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  • 1.
    Araujo, Jose
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Ariba, Yassine
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Park, Pangun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Control over a Hybrid MAC Wireless Network2010In: 2010 IEEE 1ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS, 2010, p. 197-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks and Control Systems are an essential part of the Smart Grid. We consider the problem of performing control over large complex networked systems with packet drops. More specifically, we are interested in improving the performance of the regulation of control loops when the communication is made over low-cost wireless networks. In control over wireless networks it is common to use Contention-Free (CF) schemes where no losses occur with the price of low scalability and complicated scheduling policies. In this work we propose a hybrid MAC and control architecture, where a small number of control loops with high demand of attention are scheduled in a CF scheme and well regulated loops are scheduled in a lossy, asynchronous and highly scalable, Contention-Access (CA) scheme. We model and analyze the performance of such system with Markov Jump Linear System (MJLS) tools and compare it with other architecture types. Performance is evaluated using a quadratic cost function of the state.

  • 2.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    A dynamic energy-efficient protocol for reliable and timely communications for wireless sensor networks in control and automation2009In: 2009 6th IEEE Annual Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks Workshops, 2009, Vol. SECON Workshops 2009, p. 146-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing quality of service (QoS) guaranteed communication protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is essential to exploit the advantages and flexibilities offered by this technology for real-time control and actuation applications. A novel cross-layer protocol that embraces altogether a semirandom routing, MAC, data aggregation, and radio power control for clustered WSNs is presented. The protocol leverages the combination of a randomized and a deterministic approach to ensure robustness over unreliable channels and packet losses. An optimization problem, whose objective function is the network energy consumption, and the constraints are reliability and latency of the packets is modelled and solved to adaptively select the protocol parameters by a simple algorithm. As a relevant contribution, the proposed protocol is completely implemented on a test-bed, and it is compared to existing protocols. Experimental results validate the analysis and show excellent performance in terms of reliability, latency, low node duty cycle, load balancing and dynamic adaptation to the application requirements.

  • 3.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Analytical Modeling of Multi-hop IEEE 802.15.4 Networks2012In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 3191-3208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of existing analytical studies of the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC) protocol are not adequate because they are often based on assumptions such as homogeneous traffic and ideal carrier sensing, which are far from reality for multi-hop networks, particularly in the presence of mobility. In this paper, a new generalized analysis of the unslotted IEEE 802.15.4 MAC is presented. The analysis considers the effects induced by heterogeneous traffic due to multi-hop routing and different traffic generation patterns among the nodes of the network and the hidden terminals due to reduced carrier-sensing capabilities. The complex relation between MAC and routing protocols is modeled, and novel results on this interaction are derived. For various network configurations, conditions under which routing decisions based on packet loss probability or delay lead to an unbalanced distribution of the traffic load across multi-hop paths are studied. It is shown that these routing decisions tend to direct traffic toward nodes with high packet generation rates, with potential catastrophic effects for the node's energy consumption. It is concluded that heterogeneous traffic and limited carrier-sensing range play an essential role on the performance and that routing should account for the presence of dominant nodes to balance the traffic distribution across the network.

  • 4.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    TREnD: A timely, reliable, energy-efficient and dynamic wsn protocol for control applications2010In: IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control applications over wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require timely, reliable, and energy efficient communications. Cross-layer interaction is an essential design paradigm to exploit the complex interaction among the layers of the protocol stack and reach a maximum efficiency. Such a design approach is challenging because reliability and latency of delivered packets and energy are at odds, and resource constrained nodes support only simple algorithms. In this paper, the TREnD protocol is introduced for control applications over WSNs in industrial environments. It is a cross-layer protocol that embraces efficiently routing algorithm, MAC, data aggregation, duty cycling, and radio power control. The protocol parameters are adapted by an optimization problem, whose objective function is the network energy consumption, and the constraints are the reliability and latency of the packets. TREnD uses a simple algorithm that allows the network to meet the reliability and latency required by the control application while minimizing for energy consumption. TREnD is implemented on a test-bed and compared to some existing protocols. Experimental results show good performance in terms of reliability, latency, low duty cycle, and load balancing for both static and time-varying scenarios.

