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  • 1.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Bioenergy and the Sustainability Transition: from local resource to global commodity2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Exploiting cross-level linkages to steer the bioenergy transition2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis develops the notion of the bioenergy transition as the long-term transformation of biomass from a local resource into a global commodity. An historical assessment is combined with interdisciplinary analysis that focuses especially on liquid biofuels and highlights the environmentally innovative case of bioethanol. The bioenergy transition is investigated from several different perspectives: technical-economic, socio-economic, socio-technical and political-economic. Linkages across different levels from household to global are analysed in relation to the effectiveness of bioenergy policies. In addition to studies at household and national levels, a North-South perspective is taken by including two major regions: the European Union (EU) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The relation of EU biofuels policy to international climate and trade regimes is assessed to show how regional-global linkages affect policy design and implementation.

    Household bioenergy markets in developing countries are poorly articulated and difficult to link to other sectors; a detailed choice model in Ethiopia showed that product-specific factors should be evaluated to inform design of programmes and policies. Municipal and sub-national markets for bioenergy have been successfully linked to national policies to coordinate supply and demand in Brazil and Sweden. Regional market development for biofuels has great potential in southern Africa but regional-national linkages currently remain unexploited. National level efforts remain quite important in terms of energy security and environmental innovation, as evidenced in Brazil, Malawi and Sweden. Biofuels sustainability criteria in the EU Renewable Energy Directive (EU-RED) were evaluated in relation to the international climate and trade regimes and were found to shift some costs onto developing countries. One of the mechanisms for assuring biofuels sustainability is bilateral agreements, which remain untested but potentially effective.

    Cross-level linkages were often unexploited in the cases studied; national approaches cannot easily capture complementarities across sectors and scales in biophysical and economic terms. Linking biofuels markets across different levels from household to global through regional development policies and specialised governance mechanisms could help to steer the bioenergy transition towards sustainability.

  • 3.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Regional-global Linkages in the Energy-Climate-Development Policy Nexus: The Case of Biofuels in the EU Renewable Energy Directive2011In: Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, ISSN 2190-8265, no 2, p. 91-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union’s Renewable Energy Directive aims to accelerate the transition to renewable energy in the Community to support the EU energy policy goals of energy security, sustainability, and competitiveness. At the same time, the Directive – especially in its biofuels components – must also recognise the need for convergence between global and regional policy objectives. Such convergence is seen as necessary in order to align regional energy-economic objectives with global environment and development policies in general and climate policy in particular. In this paper, the biofuels components of the Directive are evaluated – particularly the sustainability criteria – in terms of their relation to the EU energy strategy and the resulting effects on energy, climate, and development policy objectives. It is found that the design and implementation of the sustainability criteria weaken the effect of the Directive’s potential impacts on global energy markets and international development objectives, while somewhat strengthening the internal EU market and technology objectives.

  • 4.
    Johnson, Francis X
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Diaz-Chavez, Rocio
    Imperial College London.
    Israilava, Alesia
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Rosillo-Calle, Frank
    Imperial College London.
    Takama, Takeshi
    Japan International Cooperation Agency.
    Tella, Patricia
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    The Achievable Potential of Wood Fuels for Climate Mitigation at Regional and Global Levels: Reviewing the Scope for Technical, Economic and Financial Implementation2010In: Proceedings of the 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition / [ed] WIP/ETA, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy from wood is the oldest energy source but at the same time there are new opportunities for wood energy to make substantial contributions to climate mitigation while also helping to improve the quality of energy services and contribute to development and energy security objectives. The potential for wood fuels for climate mitigation in the near-term are probably concentrated in the area of biomass co-firing with coal, due to the low cost and the major growth in coal-fired generation in countries such as China. There are also options for climate mitigation in the traditional biomass sector, through improved stoves and through more efficient charcoal production. Other options include substitution for coal in steel-making. The socio-economic implications are somewhat complex compared to other energy sources, since they relate closely to rural development but also create new allied industries, such as the wood pellets industry. Financial aspects in terms of carbon finance can be distinguished by the relatively straightforward case of larger-scale substitution projects vs. the complex small projects that are more difficult to measure and monitor.

  • 5.
    Johnson, Francis X
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Matsika, Emmanuel
    University of Zambia.
    Bio-energy trade and regional development: the case of bio-ethanol in southern Africa2006In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 42-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the prospects for international bio-energy trade within the context of regional integration and sustainable development in the region of southern Africa, focusing on the particular case of bio-ethanol made from sugar cane and sweet sorghum. A number of options are considered for expanded production of and trade in bio-ethanol as a transport fuel for blending with petrol. The implications for alternative development paths and regional cooperation strategies are discussed and compared. Transportation costs appear to be small compared to production costs, although the higher cost of shipment by land implies a need for regional coordination strategies. The availability of suitable feedstocks in the region would have to increase significantly in order to achieve economies of scale. There appear to be valuable opportunities for creating new export markets, although international cooperation will be needed for reducing import tariffs and addressing non-tariff trade barriers as well as promoting technology transfer and capacity-building.

