Two recombination paths of the excitons with significantly different decay rates are observed and analyzed. The spherical CdSe-CdS core-shell QDs are numerically simulated to investigate the carrier separation. A relatively long radiative lifetime and high degree of spatial carrier separation provide good potential to achieve lasing under continuous-wave excitation. Amplified spontaneous emission at room temperature is detected from the QDs embedded in the polymer matrix. It is shown that a larger shell thickness results in a lower pumping threshold, while a smaller shell thickness leads to higher PL efficiency.

  • 20.
    Dong, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Ye, Fei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Chughtai, Adnan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Liuolia, Vytautas
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Lasing From Water Solution of Rhodamine 6G/Gold Nanoparticles: Impact of SiO2-Coating on Metal Surface2012In: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, ISSN 0018-9197, E-ISSN 1558-1713, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 1220-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gold nanoparticles embedded in an optical gain material, particularly in a water solution of Rhodamine 6G, used in dye lasers can both increase and damp dye flourescence, thus changing the laser output intensity. Simultaneously, such nanoparticles influence the gain material's resistance against photobleaching. In this paper, we report our study on the impact of the SiO2 coating of nanoparticles on the enhancement or quenching and photobleaching of the fluorescence. The investigation demonstrates a noticeable improvement of the gain material's photostability compared to uncoated gold nanoparticles when silicon dioxide coating is implemented.

  • 21.
    Dong, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Ye, Fei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Chughtai, Adnan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Enhanced photostability of aqueous solution of Rhodamine 6G with gold nanoparticles in lasing process by silica coating2012In: 2012 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 6325399-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gold nanoparticles are mixed in aqueous solution of Rhodamine 6G to modify the lasing output intensity. The photostability deterioration of the gain medium by gold nanoparticles is successfully compensated by silica coating on the nanoparticles.

  • 22.
    Dong, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Ye, Fei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Chughtai, Adnan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Photostability of lasing process from water solution of Rhodamine 6G with gold nanoparticles2012In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 34-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the lasing performance and photobleaching of gain material containing a water solution of Rhodamine 6G dye and gold nanoparticles (NPs). In comparison to a pure dye solution, the investigated material demonstrated both enhancement and quenching of the lasing output, depending on the relative concentration of the gold NPs. Although the presence of NPs with an optimized concentration looks preferable in terms of the lasing output enhancement, such additives deteriorate the operational resource of the gain material; i.e., the photobleaching rate speeds up.

  • 23.
    Dong, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Ye, Fei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Hu, Jun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Fluorescence quenching and photobleaching in Au/Rh6G nanoassemblies: impact of competition between radiative and non-radiative decay2011In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN OPTICAL SOCIETY-RAPID PUBLICATIONS, ISSN 1990-2573, Vol. 6, p. 11019-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the study of fluorescence quenching from nanoassemblies formed by Rhodamine 6G and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) of 2.6 nm radius. The presence of Au NPs induces long-term degradation of the photostability (photobleaching) of Rhodamine 6G used as a gain medium in a Fabry-Perot laser cavity. We found that the degradation gets profound when the Au NPs concentration is significantly increased. Calculation of the radiative rate and direct time-resolved measurement of the fluorescence decay indicates that both the decrease of radiative decay rate and increase of non-radiative decay rate are responsible for the fluorescence quenching and photostability degradation. An energy transfer from the dye molecules to gold nanoparticles is dominating within small distance between them and suppresses the quantum efficiency of Rhodamine 6G drastically. In a long time scale, the photobleaching rate was slowing down, and the laser output intensity reached a stabilized level which depends on the gold nanoparticles concentration.

  • 24. Erkintalo, Miro
    et al.
    Surakka, Minna
    Turunen, Jari
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Genty, Goery
    Coherent-mode representation of supercontinuum2012In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 169-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply the coherent-mode expansion to correlation functions used to describe the coherence properties of supercontinuum generated in nonlinear fibers. We show that the leading term of the expansion represents the quasi-coherent part of the field while the quasi-stationary part is embedded into the higher-order modes. The evolution of the modal expansion and the number of modes needed to describe the supercontinuum field are also discussed.