  • 5.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Park, Pangun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Analytical Modelling of IEEE 802.15.4 for Multi-hop Networks with Heterogeneous Traffic and Hidden Terminals2010In: 2010 IEEE GLOBAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE GLOBECOM 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEEE 802.15.4 multi-hop wireless networks are an important communication infrastructure for many applications, including industrial control, home automation, and smart grids. Existing analysis of the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC) protocol are often based on assumptions of homogeneous traffic and ideal carrier sensing, which are far from the reality when predicting performance for multi-hop networks. In this paper, a generalized analysis of the unslotted IEEE 802.15.4 MAC is presented. The model considers heterogeneous traffic and hidden terminals due to limited carrier sensing capabilities, and allows us to investigate jointly IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and routing algorithms. The analysis is validated via Monte Carlo simulations, which show that routing over multi-hop networks is significantly influenced by the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC performance. Routing decisions based on packet loss probability may lead to an unbalanced distribution of the traffic load across paths, thus motivating the need of a joint optimization of routing and MAC.

  • 6.
    Fischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Ergen, S. Coleri
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    Medium Access Control Analytical Modeling and Optimization in Unslotted IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks2009In: 2009 6TH ANNUAL IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SOCIETY CONFERENCE ON SENSOR, MESH AND AD HOC COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS (SECON 2009), NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 440-448Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate analytical expressions of delay and packet reception probabilities, and energy consumption of duty-cycled wireless sensor networks with random medium access control (MAC) are instrumental for the efficient design and optimization of these resource-constrained networks. Given a clustered network topology with unslotted IEEE 802.15.4 and preamble sampling MAC, a novel approach to the modeling of the delay, reliability, and energy consumption is proposed. The challenging part in such a modeling is the random MAC and sleep policy of the receivers, which prevents to establish the exact time of data packet transmission. The analysis gives expressions as function of sleep time, listening time, traffic rate and MAC parameters. The analytical results are then used to optimize the duty cycle of the nodes and MAC protocol parameters. The approach provides a significant reduction of the energy consumption compared to existing solutions in the literature. Monte Carlo simulations by ns2 assess the validity of the analysis.

  • 7.
    Fischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Design principles of wireless sensor networks protocols for control applications2011In: Wireless Networking Based Control / [ed] Sudip K. Mazumder, Springer-Verlag New York, 2011, p. 203-238Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control applications over wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require timely, reliable, and energy efficient communications. This is challenging because reliability and latency of delivered packets and energy are at odds, and resource constrained nodes support only simple algorithms. In this chapter, a new system-level design approach for protocols supporting control applications over WSNs is proposed. The approach suggests a joint optimization, or co-design, of the control specifications, networking layer, the medium access control layer, and physical layer. The protocol parameters are adapted by an optimization problem whose objective function is the network energy consumption, and the constraints are the reliability and latency of the packets as requested by the control application. The design method aims at the definition of simple algorithms that are easily implemented on resource constrained sensor nodes. These algorithms allow the network to meet the reliability and latency required by the control application while minimizing for energy consumption. The design method is illustrated by two protocols: Breath and TREnD, which are implemented on a test-bed and compared to some existing solutions. Experimental results show good performance of the protocols based on this design methodology in terms of reliability, latency, low duty cycle, and load balancing for both static and time-varying scenarios. It is concluded that a system-level design is the essential paradigm to exploit the complex interaction among the layers of the protocol stack and reach a maximum WSN efficiency.

  • 8.
    Fischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pangun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Ergen, S.C.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    Analytical modeling and optimization of duty-cycles in preamble-based IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks2009In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Hernandez, Aitor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Faria, Joao
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Araujo, Jose
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pangun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Inverted Pendulum Control over an IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research efforts are considering the problem of performing control of dynamical systems over wireless sensor and actuator networks. However, existing results lack an experimental evaluation in real platforms. In this demonstration an inverted pendulum system is controlled over an IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor and actuator network. This platform can evaluate several sensor networks and control algorithms and is currently used as an educational tool at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.

