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  • 1.
    Solomon, Semere
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Environmental and Natural Resources Information System.
    Ghebreab, Woldai
    Lineament characterization and their tectonic significance using Landsat TM data and field studies in the central highlands of Eritrea2006In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, ISSN 1464-343X, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 371-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lineaments in the central highlands of Eritrea are mapped using various Red-Green-Blue colour combinations and panchromatic Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images. Six sets trending N-S, NNE-SSW, NE-SW, ENE-WSW, WNW-ESE and NW-SE are identified in these images. Field studies generally reveal similar orientations. Field and remote sensing studies indicate that most of the lineaments are extensional fractures that correspond to either dikes emplacement or normal faults. Most of these were subsequently reactivated into strike-slip shear fractures. The NW-SE and NNE-SSW lineaments represent dilatational fractures. The NNE-SSW trending lineaments are the oldest. The N-S and WNW-ESE lineaments form conjugate shear fractures and are younger than the NNE-SSW lineaments. These conjugate shear fractures are also older than another set of conjugate shear fractures oriented NE-SW and ENE-WSW. The evolution of all these fractures is attributed to the episodic Red Sea/Danakil rifting because they either displace or locally reactivate the pre-existing late Neoproterozoic structures. Kinematic and dynamic analyses of the two, older and younger, pairs of conjugate strike-slip fractures revealed, respectively, broadly NW-SE and NNW-SSE oriented transpressional stress (sigma(1)) with corresponding transtensional stress (sigma(3)) oriented NE-SW and ENE-WSW. The analysis further enabled us to trace the continuation of a major Red Sea/Danakil rift-related transform fault into the central highlands of Eritrea.

  • 2.
    Solomon, Semere
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Environmental and Natural Resources Information System.
    Quiel, Friedrich
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Environmental and Natural Resources Information System.
    Groundwater study using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in the central highlands of Eritrea2006In: Hydrogeology Journal, ISSN 1431-2174, E-ISSN 1435-0157, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 729-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote sensing, evaluation of digital elevation models (DEM), geographic information systems (GIS) and fieldwork techniques were combined to study the ground-water conditions in Eritrea. Remote sensing data were interpreted to produce lithological and lineament maps. DEM was used for lineament and geomorphologic mapping. Field studies permitted the study of structures and correlated them with lineament interpretations. Hydrogeological setting of springs and wells were investigated in the field, from well logs and pumping test data. All thematic layers were integrated and analysed in a GIS. Results show that groundwater occurrence is controlled by lithology, structures and landforms. Highest yields occur in basaltic rocks and are due to primary and secondary porosities. High yielding wells and springs are often related to large lineaments, lineament intersections and corresponding structural features. In metamorphic and igneous intrusive rocks with rugged landforms, groundwater occurs mainly in drainage channels with valley fill deposits. Zones of very good groundwater potential are characteristic for basaltic layers overlying lateritized crystalline rocks, flat topography with dense lineaments and structurally controlled drainage channels with valley fill deposits. The overall results demonstrate that the use of remote sensing and GIS provide potentially powerful tools to study groundwater resources and design a suitable exploration plan.

  • 3.
    Solomon, Semere
    et al.
    KTH.
    Quiel, Friedrich
    KTH.
    Groundwater study using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in the central highlands of Eritrea (vol 14, pg 729, 2006)2006In: Hydrogeology Journal, ISSN 1431-2174, E-ISSN 1435-0157, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 1029-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote sensing, evaluation of digital elevation models (DEM), geographic information systems (GIS) and fieldwork techniques were combined to study the groundwater conditions in Eritrea. Remote sensing data were interpreted to produce lithological and lineament maps. DEM was used for lineament and geomorphologic mapping. Field studies permitted the study of structures and correlated them with lineament interpretations. Hydrogeological setting of springs and wells were investigated in the field, from well logs and pumping test data. All thematic layers were integrated and analysed in a GIS. Results show that groundwater occurrence is controlled by lithology, structures and landforms. Highest yields occur in basaltic rocks and are due to primary and secondary porosities. High yielding wells and springs are often related to large lineaments, lineament intersections and corresponding structural features. In metamorphic and igneous intrusive rocks with rugged landforms, groundwater occurs mainly in drainage channels with valley fill deposits. Zones of very good groundwater potential are characteristic for basaltic layers overlying lateritized crystalline rocks, flat topography with dense lineaments and structurally controlled drainage channels with valley fill deposits. The overall results demonstrate that the use of remote sensing and GIS provide potentially powerful tools to study groundwater resources and design a suitable exploration plan.

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