  • 25.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Tervo, J.
    Setälä, T.
    Electromagnetic coherence and pancharatnam-berry phase in young's interference experiment2007In: Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics, CQO 2007, Optical Society of America, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectral interference law is used to derive the electromagnetic degree of coherence and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase in Young's two-pinhole setup. The phase has a straightforward connection to the Stokes parameters at the openings.

  • 26.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Partial polarization and coherence in arbitrary electromagnetic fields2008In: RIAO/OPTILAS 2007 / [ed] Wetter, NU; Frejlich, J, 2008, Vol. 992, p. 460-465Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the theories of optical coherence for scalar fields and partial polarization for beam-like waves are well developed and unambiguous, this is not so for partial coherence in random electromagnetic waves and partial polarization in fields that contain all three electric-field components. Examples of such three-dimensional vector waves are optical near fields with evanescent components and high-numerical-aperture focused electromagnetic fields. Interesting new results on arbitrary electromagnetic coherence and polarization have been obtained, for instance, in Young's two-pinhole interference setup. In this paper some recent unusual and physically unexpected results on randomly fluctuating electromagnetic fields are discussed and the current development on the basic concepts of partial polarization and partial electromagnetic coherence is reviewed.

  • 27.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Partial polarization in arbitrary three-dimensional electromagnetic fields2004In: Free And Guided Optical Beams / [ed] Martellucci, S; Santarsiero, M, SINGAPORE: WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD , 2004, p. 15-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the theory of partial polarization of uniform electromagnetic beams is well-developed, it cannot be applied to random three-dimensional (3D) waves such as optical near fields. A general formulation of partial coherence and polarization in arbitrary 3D electromagnetic fields must be based on the 3 x 3 cross-spectral density tensors. After the fundamentals of electromagnetic coherence theory, we recall some recent researches on the spatial-coherence and spectral changes brought on by surface modes and evanescent waves. Partial polarization of arbitrary electromagnetic fields containing three orthogonal components is then addressed in terms of the 3 x 3 coherence matrix, and the variation of the 3D degree of polarization in near fields generated by semi-infinite thermal sources is analyzed. Finally, the similarities and differences of the conventional 2D and the new 3D formulations of partial polarization are briefly discussed.

  • 28.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Dändliker, R.
    Advances in information optics and photonics2008Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Dändliker, R.
    Advances in information optics and photonics2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume is the sixth in a series of books initiated in 1989 by the International Commission for Optics (ICO). These books highlight the advances and trends in the research and development of optical sciences, technologies, and applications at the time of their publication. In this age of the photon, information optics and photonics represent the key technologies to sustain our knowledge-based society. New concepts in classical and quantum-entangled light, coherent interaction with matter, and novel materials and processes have led to remarkable advances in today's information science and technology. The ICO is closely involved with information optics, as exemplified by the ICO topical meeting on Optoinformatics/Information Photonics (St. Petersburg, Russia, 2006), the ICO/ICTP Winter College on Quantum and Classical Aspects of Information Optics (Trieste, Italy, 2006), and the many ICO Prizes recently awarded on outstanding contributions on these topics. This book is in part based on these ICO activities. This volume contains a collection of 32 chapters from internationally leading scientists and research groups on a variety of topics in information optics and photonics, including the 2003-2006 ICO Prize winners. The chapters are divided into 7 sections: Beam Optics; Laser Photonics and Components; Electromagnetic Coherence; Imaging, Microscopy, Holography, and Materials; Photonic Processing; Quantum Information and Matter; and Communications and Networks.

  • 30.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Lajunen, Hanna
    Torres-Company, Victor
    Spectral elementary-coherence-function representation for partially coherent light pulses2007In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 5160-5165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A broad class of partially coherent non-stationary fields can be expressed in terms of the recently proposed independent-elementary-pulse model. In this work we first introduce a corresponding dual representation in the frequency domain and then extend this concept by considering shifted and weighted elementary spectral coherence functions. We prove that this method, which closely describes practical optical systems, leads to properly defined correlation functions. As an example, we demonstrate that our new model characterizes, in a natural way, trains of ultra-short pulses, affected by noise and timing jitter, emitted by usual modulators employed in telecom applications.

