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  • 1.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Applying the Swedish urban typology in the city of Karlstad: neighborhood conceptualizations for urban development and transformation in the 21st centuryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Swedish as many European cities experienced a similar history of urbanization, architectural styles and planning paradigms. Most of the Swedish neighborhoods originate or were modified in the 20th century and many of them, often copyrighted by architects and planners, have been preserved as they were designed. The fundamental urban challenge in this century is to find ways of urban redevelopment, transformation and adaptation of these neighborhoods to futures of social and environmental changes.

    The type in urban morphology is the encompassing category that fuses form with time and space and there is a long tradition and established schools in Europe which document the consistencies between urban form, history and society. In this article I analyze the neighborhoods in the city of Karlstad via the previously defined Swedish urban typology. The results show high explanation coefficients and low deviations. The typological neighborhoods have similar urban densities, either as population or work places per hectare or as floor area ratios (FAR) and some neighborhood types even deviate little in income. This allows discussions about urban densities, redevelopment and transformation without really talking about coefficients or numbers.

    The results awake a palette of debates. How stereotypical are the urban neighborhoods today and how and should we make them more unique? Are there other alternatives for the 21st century than the urban typologies from the past? Is conceptualizing neighborhoods through typologies enough for urban transformation?

  • 2.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Bus rapid transit (BRT) and transitoriented development (TOD): How to transform and adjust the Swedish cities for attractive bus systems like BRT? What demands BRT?2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus rapid transit (BRT) is an innovative bus system with sophisticated vehicles and inflexible busways integrated in the cities, high capacity and high quality, high speed and frequency, distinctive image and comfort. Many in Sweden believe that is impossible to introduce BRT, even though the Swedish towns and cities can benefit from the image, speed and frequency that BRT symbolizes. The archipelago-like urbanization, urban sprawl and the uncompetitive journey times of public transportation compared with the private car are identified as main obstacles. New questions emerged: Is it possible to transform and adjust the Swedish towns and cities for BRT? What demands BRT? How is transit-oriented development (TOD) applicable in a Swedish context as a policy to integrate cities and BRT?

    In this licentiate thesis I investigate the interrelationship between bus transportation and neighborhoods, between BRT and urban form as well as the possibilities to introduce busways and BRT, to trigger TOD and to transform the Swedish towns and cities for BRT. Much has been written about BRT, but seldom by architects or urban planners and designers. BRT and TOD are seen though urban form and processes of urbanization within a morphological tradition established by Kevin Lynch. BRT is represented by paths and nodes that disperse distinctive attractiveness pattern of desirability cores that shape neighborhoods as districts. TOD is about synchronizing the everyday urban life with public transportation systems. BRT-TOD is defined as a policy to recognize desirability cores spread by the different infrastructures of BRT and promote development of urban form within their attractiveness pattern at urban and regional scale. BRT-TOD is discussed as a concept of BRT metropolis in context of the urbanization of Swedish towns and cities.

     TOD is defined morphologically as public transport cities. A public transport city is a city that in its development adapted to specific public transportation systems. TOD is nothing new in Europe or Sweden. To find regularities of the effect of public transportation systems on cities I do a historical overview of the Swedish towns and cities. In the end the position of bus and BRT, public transport cities and TOD and possibilities of future urban transformation of the smaller and larger Swedish cities towards BRT metropolises are discussed in context of today’s “‘system’ of automobility” and widespread car society and the emerging knowledge society and its postmodern fringes of urbanization.

  • 3.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    City information modeling (CIM) and urbanism: Blocks, connections, territories, people and situations2013In: SimAUD '13 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation for Architecture & Urban Design, Society for Computer Simulation International , 2013, no 8, p. 86-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban theory is voluminous body of knowledge. There is a kaleidoscope of urban definitions and standpoints, but there are no tools that capture the variegated viewpoints and representations in urbanism. In this article I look at different urban theories, discourses and representations in architecture, sociology, geography, economy, transportation, computer science in order to conceptualize city information modeling (CIM). CIM is conceived and discussed as a system of blocks with dynamic relations or connections that define and redefine territories. The urban life today is a sequence of temporally inhabited and interconnected spaces, movable or fixed. The connections between spaces inspire or inhibit contacts and interactions between people. They bend times and continuously shape and reshape spaces, sociabilities and situations. In architecture there was an evolution from computer-aided design (CAD) to building information modeling (BIM), but in urbanism, where the geographic information systems (GIS) dominate, there is no such analogy.