  • 6.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Seebaluck, Vikram
    Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and International Competitiveness: The Role of Sugar Cane in Africa2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing concerns about the impacts of climate change and dependence on fossil fuels have intensified interest in bioenergy from sugar cane and other crops, highlighting important links between energy, environment and development goals. Southern and Eastern Africa are characterized by severe poverty; the possibility to exploit a renewable energy resource offers valuable avenues for sustainable development and could support a more dynamic and competitive economy. This book describes how the bioenergy expansion will improve rural livelihoods, reduce costly energy imports, reduce GHG emissions, and offer new development paths.

    Drawing on international experience, particularly from Brazil and India, it is shown that harnessing this potential will require significant increases in investment, technology transfer, and international cooperation. Because of its high efficiency, the authors argue that sugar cane should be viewed as a global resource for sustainable development and should command much greater focus and concerted policy action. Through an analysis of the agronomy, land suitability and industrial processing of sugar cane and its co-products, along with an assessment of the energy, economic and environmental implications, this volume demonstrates that sugar cane offers a competitive and environmentally beneficial resource for Africa's economic development and energy security.

    With fourty-four authors representing thirty organisations in sixteen countries, the book offers a truly international and interdisciplinary perspective by combining technical and economic principles with social, political and environmental assessment and policy analysis.

  • 7.
    Johnson, Francis X
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The transition to modern bioenergy: historical dimensions and strategic perspectives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass is the oldest form of energy used by mankind, but in some ways it is also the newest, due to the tremendous diversity of applications that have emerged for deploying modern bioenergy systems around the world. Bioenergy can be explored in multiple scales, but carries a local dimension that links it to livelihoods and patterns of social organization. At the same time, other demands on biomass resources—food, feed and fibre—have been growing rapidly due to population and resource pressures. The historical evolution of biomass for energy therefore will differ from future paths based on the structural changes in end-uses in combination with the shift to biomass as a multidimensional resource. The role of biomass as a carbon sink also becomes a fundamental element of future biomass energy resource development.

    In this paper the strategic elements of bioenergy are examined by reference to the historical shifts in the way that biomass has been used for energy since the industrial revolution. The factors driving the shifts away from (traditional) bioenergy can then be considered in relation to the factors behind the shift towards (modern) bioenergy. The variables of special interest include the timeframe, changes in energy density and changes in carriers and markets. The approach is based on analysis of quantitative energy data sets for several countries and regions together with some key qualitative indicators. The transformative nature of biomass resources and their variation in scale and scope are also important elements in the transition process. The historical shift away from traditional biomass can offer clues as to how the return to biomass as an energy source will unfold in different world regions.

  • 8.
    Johnson, Francis X
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Takama, Takeshi
    Japanese International Development Agency.
    Economics of Modern and Traditional Bioenergy in African Households: Consumer Choices for Cook Stoves2012In: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development in Africa / [ed] Janssen, R. and Rutz, D., Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2012, p. 375-388Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overwhelming majority of African households use traditional biomass in the form of wood fuel or charcoal to meet their daily cooking needs. Modern options such as LPG or ethanol can provide considerable benefits for health and environment. The case of ethanol is interesting as a renewable source with lower GHG emissions and also having the potential to be a locally produced resource. The purchase cost of such stoves is considerably higher while the fuel costs will generally be lower for those households that purchase fuel. Previous research on household adoption of new cook stoves has tended to focus on demographic or socio-economic factors such as education and income in trying to explain consumer choice. Such variables change only slowly and thus generally cannot support rapid introduction of improved stoves. We have developed a discrete choice model aimed at focusing more on the characteristics of the cook stoves themselves and the way in which they are used, which we refer to as “product-specific” attributes. The methodology is outlined here followed by a brief summary of the model applications in three countries: Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. Our approach could improve the understanding of the underlying economic issues and thereby contribute to better design of cook stove programmes and help stimulate a market transformation towards cleaner and more efficient cook stoves.