  • 31.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Visser, T. D.
    Wang, W.
    Wolf, E.
    Focal shifts of converging diffracted waves of any state of spatial coherence2001In: Optics Communications, ISSN 0030-4018, E-ISSN 1873-0310, Vol. 196, no 06-jan, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the focusing of wave fields of any state of coherence by systems with low Fresnel numbers. We study the optical intensity on the axis in the focal region. The dependence of the focal shift and of the maximum on-axis intensity on the state of coherence is examined for some model fields.

  • 32.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Visser, T. D.
    Wolf, E.
    A reciprocity inequality for Gaussian Schell-model beams and some of its consequences2000In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 366-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reciprocity inequality is derived, involving the effective size of a planar, secondary, Gaussian Schell-model source and the effective angular spread of the beam that the source generates. The analysis is shown to imply that a fully spatially coherent source of that class (which generates the lowest-order Hermite-Gaussian laser mode) has certain minimal properties.

  • 33.
    Friberg, Ari
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Tervo, Jani
    Setälä, Teri
    Young's interference experiment reloaded2007In: 6th International Workshop on Information Optics, WIO'07 / [ed] Benediktsson, JA; Javidi, B; Gudmundsson, KS, 2007, Vol. 949, p. 130-137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electromagnetic Young's interference experiment is considered with arbitrary, spectrally partially coherent and partially polarized electric fields at the pinholes. Any correlations that exist at the openings lead to modulations of the Stokes parameters on the observation screen. The electromagnetic degree of coherence can be viewed, in direct analogy to the usual scalar case, as a measure of the modulation contrasts of not just the optical intensity but also the polarization state. The electromagnetic degree of coherence can be obtained experimentally via four visibility measurements using appropriate wave plates. If the field at the pinholes is fully polarized, a periodic variation of the polarization state appears on the observation screen, leading to a Pancharatnam-Berry phase. It is shown that this geometric phase has a straightforward but elegant relationship to the Stokes parameters at the pinholes.

  • 34. Genty, Goery
    et al.
    Surakka, Minna
    Turunen, Jari
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Complete characterization of supercontinuum coherence2011In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 2301-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using second-order coherence theory of nonstationary light we examine in detail the coherence properties of supercontinuum radiation generated in nonlinear fibers. We show that the supercontinuum can be divided into quasi-coherent and quasi-stationary parts and that the relative contributions depend on the dynamics involved in the spectral broadening process. We establish the correspondence between the quasi-coherent part of the two-frequency correlation function of the second-order theory and the usual Dudley-Coen degree of coherence used to characterize the shot-to-shot stability of supercontinuum sources. Experimental implementation for measuring separately the quasi-coherent and quasi-stationary contributions is further addressed. Our results open the route for complete characterization of supercontinuum coherence.

  • 35. Hakkarainen, T.
    et al.
    Setala, T.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Near-field imaging of interacting nano objects with metal and metamaterial superlenses2012In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 14, p. 043019-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employing rigorous electromagnetic theory we investigate optical the near-field imaging of two interacting dipole-like objects with metal and slightly lossy metamaterial nanoslab superlenses. Our analysis indicates that the dipole emission is suppressed by near-field interactions when the objects are close to the lens or each other. This strongly influences the image quality, in particular with objects of small size and high polarizability. The interference from two nearby objects also affects the resolution and subwavelength definition can only be obtained for objects with dipole moments predominantly orthogonal to the slab. Such an optimal imaging condition is achieved with excitation by total internal reflection. With simulations we show that in these circumstances, subwavelength resolutions of about lambda/5 for silver superlens and lambda/10 for metamaterial slab are reached.

  • 36. Hakkarainen, T.
    et al.
    Setala, T.
    Friberg, Ari. T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Near-field imaging of point dipole with silver superlens2010In: Applied physics. B, Lasers and optics (Print), ISSN 0946-2171, E-ISSN 1432-0649, Vol. 101, no 4, p. 731-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Making use of exact and quasistatic expressions for the field in near-field imaging of a point dipole by a thin silver slab, we calculate the point-spread function and the associated image resolution. We show that the resolution, which depends on the silver slab thickness and the dipole orientation, generally is better than the conventional diffraction limit and can be as high as lambda/8. The results substantially agree with recent theoretical and experimental studies on 2D objects.