  • 4.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    City Information Modelling (CIM) and Urban Design: Morphological Structure, Design Elements and Programming Classes in CIM2019In: Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 507-516 / [ed] Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.),, Lodz, Poland, 2019, p. 507-516Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Enriching the aggregated approach in transportation research: a morphological perspective on cities and mobility2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cities are urban mosaics. The urban life today is a sequence of temporally inhabited and interconnected spaces, movable or fixed. The connections between spaces inspire or inhibit contacts and interactions between people. They bend times and continuously shape and reshape spaces, sociabilities and situations. The neighborhoods are agglomerations of individuals and buildings, but they are also perplexed individuals with own life, countenance and history. They are complex social and physical phenomena, products of unique social and technological conditions of its age, entangling architectural styles and transport modes. Much research has been done about urban mosaics of neighborhoods in urban morphology. How can we apply the conceptualizations in urban morphology to refine the research approach and methodology on the interaction between transportation and cities? Can we use the historical regularities in physical form and social perceptions on neighborhoods to enrich the aggregated approach in transportation research?

  • 6.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    How density, diversity, land use and neighborhood type influences bus mobility in the swedish city of karlstad: Mixing spatial analytic and typo-morphological approaches to assess the indirect effect of urban form on travel2018In: Journal of Transport and Land Use, ISSN 1938-7849, E-ISSN 1938-7849, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 769-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the research on the effect of urban form on travel, a set of D-variables (density, diversity, design, destination accessibility, etc.) describes land use. Typo-morphology studies the historical emergence and evolution of urban patterns and their elements. In the typo-morphological approach, land use is an underlying element of neighborhood type. Neighborhood type defines urban areas that are relatively similar according to a range of attributes, such as building types, lot sizes, street layouts and land uses. This paper juxtaposes these two approaches to investigate the effect of density and diversity, land use and neighborhood type on bus mobility in the Swedish city of Karlstad. The results show that the number of residents and jobs in standard 400-meter walksheds around bus stops explains a third of the variation in bus ridership, which corresponds to previous studies in Sweden. The scatter plots with neighborhood types indicate that bus patronage variables and the D-variables cluster in intervals. This information about ranges and maximums in bus patronage in different neighborhood types is particularly important for urban designers and planners who work with typologies, form-based codes (FBCs) or transit-oriented development (TOD).

  • 7.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Is there a place for Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in the Swedish towns and cities?: Applying multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) to evaluate the potential for urban development and transformation along the newly proposed BRT line in Karlstad, Sweden2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Karlstad as many smaller towns and cities in Sweden developed rapidly in the 20th century, in years of rapid motorization and decentralization. As a consequence it sprawled into archipelago of urban areas along motorway E18. Karstad was designed for the private car and today it dominated by individual mobility. The change from a city for a private car to multimodal public transport cities demands major urban transformation and adaptation efforts and Karlstadsbuss, the public transportation authority in the city of Karlstad, proposed a new BRT line named Karstadsstråk or Karlstad’s Corridor to improve the bus transportation and achieve better integration with the city. In this project I explore the possibility for urban development and transformation along the newly proposed BRT line in the city of Karlstad by using multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) that consider analysis not only the physical constrains, but also the preferences of the different actors in the urban development. The questions are: What is the development potential of the neighborhoods along the new BRT line? How and which neighborhoods can develop stimulated by the introduction of BRT?

     

    If we look at the neighborhood scale and on urban development through neighborhood typologies and typological processes, the development potential along the new BRT line in Karlstad is rather limited. But the urban development can happen on small scale. The small scale can be very important in smaller cities where there is a new urban attractor like BRT. If the city of Karlstad wants to have successful implementation of the newly proposed BRT line it is maybe important to rethink urban integration as urban transformation of the city small scale. One solution involves “BRT free development zones” where small businesses and residents, architects and builders from the city can coordinate and develop their own visions of the future city.

  • 8.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Linking urban morphological and social perspectives2018In: Urban morphology, ISSN 1027-4278, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 69-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Multimodal transportation performance certificate (MTPC) for buildings and neighborhoods – a model for benchmarking the effect of the built environment on the modal split in geographic information systems (gis)2017In: Simulation Series, The Society for Modeling and Simulation International , 2017, no 11, p. 240-247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unsustainable mobility is a major challenge in many cities. To provide information about sustainable transportation, this paper proposes instituting Multimodal Transportation Performance Certificates (MTPC) as assessment method and performance measure for multimodality of buildings and neighborhoods. MTPC measures the Level of Integration (LoI) of the built environment with walking, cycling, public transportation and private car and estimates the modal split in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based on urban design elements. The benchmarking procedure for MTPC is applied and tested in a suburban neighborhood in Stockholm.