  • 10.
    Park, Pan Gun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Araujo, José
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wireless networked control system co-design2011In: 2011 International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control, ICNSC 2011, 2011, p. 486-491Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A framework for the joint design of wireless network and controllers is proposed. Multiple control systems are considered where the sensor measurements are transmitted to the controller over the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. The essential issues of wireless networked control systems (NCSs) are investigated to provide an abstraction of the wireless network for a co-design approach. We first present an analytical model of the packet loss probability and delay of a IEEE 802.15.4 network. Through optimal control techniques we derive the control cost as a function of the packet loss probability and delay. Simulation results show the feasible control performance. It is shown that the optimal traffic load is similar when the communication throughput or control cost are optimized. The co-design approach is based on a constrained optimization problem, for which the objective function is the energy consumption of the network and the constraints are the packet loss probability and delay, which are derived from the desired control cost. The co-design is illustrated through a numerical example.

  • 11.
    Park, Pan Gun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Soldati, Pablo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    A generalized Markov chain model for effective analysis of slotted IEEE 802.15.42009In: 2009 IEEE 6th International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, 2009, Vol. MASS '09, p. 130-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A generalized analysis of the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC) protocol in terms of reliability, delay and energy consumption is presented. The IEEE 802.15.4 exponential backoff process is modeled through a Markov chain taking into account retry limits, acknowledgements, and unsaturated traffic. Simple and effective approximations of the reliability, delay and energy consumption under low traffic regime are proposed. It is demonstrated that the delay distribution of IEEE 802.15.4 depends mainly on MAC parameters and collision probability. In addition, the impact of MAC parameters on the performance metrics is analyzed. The analysis is more general and gives more accurate results than existing methods in the literature. Monte Carlo simulations confirm that the proposed approximations offer a satisfactory accuracy.

  • 12.
    Park, Pan Gun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Bonivento, A.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    Breath: A self-adapting protocol for wireless sensor networks in control and automation2008In: 2008 5th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, 2008, Vol. SECON, p. 323-331Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The novel cross-layer protocol Breath for wireless sensor networks is designed, implemented, and experimentally evaluated. The Breath protocol is based on randomized routing, MAC and duty-cycling, which allow it to minimize the energy consumption of the network while ensuring a desired packet delivery end-to-end reliability and delay. The system model includes a set of source nodes that transmit packets via multi-hop communication to the destination. A constrained optimization problem, for which the objective function is the network energy consumption and the constraints are the packet latency and reliability, is posed and solved. It is shown that the communication layers can be jointly optimized for energy efficiency. The optimal working point of the network is achieved with a simple algorithm, which adapts to traffic variations with negligible overhead. The protocol was implemented on a test-bed with off-the-shelf wireless sensor nodes. It is compared with a standard IEEE 802.15.4 solution. Experimental results show that Breath meets the latency and reliability requirements, and that it exhibits a good distribution of the working load, thus ensuring a long lifetime of the network.

  • 13.
    Park, Pan Gun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Adaptive IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control protocol for control and monitoring applications2011In: Wireless Networking Based Control / [ed] Sudip K. Mazumder, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2011, p. 271-300Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can support energy efficient, reliable, and timely packet transmission by tuning the medium access control (MAC) parameters macMinBE; macMaxCSMABackoffs, and macMaxFrameRetries. Such a tuning is difficult, because simple and accurate models of the influence of these parameters on the probability of successful packet transmission, packet delay, and energy consumption are not available. Moreover, it is not clear how to adapt the parameters to the changes of the network and traffic regimes by algorithms that can run on resource-constrained nodes. In this chapter, a generalizedMarkov chain is proposed to model these relations by simple expressions without giving up the accuracy. In contrast to previous work, the presence of limited number of retransmissions, acknowledgments, unsaturated traffic, and packet size is accounted for. The model is then used to derive an adaptive algorithm forminimizing the power consumptionwhile guaranteeing reliability and delay constraints in the packet transmission. The algorithm does not require any modification of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and can be easily implemented on network nodes. Numerical results show that the analysis is accurate and that the proposed algorithm satisfies reliability and delay constraints, and ensures a longer lifetime of the network under both stationary and transient network conditions.