  • 37. Hakkarainen, T.
    et al.
    Setälä, T.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Imaging of interacting nano-objects with superlenses2012In: Biomedical Optics, BIOMED 2012, Optical Society of America, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employing rigorous electromagnetic theory we show that near-field imaging of point-like objects with subwavelength resolution is achieveable with nanoslab superlenses. For a metallic lens the resolution is »λ/5, whereas for a metamaterial lens λ/10 is obtained. We also illustrate how the near-field interactions among the objects and the lens affect the imaging.

  • 38. Hakkarainen, Timo
    et al.
    Setala, Tero
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Electromagnetic near-field interactions of a dipolar emitter with metal and metamaterial nanoslabs2011In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 033849-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the emission properties of a polarizable point dipole placed within a subwavelength distance from a silver or a slightly absorbing, negative-index metamaterial nanoslab. Using electromagnetic theory we show that in the immediate vicinity of the slab the dipole-slab interaction prevents the dipole from radiating. For the metamaterial slab close to the perfect-lens arrangement, the interaction is relatively weak and of short range. In particular, a region exists in the near zone of the metamaterial slab where the dipole emission is not disturbed by the interaction, and a bright intensity distribution of subwavelength width is created on the opposite side of the slab. This suggests that a low-loss metamaterial slab can act as a near-field imaging device which does not disturb the object. For the silver slab the interaction is stronger and it reaches over the near-field zone, adversely influencing the imaging capabilities in terms of brightness and resolution. The results are important for the development of metal and metamaterial superlenses.

  • 39. Hakkarainen, Timo
    et al.
    Setala, Tero
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Subwavelength electromagnetic near-field imaging of point dipole with metamaterial nanoslab2009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate near-field imaging of a point dipole by a lossy, nanoscale metamaterial slab. Making use of the electromagnetic angular-spectrum representation, we derive the Green tensor for the field transmission through the metamaterial slab, duly considering multiple reflections, polarizations, and wave-vector signs. With this general formalism, we calculate the point-spread function of the imaging system, which enables us to assess, for instance, resolution and image brightness. Our results demonstrate that with the metamaterial-slab lens one achieves resolution beyond the conventional diffraction limit of half the wavelength. In general, the resolution and image brightness are degraded when the slab thickness and absorption increase, but we show that in some cases the resolution is rather insensitive to the magnitude of the losses in the metamaterial.

  • 40. Hansson, B. T.
    et al.
    Arvidsson, M.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Pump-mode influence on the performance of end-pumped passively Q-switched lasers2002In: Journal of Optics. A, Pure and applied optics, ISSN 1464-4258, E-ISSN 1741-3567, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 29-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a simple way of adjusting the output performance of end-pumped passively Q-switched lasers. The method is based on changing the size of the pump mode within the active medium, and the approach is demonstrated both in theory and in practice. We show that it is possible to modify the repetition rate from 7 kHz to 1 MHz and the pulse length from 6 to 30 ns for the laser used in the experiments.

  • 41. Hansson, B. T.
    et al.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Eye-safe actively Q-switched microchip laser with an electro-absorbing semiconductor modulator2001In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 26, no 14, p. 1057-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present what we believe to be the first actively Q-switched monolithic microchip laser with a wavelength of 1.55 mum that uses an electro-absorbing semiconductor modulator. At an absorbed pump power of 130 mW and a switching voltage of 2.2 V, the laser produces 470-nJ pulses at a repetition rate of 10 kHz. The output is a stable single longitudinal mode with a center wavelength of 1.553 mu tm, and the transverse beam profile is close to an ideal Gaussian, with an M-2 value of 1.15.

  • 42. Hansson, B. T.
    et al.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Pulsed 1.55 mu m transmission mode microchip laser using semiconductor modulator2001In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 223-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A semiconductor saturable absorber modulator is used, for the first time, in a passively Q-switched microchip laser in transmitting mode. The laser has a wavelength of 1.55 mum in a single longitudinal TEM, mode beam and has pulse characteristics that compare favourably with preciously reported data un comparable devices.

  • 43. Hassinen, T.
    et al.
    Tervo, J.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Cross-spectral purity of the Stokes parameters2011In: Applied physics. B, Lasers and optics (Print), ISSN 0946-2171, E-ISSN 1432-0649, Vol. 105, no 2, p. 305-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend the concept of cross-spectral purity from the spectral density to the polarization properties of electromagnetic fields by considering the polarization Stokes parameters. We show that purity conditions similar to those in the case of electromagnetic cross-spectral purity can be derived for all the Stokes parameters. Furthermore, we introduce a situation of strict cross-spectral purity which leads to the equality of the degrees of coherence for electromagnetic fields in the space-time and space-frequency domains.

