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  • 1.
    Johansson, Staffan B.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Eklund, Anders
    Malm, Jan
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A MEMS-based passive hydrocephalus shunt for body position controlled intracranial pressure regulation2014In: Biomedical microdevices (Print), ISSN 1387-2176, E-ISSN 1572-8781, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 529-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a novel micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) valve with posture controlled flow characteristics for improved treatment of hydrocephalus, a disease that is characterized by elevated pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. In contrast to conventional differential pressure CSF valves, the CSF valve presented here features a third port which utilizes hydrostatic pressure from a pressure compensating catheter to adapt CSF drainage to optimized levels irrespective of body position. Prototypes have been fabricated using standard MEMS manufacturing processes and the experimental evaluation successfully showed that the flow rate was adjustable with a varying hydrostatic pressure on the third port. Measured data showed that flow rate was at near ideal values at laying body position and that the flow rate can be adjusted to optimal values at standing body position by selecting an appropriate length of the pressure compensating catheter. This is the first pressure balanced CSF valve intended for body position controlled CSF pressure regulation.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Staffan B.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A compact passive air flow regulator for portable breath diagnostics2013In: Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2013 IEEE 26th International Conference on, New York: IEEE , 2013, p. 157-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on a compact flow regulator designed to maintain a steady flow during breath diagnostics. The fabricated device consists of six in-plane moving pistons that restrict the flow through six flow orifices, controlling comparatively large air flows up to 50 ml/s at a pressure range of 1-2 kPa on a chip of only 2x2x4 mm3. The device is fabricated from three wafers, including an SOI wafer, using standard silicon micromachining and only three masks. The in-plane design also allows for scaling of the flow and pressure range by changing the thickness of the handle wafer and device layer. Experimental evaluation of the prototype shows that flow rate is regulated close to the dictated requirements for FENO asthma monitoring.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Staffan B.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A novel constant flow regulation principle for compact breath diagnostics2014In: 2014 IEEE 27th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), IEEE , 2014, p. 935-938Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on a passive compact flow regulator designed to maintain a steady flow during breath diagnostics using a flow regulation principle where a cantilever is directed towards the direction of the flow. A theoretical model has been developed describing the flow behavior and a prototype has been fabricated for proof of concept. The prototype uses a single integrated 300 μm thick 3D-printed plastic cantilever to control comparatively large air flows in the 50 ml/s regime suitable for asthma diagnostics.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A MEMS-based passive hydrocephalus shunt with adaptive flow characteristics2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a novel MEMS valve with adaptive flow characteristics for improved treatment of hydrocephalus, a disease that is characterized by elevated pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. In contrast to conventional valves with two ports, the valve presented here features a third port, called compensation port, which utilizes hydrostatic pressure to adapt CSF drainage based on body position. A prototype has been fabricated using standard MEMS manufacturing processes and the experimental evaluation successfully showed that the flow rate was adjustable with a varying hydrostatic pressure on the compensation port. Extracted data shows that flow rate was at near ideal values at both standing and laying body position showing an effective adaptation to body position. This is the first passive hydrocephalus valve intended for body position dependent CSF pressure regulation.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A MEMS-based passive air flow regulator for handheld breath diagnostics2014In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 215, p. 65-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a passive MEMS-based flow regulator designed to maintain a steady flow during asthma diagnostics. A prototype consisting of six in-plane moving pistons that restrict the flow through six flow orifices has been fabricated from three wafers using standard silicon micromachining. The in-plane design enables relatively large flows and tuning of the flow and pressure range to specific application requirements by changing a wafer thickness. In particular, for FENO asthma monitoring, regulatory guidelines specifies that measurements should be made at steady flow of approximately 50 ml/s and within a pressure range of 1–2 kPa. Experimental evaluation of the prototype shows that the flow rate is controlled within a dynamic pressure range of 770 Pa compared to only 430 Pa for a dummy structure and that it can be achieved on a chip measuring only 2 mm × 2 mm × 4 mm. The evaluation also showed that condensation of exhaled air that expectedly occurs in the flow regulator at room temperature can be eliminated by local heating of the device to 40◦C.

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