  • 14.
    Park, Pan Gun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    Berkeley, CA,USA.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Experimental evaluation of power control algorithms for wireless sensor networks2008In: Proceedings of the 17th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control Seoul, Korea, July 6-11, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main contribution of this paper is the implementation and experimental evaluation of thee radio power control algorithms for wireless sensor networks. We illustrate the necessity of lightweight radio power control algorithms for the deployment of wireless sensor networks in realistic situations. Furthermore, based on a simple loss model, we develop an algorithm that optimizes the transmit power while guaranteeing a desired packet error probability. The simple power control strategy is also compared with two other strategies in experiments using Tmote Sky sensor nodes. A component-based software implementation in the Contiki operating system is used.

  • 15.
    Park, Pan Gun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Performance analysis of GTS allocation in Beacon Enabled IEEE 802.15.42009In: 2009 6TH ANNUAL IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SOCIETY CONFERENCE ON SENSOR, MESH AND AD HOC COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS (SECON 2009), NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 431-439Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-critical applications for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are an important class of services supported by the standard IEEE 802.15.4. Control, actuation, and monitoring are all examples of applications where information must be delivered within some deadline. Understanding the delay in the packet delivery is fundamental to assess performance limitation for the standard. In this paper we analyze the guaranteed time slot (GTS) allocation mechanism used in IEEE 802.15.4 networks for time-critical applications. Specifically, we propose a Markov chain to model the stability, delay, and throughput of GTS allocation. We analyze the impact of the protocol parameters on these performance indexes. Monte Carlo simulations show that the theoretical analysis is quite accurate. Thus, our analysis can be used to design efficient GTS allocation for IEEE 802.15.4.

  • 16.
    Park, Pangun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Modeling, Analysis and Design of Wireless Sensor Network Protocols2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have a tremendous potential to improve the efficiencyof many systems, for instance, in building automation and process control.Unfortunately, the current technology does not offer guaranteed energy efficiencyand reliability for closed-loop stability. The main contribution of this thesis is toprovide a modeling, analysis, and design framework for WSN protocols used in controlapplications. The protocols are designed to minimize the energy consumption ofthe network, while meeting reliability and delay requirements from the applicationlayer. The design relies on the analytical modeling of the protocol behavior.First, modeling of the slotted random access scheme of the IEEE 802.15.4medium access control (MAC) is investigated. For this protocol, which is commonlyemployed in WSN applications, a Markov chain model is used to derive theanalytical expressions of reliability, delay, and energy consumption. By using thismodel, an adaptive IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol is proposed. The protocol designis based on a constrained optimization problem where the objective function is theenergy consumption of the network, subject to constraints on reliability and packetdelay. The protocol is implemented and experimentally evaluated on a test-bed. Experimentalresults show that the proposed algorithm satisfies reliability and delayrequirements while ensuring a longer lifetime of the network under both stationaryand transient network conditions.Second, modeling and analysis of a hybrid IEEE 802.15.4 MAC combining theadvantages of a random access with contention with a time division multiple access(TDMA) without contention are presented. A Markov chain is used to model thestochastic behavior of random access and the deterministic behavior of TDMA.The model is validated by both theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulations.Using this new model, the network performance in terms of reliability, averagepacket delay, average queueing delay, and throughput is evaluated. It is shown thatthe probability density function of the number of received packets per superframefollows a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, it is determined under which conditionsthe time slot allocation mechanism of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC is stable.Third, a new protocol for control applications, denoted Breath, is proposedwhere sensor nodes transmit information via multi-hop routing to a sink node. Theprotocol is based on the modeling of randomized routing, MAC, and duty-cycling.Analytical and experimental results show that Breath meets reliability and delayrequirements while exhibiting a nearly uniform distribution of the work load. TheBreath protocol has been implemented and experimentally evaluated on a test-bed.Finally, it is shown how the proposed WSN protocols can be used in controlapplications. A co-design between communication and control application layers isstudied by considering a constrained optimization problem, for which the objectivefunction is the energy consumption of the network and the constraints are thereliability and delay derived from the control cost. It is shown that the optimaltraffic load when either the communication throughput or control cost are optimizedis similar.