  • 44. Hassinen, T.
    et al.
    Tervo, J.
    Setala, T.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect with electromagnetic waves2011In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, no 16, p. 15188-15195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classic Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiment is analyzed in the space-frequency domain by taking into account the vectorial nature of the radiation. We show that as in scalar theory, the degree of electromagnetic coherence fully characterizes the fluctuations of the photoelectron currents when a random vector field with Gaussian statistics is incident onto the detectors. Interpretation of this result in terms of the modulations of optical intensity and polarization state in two-beam interference is discussed. We demonstrate that the degree of cross-polarization may generally diverge. We also evaluate the effects of the state of polarization on the correlations of intensity fluctuations in various circumstances.

  • 45. Hassinen, T.
    et al.
    Tervo, J.
    Setälä, T.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Electromagnetic Hanbury Brown-Twiss phenomenon2011In: Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the classic Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for thermal electromagnetic fields in space-frequency domain. We compare two different approaches and show that the normalized correlation of intensity fluctuations is fully characterized by the spectral electromagnetic degree of coherence, a result analogous to scalar analysis of the effect. Differences between the two approaches are discussed.

  • 46. Hassinen, Timo
    et al.
    Tervo, Jani
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Optics.
    Cross-spectral purity of electromagnetic fields2009In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 34, no 24, p. 3866-3868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend Mandel's scalar-wave concept of cross-spectral purity to electromagnetic fields. We show that in the electromagnetic case, assumptions similar to the scalar cross-spectral purity lead to a reduction formula, analogous with the one introduced by Mandel. We also derive a condition that shows that the absolute value of the normalized zeroth two-point Stokes parameter of two cross-spectrally pure electromagnetic fields is the same for every frequency component of the field. In analogy with the scalar theory we further introduce a measure of the cross-spectral purity of two electromagnetic fields, namely, the degree of electromagnetic cross-spectral purity.

  • 47.
    Innocenti, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Sergeyev, Sergey
    Waterford Institute of Technology.
    Friberg, Ari
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    External field enhancement in coupled polymer microcavities - New options for integrated photonic components2009In: European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2009 and the European Quantum Electronics Conference. CLEO Europe - EQEC 2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcavities are key components for integrated optical devices and systems. In this paper, enhancement of the resonance electric field outside a pair of coupled polymeric microcavities of hexagonal shape is investigated. Using numerical simulation, enhancement of outside-cavity field has been demonstrated in different sections of the coupled cavity system depending on particular design. Resonance frequencies are in visible part of electromagnetic spectrum. In reported simulations rigorous models based on solving Maxwell equations for propagating electromagnetic field in polymeric materials commonly used in nano-imprinting lithography is demonstrated.

  • 48.
    Iyer, Srinivasan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Dong, Lin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Physical reason behind far-field transmission resonances from U-shaped metallic structures2010In: 2010 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, ACP 2010, 2010, p. 326-327Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The far-field transmission spectrum of crescent-like metallic nanostructures on a glass substrate at normal incidence is studied numerically. The interpretation of transmission resonances arising from a periodic subwavelength U-shaped metal nanostructure in terms of plasmonic eigen modes is revisited.

  • 49.
    Iyer, Srinivasan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Dong, Lin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. Aalto University, Finland .
    Refractive index sensor performance based on enhanced transmission of light through perforated metallic films2010In: 2010 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, ACP 2010, 2010, p. 328-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transmission of light through a thin Au film with periodic subwavelength double nanoholes at normal incidence is analyzed numerically and compared to other conventional hole shapes. The performance of such perforated metallic films as a potential refractive index sensor is discussed.

  • 50.
    Iyer, Srinivasan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. Aalto University, Finland.
    Double nanoholes in a metal film as refractive index sensors2010In: Frontiers in Optics, FiO 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transmission of light through a thin Au film with subwavelength double nanoholes is modeled using vectorial three-dimensional finite element method. The performance of such perforated films as a potential refractive index sensor is discussed.

12345 1 - 50 of 229
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