  • 10.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Public transportation systems for urban planners and designers: The urban morphology of public transportation systems2013In: Urban Public Transportation Systems 2013 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Urban Public Transportation Systems / [ed] Steven L. Jones, Jr., Ph.D., M.ASCE, Paris, France: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2013, p. 75-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambition in European cities is to create an integrated, multimodal transportation system which fully exploits the potential of public transportation. The "compact city" and "multimodality" are new fashionable buzzwords. But many, especially smaller cities in Europe developed rapidly in the second half of the 20th century in the years of rapid motorization and decentralization of cities. These cities were designed for the private car and are dominated by individual mobility. The change from a city for a private car to multimodal public transport cities demands major urban transformation. In this article the public transportation systems are seen through a perspective of a morphological concept in urban planning and design established by Kevin Lynch. The public transportation infrastructures are combinations of paths and nodes that disperse distinctive attractiveness pattern of desirability cores that shapes the neighborhoods. There are many examples of integration public transportation systems shaped the urban form. A "public transport city" is a section of a city that historically adapted to specific public transportation systems. There are four distinctive public transport cities which unfold consistent and unique urban form and mobility patterns. Each public transport city has different urban morphology with weaknesses and strengths important for urban designers, planners and developers especially when there is a need to introduce new public transportation systems in urban areas dominated by private cars.

  • 11.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Pushing the urban edge: high speed public transports as future shapers of cities2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Representation challenges in urbanism2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    The aggregated approach in transport research: a morphological discourse on transports and cities2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cities throughout the history relied on transports to sustain their urban life. The differenttransport technologies and the need for undisturbed flows of goods and people shaped the cities. Theinteraction between transports and cities has been focus on many disciplines. In my research I focuson urban form at neighbourhood scale exploring the physical and social aspects of theneighbourhoods and their effect on transports. The urban life today is a sequence of temporallyinhabited and interconnected spaces, movable or fixed. The connections between spaces inspire orinhibit contacts and interactions between people. They bend times and continuously shape andreshape spaces, sociabilities and situations. I look at the cities as urban mosaics of neighbourhoods.The neighbourhoods are blocks with dynamic relations or connections that define and redefineterritories. They are designed in certain point in the history by social conditions and preferences notonly towards ways of living, but also towards architectural styles, building types and transport modes.The policies like number of parking places per building or distance from a public transportation stopto a dwelling are examples of design guidelines.The link between public transports and neighbourhoods as well as neighbourhoods and theirparticular character are focuses of my research. The neighbourhoods are complex social and physicalphenomena. They are agglomerations of individuals and buildings, but they are also complexindividuals themselves with own life, countenance and history. Each neighbourhood reflects theplanning paradigms and architectural styles of the age of its development or renewal. Its physicalcharacter is socially judged and reconsidered. It is compared with other neighbourhoods and itsreputation varies when other neighbourhoods emerge or are renewed, when new transporttechnologies emerge, when architectural styles change. Some neighbourhoods are outdated, whileothers regain popularity. The physical character of neighbourhoods links them to different transportmodes too. That is seldom discussed in Sweden and it is very important to be discussed in the debateabout urban transformation of neighbourhoods and adapting them to public transports. Someneighbourhoods emerged or renewed in periods of flâneurs, coaches and carts, some in the motor agesof public buses, trams and trains and private cars. In their existence some neighbourhoods havestubbornly hold onto their distinctive character that shapes the sociabilities and mobilities of theircommunities, while others embraced new technologies. Some neighbourhoods are oriented towardsspecific transport modes, whereas others are multimodal by continuous adaptations to other transportmodes. Can we use the historical regularities in physical form and social perceptions onneighbourhoods to enrich the aggregated approach in transport research? Can we apply theconceptualizations and empirical findings in urban morphology to refine the research approach andmethodology on the interaction between transports and cities?

