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  • 1. Asper, M
    et al.
    Hanrieder, T
    Charles River Biopharmaceutical Services GmbH, Gottfried-Hagen Str. 20, 51105, Köln, Germany.
    Quellmalz, Arne
    Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, Uppsala University, 75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mihranyan, Albert
    Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, Uppsala University, 75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Removal of xenotropic murine leukemia virus by nanocellulose based filter paper2015Ingår i: Biologicals, Vol. 43, nr 6, s. 452-456Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The removal of xenotrpic murine leukemia virus (xMuLV) by size-exclusion filter paper composed of 100% naturally derived cellulose was validated. The filter paper was produced using cellulose nanofibers derived from Cladophora sp. algae. The filter paper was characterized using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, helium pycnometry, and model tracer (100 nm latex beads and 50 nm gold nanoparticles) retention tests. Following the filtration of xMuLV spiked solutions, LRV ≥5.25 log10 TCID50 was observed, as limited by the virus titre in the feed solution and sensitivity of the tissue infectivity test. The results of the validation study suggest that the nanocellulose filter paper is useful for removal of endogenous rodent retroviruses and retrovirus-like particles during the production of recombinant proteins.

  • 2.
    Quellmalz, Arne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Mihranyan, Albert
    Citric acid cross-linked nanocellulose-based paper for size-exclusion nanofiltration2015Ingår i: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, ISSN 2373-9878, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 271-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the effect of cross-linking of nanocellulose with citric acid for the development of novel paper filters for potential application within nanofiltration, including sterile (virus) filtration. Cladophora cellulose paper sheets were cross-linked by first soaking in 16 wt % citric acid in the presence of 1 wt % sodium hypophosphate overnight and then curing at 160 degrees C for 10 min in a hot-press. The cross-linked paper filter samples were then characterized with FTIR, AFM, N-2 gas adsorption, and tensile strength analysis (dry and wet strength). The particle retention properties were further studied with respect to filtering of 20 nm Au nanoparticles with SEM and comparing the UV absorbance intensity of the starting solution and the filtrate. The wet strength of the paper filter was greatly improved following the cross-linking, although in the dry state, the paper becomes brittle. The improved wet strength of the paper filter enables increasing the pressure gradient applied for filtration without compromising the integrity of the filter. This is the first report in which a fully nature-derived paper filter is capable of removing tracer particles as small as 20 nm. It is concluded that citric acid cross-linking of nanocellulose is beneficial for developing paper based sterile (virus) removal industrial filters.

  • 3.
    Quellmalz, Arne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Mihranyan, Albert
    Asper, Marcel
    Hanrieder, Tobias
    Virus removal paper filter made of 100% naturally derived nanofibers2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM AND METHODOLOGY: The aim of this study was to validate the virus removal properties of nanocellulose based filter paper. The filter paper was characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), nitrogen gas adsorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Polystyrene latex beads (100nm), gold nanoparticles (50 nm), and murine leukemia virus (MuLV) spiked solutions were used as models.

    AFM IMAGE: The filter paper consists of 20-­‐30 nm cellulose nanofibers bundles which form an open 3D porous structure.

    GAS ADSORPTION: Most of the pores are 20 nm in size, and no pores larger than 40 nm could be detected.

    VISUAL OBSERVATION: A precipitate was clearly seen following the filtration of gold nanoparticles, and the originally red solution of gold nanoparticles turned completely colorless.

    SEM: Polystyrne latex beads (100 nm)and gold nanoparticles (50 nm) were efficiently retained on the nanocellulose based filter paper.

    MuLV RETENTION TEST: LRV ≥ 5 was observed after filtration as limited by the virus titre in the feed solution and the lower detection limit of TCID50 method.

    CONCLUSION: Nanocellulose based filter paper is highly promising for developing a new line of virus removal filters for biotechnological applications, comparable to the state of the art membrane materials.