  • 17.
    Park, Pangun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Protocol Design for Control Applications using Wireless Sensor Networks2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the potential benefits offered by wireless sensor networks(WSNs), they are becoming an appealing technology for process,manufacturing, and industrial control applications. In thisthesis, we propose a novel approach to WSN protocol design forcontrol applications. The protocols are designed to minimize theenergy consumption of the network, while meeting reliability andpacket delay requirements. The parameters of the protocol areselected by solving a constrained optimization problem, where theobjective is to minimize the energy consumption and theconstraints are the probability of successful packet reception andthe communication delay. The proposed design methodology allowsone to perform a systematic tradeoff between the controlrequirements of the application and the network energyconsumption. An important step in the design process is thedevelopment of analytical expressions of the performanceindicators. We apply the proposed approach to optimize the networkfor various communication protocols.

    In Paper A, we present an adaptive IEEE 802.15.4 for energyefficient, reliable, and low latency packet transmission. Thebackoff mechanisms and retry limits of the standard are adapted tothe estimated channel conditions. Numerical results show that theproposed protocol enhancement is efficient and ensures a longerlifetime of the network under different conditions. Furthermore,we investigate the robustness and sensitivity of the protocol topossible errors during the estimation process.

     

    In Paper B, we investigate the design and optimization ofduty-cycled WSNs with preamble sampling over IEEE 802.15.4. Theanalytical expressions of performance indicators are developed andused to optimize the duty-cycle of the nodes to minimize energyconsumption while ensuring low latency and reliable packettransmissions. The optimization results in a significant reductionof the energy consumption compared to existing solutions.

    The cross-layer protocol called Breath is proposed in Paper C. Theprotocol is suitable for control applications by using theconstrained optimization framework proposed in the thesis. It isbased on randomized routing, CSMA/CA MAC, and duty-cycling. Theprotocol is implemented and experimentally evaluated on a testbed,and it is compared with a standard IEEE 802.15.4 solution. Breathexhibits a good distribution of the work load among the networknodes, and ensures a long network lifetime.

     

     

  • 18.
    Park, Pangun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Delay distribution analysis of wireless personal area networks2012In: IEEE 51st Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), 2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 5864-5869Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterizing the network delay distribution is a fundamental step to properly compensate the delay of Networked Control Systems (NCSs). Due to the random backoff mechanism employed by Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) protocols, it is difficult to derive such a distribution. In this paper, the probability distribution of the delay for successfully received packets in WPANs is characterized. The analysis uses a moment generating function method based on an extended Markov chain model. The model considers the exponential backoff process with retry limits, acknowledgements, unsaturated traffic, and variable packet size, and gives an accurate explicit expression of the probability distribution of the network delay. The probability distribution of the delay is a function of the traffic load, number of nodes, and parameters of the communication protocol. Monte Carlo simulations validate the analysis for different network and protocol parameters. We show that the probability distribution of the delay is significantly different from existing network models used for NCS design. Furthermore, the parameters of the communication protocol result to be critical to stabilize control systems.

  • 19.
    Park, Pangun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Modeling and optimization of the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol for reliable and timely communications2013In: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, ISSN 1045-9219, E-ISSN 1558-2183, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 550-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed processing through ad hoc and sensor networks is having a major impact on scale and applications of computing. The creation of new cyber-physical services based on wireless sensor devices relies heavily on how well communication protocols can be adapted and optimized to meet quality constraints under limited energy resources. The IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks can support energy efficient, reliable, and timely packet transmission by a parallel and distributed tuning of the medium access control parameters. Such a tuning is difficult, because simple and accurate models of the influence of these parameters on the probability of successful packet transmission, packet delay, and energy consumption are not available. Moreover, it is not clear how to adapt the parameters to the changes of the network and traffic regimes by algorithms that can run on resource-constrained devices. In this paper, a Markov chain is proposed to model these relations by simple expressions without giving up the accuracy. In contrast to previous work, the presence of limited number of retransmissions, acknowledgments, unsaturated traffic, packet size, and packet copying delay due to hardware limitations is accounted for. The model is then used to derive a distributed adaptive algorithm for minimizing the power consumption while guaranteeing a given successful packet reception probability and delay constraints in the packet transmission. The algorithm does not require any modification of the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control and can be easily implemented on network devices. The algorithm has been experimentally implemented and evaluated on a testbed with off-the-shelf wireless sensor devices. Experimental results show that the analysis is accurate, that the proposed algorithm satisfies reliability and delay constraints, and that the approach reduces the energy consumption of the network under both stationary and transient conditions. Specif- cally, even if the number of devices and traffic configuration change sharply, the proposed parallel and distributed algorithm allows the system to operate close to its optimal state by estimating the busy channel and channel access probabilities. Furthermore, results indicate that the protocol reacts promptly to errors in the estimation of the number of devices and in the traffic load that can appear due to device mobility. It is also shown that the effect of imperfect channel and carrier sensing on system performance heavily depends on the traffic load and limited range of the protocol parameters.