  • 14.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    The compact city neighborhood: an emerging new stereotype and model to redevelop the industrial fringe of the historical European city and develop new sustainable suburbs2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The compact city surfaced in the European sustainable cities debate in the 1990s and sincethen there are many experiments with intensification and new development in the towns and cities ofNorthern and Western Europe. The new sustainable suburbs in Stockholm, Gothenburg, Helsinki,Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Eindhoven, Paris, London and Cambridge, are very similar as cityscapesand urban form. They have recognizable character and emerge as a new European stereotype andmodel for urban development and redevelopment of the abandoned historical industrial zones. Similarconcepts for compact neighborhoods oriented to more sustainable transport modes as walking, cyclingand public transportation is promoted in the USA as Transit-Oriented Development (TOD).Transmissions and convergences of European urban images happened continuously. Pariswith its lavish cityscapes inspired urban reflections throughout Europe in the end of the 19th century.With the international style in the 20th century the urban replications appeared globally almostinstantly. Similar phenomenon is happening with the compact city model today on the historicalindustrial fringe of the cities in Northern and Western Europe. Do we need more replications of urbanmodels in Europe? How attractive is to live in the new sustainable suburbs that look alike? In the end, how sustainable are these neighborhoods?

  • 15.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    The interrelationship between bus transport and neighbourhoods in Karlstad2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How and is the bus transport in Karlstad influenced by the neighbourhoods? If it is, which factors, characteristics or variables have profound effect on the bus transport demand? Does urban density and diversity matters? What is the effect of the urban form of the neighbourhoods?

  • 16.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    The Morphological Effect of Public Transportation Systems on Cities: Urban Analysis of Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) in Swedish Cities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    The revival of buses as Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in urban and regional planning: retrospect and prospects2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to the conventional bus systems that operate predominantly on streets, in mixed traffic or on dedicated lanes, bus rapid transit (BRT) achieves high capacity by channeling passenger flows in a system of segregated busways, partially or fully separated from other traffic. We are in the midst of an emergence of a new multimodality paradigm in urban and region planning and within the new paradigm there is priority on environmental friendly and more energy effective transports like public transport, cycling and walking in multimodal systems. European commission (EC) advocates for balance between transport modes and more sustainable transports. In the emerging planning paradigm there is much advocacy for BRT and its integration in cities through the ‘compact city’ model.

    In this article I trace buses and BRT in the history of urban and regional planning and urban planning and design and I look at European cases of ‘compact city’ neighborhoods developed along busways. The motorbus with the emergence of the car was preferred and widespread alternative to the 19th century tramways and railways. But in the same time the bus was profoundly patronized. It was more an excuse for urban planners and designers not to plan public transport than a mobility solution. The flexible bus like the car could reach anywhere. What is the perception and position of bus and BRT today? Did BRT made a change in urban and regional planning? What is happening on the historical, today abandoned industrial urban fringe of the cities in Northern Europe? How is BRT included? How BRT can help? Today we see a wide replication of the ‘compact city’ urban model in the abandoned industrial zones in Europe and BRT is in the heart of many ‘compact city’ neighborhoods. The urban model includes partially separated or light busways integrated in multimodal streets alongside sidewalks, bicycle and car lanes. BRT is conceived as a future public transport system, a sophisticated high speed system integrated in cities. BRT has inflexible busways and it is driver for urban new developments. There are many finished and ongoing busway projects in Europe. But there are too few debates and too little reflections on the replication of the ‘compact city’ model. The partially separated busways integrated with cities do not allow high speeds. Thus they cannot compete with the private car on regional scale because they are slower (20-25km/h) than the typical regional public transport systems. Secondly, the ‘sophisticated vehicles’ are often the plain old buses that run on busways. They are as austere and uncomfortable as the other buses in every city. There are some new concept buses, but they are still prototypes. The emergence of the stereotypical compact city neighborhoods opens new questions: How attractive is to live in there? Should we replicate more ‘compact city’ neighborhoods like in Gothenbourg, Eindhoven, Douai, Paris and Cambridge? How creatively BRT is used and how creatively can it be used?