  • 9.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Virgin, Ivar
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Future Trends in markets for food, feed, fibre and fuel2010In: Food versus Fuel: An informed introduction to biofuels / [ed] Frank Rosillo-Calle and Francis X. Johnson, London: Zed Books, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental transformation is underway in the use of biomass resources for food, feed, fuel, fibre and many other uses. This transformation arises from the combination of three key drivers over the coming decades: the need to substitute renewable resources for the non-renewable ones on which economic growth has been predicated; the need to adapt to a changing climate by using resources more wisely and investing in the technology for biofuels that are carbon-negative; and the resource requirements of a growing world population with increasing demands for food, feed and fuel. There is wide scope for reconciling expanded biofuel production with food security and even for deploying biofuels in a way that support sustainable development and helps to revive rural economies. In order to realise the potential for synergies rather than conflicts between food and fuel, substantial investment in research and development is needed, as is a rejection of subsidies for unsustainable agricultural practices and a wide adoption of policies that support integrated and highly productive biomass platforms. Future trends in demand and supply reveal the importance of avoiding the view that food security and biofuel development are competing objectives: the biomass resources that support food and fuel—as well as feed, fibre, fertiliser and other uses—can and must be used synergistically to address the energy and climate challenge of the coming decades.

  • 10.
    Johnson, Francis Xavier
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Seebaluck, V.
    Bioenergy for sustainable development and international competitiveness: The role of sugar cane in Africa2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing concerns about the impacts of climate change and dependence on fossil fuels have intensified interest in bioenergy from sugar cane and other crops, highlighting important links between energy, environment and development goals. Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by severe poverty; the possibility to exploit a renewable energy resource offers valuable avenues for sustainable development and could support a more dynamic and competitive economy. This book describes how the bioenergy expansion will improve rural livelihoods, reduce costly energy imports, reduce GHG emissions, and offer new development paths. Drawing on international experience, it is shown that harnessing this potential will require significant increases in investment, technology transfer, and international cooperation. Because of its high efficiency, the authors argue that sugar cane should be viewed as a global resource for sustainable development and should command much greater focus and concerted policy action. Through an analysis of the agronomy, land suitability and industrial processing of sugar cane and its co-products, along with an assessment of the energy, economic and environmental implications, this volume demonstrates that sugar cane offers a competitive and environmentally beneficial resource for Africa’s economic development and energy security. With forty-four authors representing thirty organisations in sixteen countries, the book offers a truly international and interdisciplinary perspective by combining technical and economic principles with social, political and environmental assessment and policy analysis.

  • 11.
    Johnson, Francis Xavier
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden .
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Pioneer countries in the transition to alternative transport fuels: comparison of ethanol programmes and policies in Brazil, Malawi and Sweden2014In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 11, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts to develop alternative transport fuels and vehicles are found in countries varying tremendously in their level of economic development. In this paper, we compare the alternative fuels transition, focusing on ethanol, in three countries: Brazil, Malawi and Sweden. Each can be described as a pioneer in developing the physical and institutional infrastructure and stimulating innovation towards alternative transport fuels. We assess the transition in these pioneer countries based on niche formation and interaction with regime and landscape levels. Particular reference is made to spatial and temporal path dependencies and to the significance of cross-scale and cross-sector effects that impact the innovation process. As other countries and regions develop programmes to address the twin challenges of energy security and climate change, they can benefit from a better understanding of linkages between techno-economic and socio-technical factors in transition paths of pioneer countries, across different scales and different stages of economic development.

  • 12.
    Rosillo-Calle, Frank
    et al.
    Imperial College London.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Food versus Fuel: An informed introduction to biofuels2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    'Food versus Fuel' presents a high-level introduction to the science and economics behind a well-worn debate, that will debunk myths and provide quality facts and figures for academics and practitioners in development studies, environment studies, and agricultural studies. Compiled by an internationally renowned scientist and authority, and to include perspectives from 'pro' and 'anti' biofuels experts and activists, from the North and South, the aim of this book is to bring a balanced approach to the current debate on the major issues affecting the development of biofuels in a concise and clear manner in order to provide an informed, nuanced but accessible introduction, grounded in science and economics rather than conjecture and controversy.

  • 13. Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Navigating the transition to sustainable bioenergy in Sweden and BrazilManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and Brazil have become world leaders in modern bioenergy with respect to research, technology innovation and system implementation. However, there are still underdeveloped bioenergy segments in both countries. In this paper, we use approaches from the transition and innovation literatures to analyse both successes and deficiencies in different end-use segments of the transition to modern bioenergy in Sweden and Brazil. The analysis focuses on the development of socio-technical regimes and identification of innovative approaches that have enabled or hindered transitions in the two countries. We conclude that specific technology options and strategic policies had an important role in orchestrating the transition but the alignment of old established structures and interest groups in agriculture and forestry with industrial actors and policy-makers at national and sub-national scales were key factors for promoting modern bioenergy in the two countries. These findings justify a systemic approach in navigating the bioenergy transition, to meet the multiple and simultaneous interferences that may be caused in established socio-technical regimes within various sectors simultaneously.