  • 20.
    Park, Pangun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Bonivento, Alvise
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto L.
    Breath: an Adaptive Protocol for Industrial Control Applications using Wireless Sensor Networks2011In: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, ISSN 1536-1233, E-ISSN 1558-0660, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 821-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An energy-efficient, reliable and timely data transmission is essential for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) employed in scenarios where plant information must be available for control applications. To reach a maximum efficiency, cross-layer interaction is a major design paradigm to exploit the complex interaction among the layers of the protocol stack. This is challenging because latency, reliability, and energy are at odds, and resource-constrained nodes support only simple algorithms. In this paper, the novel protocol Breath is proposed for control applications. Breath is designed for WSNs where nodes attached to plants must transmit information via multihop routing to a sink. Breath ensures a desired packet delivery and delay probabilities while minimizing the energy consumption of the network. The protocol is based on randomized routing, medium access control, and duty-cycling jointly optimized for energy efficiency. The design approach relies on a constrained optimization problem, whereby the objective function is the energy consumption and the constraints are the packet reliability and delay. The challenging part is the modeling of the interactions among the layers by simple expressions of adequate accuracy, which are then used for the optimization by in-network processing. The optimal working point of the protocol is achieved by a simple algorithm, which adapts to traffic variations and channel conditions with negligible overhead. The protocol has been implemented and experimentally evaluated on a testbed with off-the-shelf wireless sensor nodes, and it has been compared with a standard IEEE 802.15.4 solution. Analytical and experimental results show that Breath is tunable and meets reliability and delay requirements. Breath exhibits a good distribution of the working load, thus ensuring a long lifetime of the network. Therefore, Breath is a good candidate for efficient, reliable, and timely data gathering for control applications.

  • 21.
    Park, Pangun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Adaptive IEEE 802.15.4 protocol for energy efficient, reliable and timely communications2010In: Proceedings of the 9th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, New York: ACM , 2010, p. 327-338Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless sensor networks can support energy efficient, reliable, and timely packet transmission by tuning the medium access control parameters macMinBE, macMax-CSMABackoffs, and macMaxFrameRetries. Such a tuning is difficult, because simple and accurate models of the influence of these parameters on the probability of successful packet transmission, packet delay and energy consumption are not available. Moreover, it is not clear how to adapt the parameters to the changes of the network and traffic regimes by algorithms that can run on resource-constrained nodes. In this paper, an effective analytical model is used to derive an adaptive algorithm at the medium access control layer for minimizing the power consumption while guaranteeing reliability and delay constraints in the packet transmission. The algorithm does not require any modifications of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and can be easily implemented on existing network nodes. Numerical results show that the analysis is accurate, that the proposed algorithm satisfies reliability and delay constraints, and ensures a longer lifetime of the network under both stationary and transient network conditions.