  • 18.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    The Swedish urban typologies in the city of Karlstad: neighbourhood conceptualizations and typologies for urban development and transformation in the 21st century2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Swedish as many European cities experienced a similar history of urbanization, architectural styles and planning paradigms. Most of the Swedish neighbourhoods originate or were modified in the 20th century and many of them, often copyrighted by architects and planners, have been preserved as they were designed. The fundamental urban challenge in this century is to find ways of urban redevelopment, transformation and adaptation of these neighbourhoods to futures of social and environmental changes. The type in urban morphology is the encompassing category that fuses form with time and space and there is a long tradition and established schools in Europe which document the consistencies between urban form, history and society. In this article I analyze the neighbourhoods in the city of Karlstad via the previously defined Swedish urban typology. The results show high explanation coefficients and low deviations. The typological neighbourhoods have similar urban densities, either as population or work places per hectare or as floor area ratios (FAR). It allows discussions about urban densities, redevelopment and transformation without really talking about coefficients or numbers.  The results awake a palette of debates. How stereotypical are the urban neighbourhoods today and how and should we make them more unique? Are there other alternatives for the 21st century than the urban typologies from the past? Is conceptualizing neighbourhoods through typologies enough for urban transformation?

  • 19.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Typo-morphology of transportation – Looking at historical development and multimodal futures of Swedish streets and roads2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a part of a book on historical development and envisioning streets multimodal futures of Swedish streets and roads. It discusses typo-morphological methodology to study streets, roads and streets layouts. It looks in the history of Swedish cities to analyze types of streets and roads and proposes futuristic (scenarios) for the typical Swedish streets and roads considering new trends towards multimodal transportation (a mix of walking, cycling and public transportation) and new transport technologies such as self-propelled cars and carpools. Swedish morphologists have classified streets according to historical periods. There is also international research about historical street development and types. Currently new planning trends and new patterns of mobility are emerging such as energy efficient mobilities (walking and cycling), shared automobiles and bicycles, hybrid and electric cars and self-driving vehicles. These new transportation technologies will change the way in which streets and roads are designed in the future. Urban morphology can help with conceptualizing typologies and design elements in a context of morphologically informed design.

  • 20.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Urban design and public transportation – public spaces, visual proximity and Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)2019In: Journal of Urban Design, ISSN 1357-4809, E-ISSN 1469-9664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Walking distances conventionally define service areas for public transportation and urban growth boundaries for Transit-Oriented Development (TOD). Urban designers accordingly draw rings around transit stops and arrange transit-supportive land uses within 10-minute walksheds. This approach to TOD neglects processes of creating public spaces in visual proximity of transit stops. This paper proposes a methodology to analyze public spaces and looks at how commercialization and public space patterns unfold through viewsheds around transit stops. The results reveal amoebic TOD patterns of public spaces that are much smaller than conventional walking radii. This alternative viewshed approach can be helpful in designing TODs.

  • 21.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Urban Form and Mobility - Analysis and Information to Catalyse Sustainable Development2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban transportation today consumes scarce resources of fossil fuels and it is a major cause for environmental damage and accelerating climate change. To achieve sustainable mobility in the cities, it is necessary to improve energy efficiency and lower carbon emissions through the promotion of walking, cycling and especially public transportation.

    The urban form and the embeddedness of automobility is a challenging obstacle on the way towards sustainable mobility and cities. Many neighbourhoods and cities, particularly in developed countries like Sweden, were specifically designed and developed to accommodate the private car, individual mobility and freedom of movement. It is impossible to walk or cycle and the public transportation is not competitive. The lack of mobility choices in these neighbourhoods and cities hinders the possibilities to shift towards more sustainable travel alternatives. Urban designers and planners can help with redesigning these neighbourhoods and creating urban forms that encourage walking, cycling and increased use of public transportation if they are aware about the possible modal shares, energy efficiency, environmental performance and carbon implications of transportation in existing and newly planned neighbourhoods.

    This Doctoral Thesis examines Swedish urbanisation and the historical integration of public transportation in competition with other transportation modes. It analyses emergence of typical neighbourhoods that oriented towards walking (the pre-industrial city), to public transportation (the industrializing city), to the private automobile (the modern/industrial city) and ultimately to a wide range of mobility choices (the postmodern/post-industrial city with sustainable city neighbourhoods). It investigates furthermore the effect of urban form variables (including neighbourhood type) on travel (modal shares of public transportation). Based upon this empirical knowledge, the Doctoral Thesis proposes a mobility choices model based on urban form and accessibility factors commonly used in urban planning, design and development practices. The mobility choices model produces heat maps and visually informs about the integration with walking, cycling, public transportation and private car, modal shares, carbon emissions and transportation energy use. This information can (potentially) trigger urban transformation or redesign car-oriented neighbourhoods to better integrate energy efficient and environmentally friendly mobility alternatives and catalyse the development of more sustainable cities.