  • 4.
    Quellmalz, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Smith, Anderson David
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Elgammal, Karim
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik.
    Fan, Xuge
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Delin, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektronik, Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Lemme, Max C.
    Chair of Electronic Devices, RWTH Aachen University.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Influence of Humidity on Contact Resistance in Graphene Devices2018Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, nr 48, s. 41738-41746Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrical contact resistance at metal–graphene interfaces can significantly degrade the properties of graphene devices and is currently hindering the full exploitation of graphene’s potential. Therefore, the influence of environmental factors, such as humidity, on the metal–graphene contact resistance is of interest for all graphene devices that operate without hermetic packaging. We experimentally studied the influence of humidity on bottom-contacted chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) graphene–gold contacts, by extracting the contact resistance from transmission line model (TLM) test structures. Our results indicate that the contact resistance is not significantly affected by changes in relative humidity (RH). This behavior is in contrast to the measured humidity sensitivity  of graphene’s sheet resistance. In addition, we employ density functional theory (DFT) simulations to support our experimental observations. Our DFT simulation results demonstrate that the electronic structure of the graphene sheet on top of silica is much more sensitive to adsorbed water molecules than the charge density at the interface between gold and graphene. Thus, we predict no degradation of device performance by alterations in contact resistance when such contacts are exposed to humidity. This knowledge underlines that bottom-contacting of graphene is a viable approach for a variety of graphene devices and the back end of the line integration on top of conventional integrated circuits.

  • 5.
    Quellmalz, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Wang, Xiaojing
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Wagner, Stefan
    Lemme, Max
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Wafer-Scale Transfer of Graphene by Adhesive Wafer Bonding2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene is an extremely promising material for emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and sensors, but the transfer from its growth substrate to silicon substrates remains manual and laborious. We report a novel method for the transfer of large-area chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene from copper foil to a target wafer by adhesive wafer bonding using bisbenzocyclobutene (BCB) as an intermediate adhesive layer. The use of conventional wafer bonding equipment enables the scalable transfer of graphene and the realization of both supported and suspended graphene devices on wafer-scale. Our method circumvents manual handling of graphene after release from its growth substrate and avoids polymeric carrier layers, a well-known source of contamination. Hence, the proposed process promises the transfer of graphene with high quality and repeatability.

  • 6.
    Quellmalz, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Wang, Xiaojing
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Wagner, Stefan
    AMO GmbH, Advanced Microelectronic Center Aachen (AMICA).
    Sawallich, Simon
    Protemics GmbH; Chair of Electronic Devices, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University.
    Prechtl, Maximilian
    Institute of physics, EIT 2, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Universität der Bundeswehr München.
    Hartwig, Oliver
    Institute of physics, EIT 2, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Universität der Bundeswehr München.
    Luo, Siwei
    Institute of physics, EIT 2, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Universität der Bundeswehr München.
    S. Duesberg, Georg
    Institute of physics, EIT 2, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Universität der Bundeswehr München.
    Lemme, Max
    AMO GmbH, Advanced Microelectronic Center Aachen (AMICA); Chair of Electronic Devices, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Large-Area Integration of Two-Dimensional Materials and Their Heterostructures Using Wafer Bonding2019Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7. Smith, A. D.
    et al.
    Li, Qi
    Vyas, Agin
    Haque, Mohammad Mazharul
    Wang, Kejian
    Velasco, Andres
    Zhang, Xiaoyan
    Thurakkal, Shameel
    Quellmalz, Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Lundgren, Per
    Enoksson, Peter
    Carbon-Based Electrode Materials for Microsupercapacitors in Self-Powering Sensor Networks: Present and Future Development2019Ingår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, nr 19, artikel-id 4231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an urgent need to fulfill future energy demands for micro and nanoelectronics. This work outlines a number of important design features for carbon-based microsupercapacitors, which enhance both their performance and integration potential and are critical for complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility. Based on these design features, we present CMOS-compatible, graphene-based microsupercapacitors that can be integrated at the back end of the line of the integrated circuit fabrication. Electrode materials and their interfaces play a crucial role for the device characteristics. As such, different carbon-based materials are discussed and the importance of careful design of current collector/electrode interfaces is emphasized. Electrode adhesion is an important factor to improve device performance and uniformity. Additionally, doping of the electrodes can greatly improve the energy density of the devices. As microsupercapacitors are engineered for targeted applications, device scaling is critically important, and we present the first steps toward general scaling trends. Last, we outline a potential future integration scheme for a complete microsystem on a chip, containing sensors, logic, power generation, power management, and power storage. Such a system would be self-powering.

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