  • 22.
    Park, Pangun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Modeling and Stability Analysis of Hybrid Multiple Access in the IEEE 802.15.4 Protocol2013In: ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-4859, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 13-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To offer flexible quality of service to several classes of applications, the medium access control (MAC) protocol of IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks (WSNs) combines the advantages of a random access with contention with a time division multiple access (TDMA) without contention. Understanding reliability, delay, and throughput is essential to characterizing the fundamental limitations of the MAC and optimizing its parameters. Nevertheless, there is not yet a clear investigation of the achievable performance of hybrid MAC. In this article, an analytical framework for modeling the behavior of the hybrid MAC protocol of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard is proposed. The main challenge for an accurate analysis is the coexistence of the stochastic behavior of the random access and the deterministic behavior of the TDMA scheme. The analysis is done in three steps. First, the contention access scheme of the IEEE 802.15.4 exponential back-off process is modeled through an extended Markov chain that takes into account channel, retry limits, acknowledgements, unsaturated traffic, and superframe period. Second, the behavior of the TDMA access scheme is modeled by another Markov chain. Finally, the two chains are coupled to obtain a complete model of the hybrid MAC. By using this model, the network performance in terms of reliability, average packet delay, average queuing delay, and throughput is evaluated through both theoretical analysis and experiments. The protocol has been implemented and evaluated on a testbed with off-the-shelf wireless sensor devices to demonstrate the utility of the analysis in a practical setup. It is established that the probability density function of the number of received packets per superframe follows a Poisson distribution. It is determined under which conditions the guaranteed time slot allocation mechanism of IEEE 802.15.4 is stable. It is shown that the mutual effect between throughput of the random access and the TDMA scheme for a fixed superframe length is critical to maximizing the overall throughput of the hybrid MAC. In high traffic load, the throughput of the random access mechanism dominates over TDMA due to the constrained use of TDMA in the standard. Furthermore, it is shown that the effect of imperfect channels and carrier sensing on system performance heavily depends on the traffic load and limited range of the protocol parameters. Finally, it is argued that the traffic generation model established in this article may be used to design an activation timer mechanism in a modified version of the CSMA/CA algorithm that guarantees a stable network performance.

  • 23. Witrant, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Briat, Corentin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Limitations and performances of robust control over WSN: UFAD control in intelligent buildings2010In: IMA Journal of Mathematical Control and Information, ISSN 0265-0754, E-ISSN 1471-6887, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 527-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to propose a model-based feedback control strategy for indoor temperature regulation in buildings equipped with underfloor air distribution. Supposing distributed sensing and actuation capabilities, a zero-dimensional model of the ventilation process is derived, based on the thermodynamics properties of the flow. A state-space description of the process is then inferred, including discrete events and non-linear components. The use of a wireless sensor network and the resulting communication constraints with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are discussed. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are considered. Based on the linear part of the model, different H-infinity robust multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) controllers are designed, first with a standard mixed-sensitivity approach and then by taking into account the network-induced delay explicitly. The impact of the communication constraints and the relative performances of the controllers are discussed based on simulation results.

  • 24.
    Witrant, Emmanuel
    et al.
    University of Grenoble.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Time-delay estimation and finite-spectrum assignment for control over multi-hop WSN2010In: Wireless Network Based Control / [ed] Mazumder, S., Springer Verlag , 2010, p. 135-152Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Witrant, Emmanuel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Predictive control over wireless multi-hop networks2007In: Proceedings Of The 2007 Ieee Conference On Control Applications, IEEE , 2007, p. 1037-1042Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote control over wireless multi-hop networks is considered. Time-varying delays for the transmission of sensor and control data over the wireless network are caused by a randomized multi-hop routing protocol. The characterstics of the routing protocol together with lower-layer network mechanisms give rise to a delay process with high variance and stepwise changing mean. A new predictive control scheme with a delay estimator is proposed in the paper. The estimator is based on a Kalman filter with a change detection algorithm. It is able to track the delay mean changes but efficiently attenuate the high frequency jitter The control scheme is analyzed and its implementation detailed. Network data from an experimental setup are used to illustrate the efficiency of the approach.

  • 26.
    Zurita Ares, Benigno
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Speranzon, Alberto
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    On power control for wireless sensor networks: System model, middleware component and experimental evaluation2015In: 2007 European Control Conference, ECC 2007, 2015, p. 4293-4300Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate strategies for radio power control for wireless sensor networks that guarantee a desired packet error probability. Efcient power control algorithms are of major concern for these networks, not only because the power consumption can be signicantly decreased but also because the interference can be reduced, allowing for higher throughput. An analytical model of the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), which is link quality metric, is proposed. The model relates the RSSI to the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR), and thus provides a connection between the powers and the packet error probability. Two power control mechanisms are studied: a Multiplicative-Increase Additive-Decrease (MIAD) power control described by a Markov chain, and a power control based on the average packet error rate. A component-based software implementation using the Contiki operating system is provided for both the power control mechanisms. Experimental results are reported for a test-bed with Telos motes.

1 - 26 of 26
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