  • 22.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Urban Form and Mobility Choices: Informing about Sustainable Travel Alternatives, Carbon Emissions and Energy Use from Transportation in Swedish Neighbourhoods2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of mobility choices in many Swedish neighbourhoods and cities designed for automobiles hinders the possibilities to shift towards more sustainable travel alternatives. Urban designers and planners can help with redesigning these neighbourhoods and creating urban forms that encourage walking, cycling and increased use of public transportation if they are informed about the environmental performance and carbon implications of transportation systems in existing and newly planned neighbourhoods. This paper proposes a mobility choices model based on urban form and accessibility factors commonly used in urban planning and design practices. The mobility choices model produces heat maps and visually informs about the integration with walking, cycling, public transportation and private car, modal shares, carbon emissions and transportation energy use. This information can (potentially) trigger urban transformation or redesign to better integrate sustainable travel alternatives in these neighbourhoods and contribute to more sustainable cities. Many houses can have an excellent environmental performance as buildings but they can be located at a distance where it is impossible to walk, cycle or use public transportation. The benefits of energy efficient and carbon neutral home then disappears with extensive travel and commuting by automobile.

  • 23.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Urbanism for Multimodal Transportation: Multimodal Transportation Performance Certificates (MTPC) for Buildings and Neighborhoods2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimodality defines the ability to travel with a choice of different transportation modes. This report combines different approaches and methods to analyze multimodality and inform about integration of multiple transportation modes with cities. It assesses three methods: green building and sustainable neighborhood certification systems (LEED, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), accessibility indexes (Walk Score, http://www.walkscore.com/) and travel forecasting tools (Trafikverket’s Trafikalstring, Swedish Transportation Administration’s Trip Generation Tool, https://applikation.trafikverket.se/trafikalstring/). It also proposes instituting Multimodal Transportation Performance Certificates (MTPC) as a hybrid method. The focus is on urban form, physical integration of transportation systems in cities and on urbanism that can make multimodality possible. Accordingly, MTPC measures physical integration of different transportation systems (walking, cycling, public transportation and private car) with cities. Its indicators include design elements (streets, buildings, building façades, building heights, bike racks, parking lots, bus stops, subway exits, etc.), place characteristics (density, diversity, etc.) and accessibility (network access to local and regional destinations) that have indirect, but profound effect on travel.

  • 24.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    What explains neighborhood type statistically? Mixing typo-morphological and spatial analytic approaches in urban morphology2018In: 24TH ISUF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE: CITY AND TERRITORY IN THE GLOBALIZATION AGE / [ed] Colomer, V, Univ Politecnica Valencia , 2018, p. 1265-1282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Society creates architectural styles and neighborhood types to communicate and promote values. Accordingly, geographers and architects working within the typo-morphological tradition classify neighborhoods by historical periods, urban design, planning paradigms and plan elements, building types and architectural detail. This paper juxtaposes typo-morphological (historical emergence of urban forms through urban elements and pattern typologies) and spatial analytic (city defined by urban form factors and formulas) approaches in urban morphology to assess what explains neighborhood type statistically. The analyses of variance show that many urban form factors (residential and employment density, Floor Space Indexes (FSI), location, income, etc.) are statistically significant in neighborhood type (as a nominal composite variable). Neighborhood typologies can be applied to enrich spatial analyses and urban modelling. The approach can be used in typo-morphological tradition to offer quantitative description to the persistent problem of type' and enrich the classification methodology.

  • 25.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Alam, Tesad
    KTH.
    Janson, Marcus
    KTH.
    Transit-Oriented Development (TOD): Analyzing urban development and transformation in Stockholm2014In: Proceeding SimAUD '14 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation for Architecture & Urban Design, The Society for Modeling and Simulation International, 2014, Vol. 46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit-oriented development (TOD) is a policy to design and develop dense, attractive and walkable urban environments that enhance the use of public transportation. In a broader perspective, TOD deals with synchronizing urban life - its growth and development, its everyday activities and mobility patterns - with public transportation systems. Urban development is a product of negotiation, a political struggle between actors and stakeholders, their visions and interests, and their powers to induce urban change. In the background of urban politics, social and physical factors limit the potential to develop or transform. In this study, this potential for urban development and transformation is analyzed for three neighborhoods along the Tunnelbana, a subway line in Stockholm, with the help of geographic information systems (GIS) software. Two development scenarios are explored: one with TOD applied, the other with it dominating as a policy.