  • 14. Sinkala, T.
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Biofuels for Poverty Reduction and Environmental Restoration: the Case of Jatropha in Zambia2009In: Climate challenge-the safety’s off / [ed] B. Johansson, Stockholm: FORMAS , 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Sinkala, Thomson
    et al.
    University of Zambia.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Small-Scale Production of Jatropha in Zambia and its Implications for Rural Development and National Biofuel Policies2012In: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development in Africa / [ed] Rainer Janssen and Dominic Rutz, Netherlands: Springer Netherlands, 2012, p. 41-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about energy security and the need to promote rural development have been key factors in the promotion of biofuels in many developing countries in Africa. At the same time, the low cost of labour and plentiful land in some regions of Africa has motivated many foreign investors to set up biofuels schemes that are aimed at export markets. Small-scale production of biofuels in a Least Developed Country (LDC) such as Zambia offers a potentially more viable alternative, or in some cases a complement, to large-scale schemes. The lower capital investment required and the fact that households and communities can use by-products allows for value-added at the local level. The case of jatropha exhibits a number of benefits if there is a willingness to experiment with various production schemes and develop different products. In this chapter small-scale jatropha production in Zambia is assessed using a case study at Thomro farms. The relation of small-scale schemes to national priorities and policies is reviewed and the future role of jatropha at local and national levels is discussed.

  • 16.
    Smeets, Edward
    et al.
    Wageningen.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Ballard-Tremeer, Grant
    Ecoharmony.
    Traditional and Improved Use of Biomass for Energy in Africa2012In: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development in Africa / [ed] Rainer Janssen and Dominic Rutz, Springer Netherlands, 2012, p. 3-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional biomass energy systems are widely used in Africa, mainly because of the low cost and lack of available alternatives in rural areas. Projections indicate that the (relative) contribution of traditional bioenergy will decrease, but that the total use of traditional biomass energy systems will increase during the coming decades. The efficiencies of wood-fuel (firewood and charcoal) energy systems are usually low and the use of these systems has serious negative consequences, such as indoor air pollution and related health effects, deforestation and the labour intensive and sometimes dangerous process of firewood collection. Improvements in stoves, charcoal production efficiency and switching fuels can increase the efficiency by several tens of percent points and thereby reduce the demand for labour for the collection of firewood and the costs. Other advantages of improved traditional bioenergy systems are reduced greenhouse gas emissions, reduced indoor air pollution and reduced deforestation. Various initiatives have been successful in implementing the use of improved household stoves, although the results suggest that the success of improved traditional biomass systems depends on the local conditions and socio-economic impacts of these systems.

  • 17. Takama, Takeshi
    et al.
    Tsephel, Stanzin
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Evaluating the relative strength of product-specific factors in fuel switching and stove choice decisions in Ethiopia: A discrete choice model of household preferences for clean cooking alternatives2012In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1763-1773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Switching from conventional stoves to modern clean, safe, and efficient stoves will improve health and social welfare for the 2.7 billion people worldwide that lack reliable access to modern energy services. In this paper, we critically review some key theoretical dimensions of household consumer behaviour in switching from traditional biomass cooking stoves to modern efficient stoves and fuels. We then describe the results of empirical research investigating the determinants of stove choice, focusing on the relative strength of product-specific factors across three wealth groups. A stated preference survey and discrete choice model were developed to understand household decision-making associated with cooking stove choice in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study found that, with the exception of price and usage cost factors for the high wealth group, the product-specific factors that were investigated significantly affect stove and fuel choices. The relative strength of factors was assessed in terms of marginal willingness to pay and provides some evidence that consumer preference for higher quality fuels and stoves tends to increase with increasing wealth.

  • 18. Westberg, C.J.
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    The Path Not Yet Taken: Bilateral Trade Agreements to Promote Sustainable Biofuels Under the EU Renewable Energy Directive2014In: The Environmental Law Reporter, ISSN 0046-2284, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 10607-10629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union Renewable Energy Directive (EU-RED) established sustainability criteria for biofuels counted under the target of 10% renewable energy for transport. The main approach thus far to certify compliance with the sustainability criteria has been voluntary schemes that are submitted for approval to the European Commission. Scant attention has been paid to the potential role of bilateral agreements in fulfilling the sustainability criteria, which could offer a more strategic approach. This article examines the role and potential applicability and effectiveness of the bilateral option based on Article 18(4) of the EU-RED. Of special interest is the question of how bilateral agreements might provide a more flexible governance mechanism for meeting sustainability criteria in developing countries that export to the EU while also addressing more general land-use policies and cross-sector linkages in natural resource management.

  • 19. Yong, C.
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Sweden: greening the power market in a context of liberalization and nuclear ambivalence2008In: Promoting Sustainable Electricity in Europe / [ed] W. M. Lafferty och A. Ruud, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2008, p. 219-250Chapter in book (Refereed)
1 - 19 of 19
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