  • 26.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Engström, Carl-Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Inventering av dokumenterade effekter, effektsamband och uppföljningsmetoder för samhällsplaneringsinsatser: (KTH del: region- och kommunal planering)2012Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Kottenhoff, Karl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) och Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) - Stadsutveckling för effektiv kollektivtrafik: Erfarenheter från Sverige och andra länder - Vilka krav ställer BRT på bebyggelsen? - Hur kan svenska städer anpassas för BRT?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilken befolkningstäthet behövs för BRT? En av förutsättningarna för att inrätta kollektivtrafik med god eller någorlunda god ekonomi är att många medborgare har samma resbehov samtidigt. Ett underlag för en BRT linje ligger på minst 5 000 dagliga resor enligt det amerikanska synsättet. I en stad eller stadsregion med en låg andel kollektivtrafik (ca 10 % i Karlstad och 5 % i Värmland) behövs mellan 33 000 till 42 000 boende och arbetsplatser för 10 minuterstrafik och 70 000 för 6 minuterstrafik samordnade i ett stråk.

    I genomsnitt gör en person 1 000 enkelresor per år, eller ca 3 resor per dag. Med låg andel kollektivtrafik kommer stora befolkningstäthetskrav. En utmaning är att uppnå 5 000 dagliga resor även med 5 000 boende och arbetsplatser. Det är möjligt om det finns ett urbant nätverk där kollektivtrafiken ligger centralt och attraherar en stor del av resandet i en stadsregion. Ett nätverkstänkande behövs för kollektivtrafikanpassad samhällsplanering och stadsutveckling. Många städer utvecklades inte linjärt och ibland behövs det flera BRT linjer i ett nätverk med viktigaste målpunkter som tunga bytespunkter i täta miljöer med blandade funktioner. Undersökningen i Karlstad har visat att urbana funktioner som handel och institutioner generar nästan dubbel så många dagliga resor per person.

    Vi föreslår TOD som en stegvis samhällsplaneringspolicy för anpassning till kollektivtrafiksinfrastruktur. Det handlar om att planera kollektivtrafikens stråk i nätverk med befolkning och verksamheter som trivs vid kollektivtrafik. En postmodern utmaning är att skapa multimodala urbana nätverk i en stadsregion. BRT har egenskaper likt en minitunnelbana och kan möjliggöra detta. BRT är inte målet i sig, men ett verktyg att uppnå ett urbant nätverk. Målet är ju en levande stad där det också är lätt att resa för alla. Det handlar om mjuka och hårda TOD åtgärder på läns och kommunnivå, om stadsförändring och transformering. Ordningen hus, parkering och busshållplats kan ändras. Kollektivtrafiken kan främjas i staden och prioriteras i stadsbebyggelsen.

  • 28.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Lundström, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Haas, Tigran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Light Railways and Busways as Key Driver for Sustainable Urban Development The Swedish Experiences with Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)2012In: Sustaining the Metropolis: LRT and Streetcars for Super Cities, Washington, D.C: Transportation Research Board , 2012, p. 259-278, article id E-C177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TOD in a Swedish (European) perspective is by no means a new idea. Three cases of newer light railway and busway projects (Stockholm, Gothenbourg and Norrkoping) are explored in this article and they are seen through a historical overview of the TOD experiences in Sweden and around the world. We also investigate and draw attention to the values of placemaking and sustainable urbanism via the advantages and disadvantages of the urban and regional public transport systems and TOD principles.

  • 29.
    Stojanovski, Todor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Lundström, Mats Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Haas, Tigran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Tram and light railway as key driver for sustainable urban development: The Swedish experiences with transit-oriented development (TOD)2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable urbanism and good placemaking revolve around creating and maintaining sustainable and attractive places, by reviving planning and urban design paradigms, by experimenting and innovating and by building synergies between the old and the new. The expectations for wide accessibility and networking are very high and the challenge today is to integrate and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of urban and transport systems. The transports have to fulfil the ongoing demands for enhanced efficiency, comfort, safety and speed, as well as the environmental factors in the light of global climate change and energy crisis. One accent in the last 20 years has been on transit-oriented development (TOD), compact cities and urbanity-empowering public transports like light railways or light rail transit (LRT) or bus rapid transit (BRT) with its busways as key drivers for sustainable neighbourhoods.

1 - 29 of 29
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