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  • 1.
    Feng, Yi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Lopez Cabezas, Ana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Flexible UHF Resistive Humidity Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes2012In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 2844-2850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the investigation of the resistive humidity-sensing properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs functionalized by acid treatment (f-MWCNTs) exhibit rather high sensitivity in resistance toward humidity, owing to the presence of carboxylic groups on the nanotube surface. By integrating the f-MWCNTs resistor into a wireless sensor platform, flexible humidity sensors for ultra-high frequency applications are investigated. The operating frequency range of the sensor is dramatically increased from 600 MHz to 2 GHz by adjusting the resistor-electrodes' configuration. This enhancement is predominately attributed to the variation in parasitic capacitance between the resistor-electrodes.

  • 2. Jarmar, T.
    et al.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Seger, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Ericson, F.
    Smith, U.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Germanium-induced texture and preferential orientation of NiSi1-xGex layers on Si1-xGex2004In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 70, no 23, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NiSi1-xGex films on compressively strained as well as relaxed undoped Si1-xGex epitaxially grown substrates with x=0.06-0.30 on Si(001) wafers have been studied with respect to the relative orientation of film and substrate after annealing at temperatures in the range 400-850 degreesC. Using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and pole-figure measurements, it was found that only the monogermanosilicide phase formed above 450 degreesC and was the only phase still at 850 degreesC. New information regarding the effects of Ge on the silicidation of Ni was also found. Thus, the preferred plane parallel to the surface is (013). Compared to NiSi, Ge suppresses the development of the other planes parallel to the surface except (013). Within this plane, the orientations of the grains pile up in such a way that the configuration NiSi1-xGex[100]//Si1-xGex[100] is avoided, which in the pole-figures leads to broad peaks in-between the substrate [100] and [010]. In addition, peaks indicating the epitaxial alignment NiSi0.8Ge0.2(+/-21-1) or (+/-2-11)//Si0.8Ge0.2(+/-2+/-20) coupled with NiSi0.8Ge0.2(+/-100)approximate to//Si0.8Ge0.2(+/-100) or (0+/-10) were found. Fine structure in the broad peaks is found to be due to lateral epitaxial alignments between grains along their common grain boundary. Based on the nonexistence of NiGe2, the observations are interpreted in terms of Ge preventing the formation of certain Ni-Ge bonds at the interface between NiSi1-xGex and the Si1-xGex substrate.

  • 3. Lanner, Johanna T.
    et al.
    Bruton, Joseph D.
    Assefaw-Redda, Yohannes
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Andronache, Zoita
    Severa, Denise
    Zhang, Zhibin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Melzer, Werner
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Katz, Abram
    Westerblad, Hakan
    Knockdown of TRPC3 with siRNA coupled to carbon nanotubes results in decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adult skeletal muscle cells2009In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1728-1738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The involvement of Ca2+ in the insulin-mediated signaling cascade, resulting in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, is uncertain. Here, we test the hypothesis that Ca2+ influx through canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channels modulates insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adult skeletal muscle. Experiments were performed on adult skeletal muscle cells of wild-type (WT) and obese, insulin-resistant ob/ob mice. Application of the diacylglycerol analog 1-oleyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) induced a nonselective cation current, which was inhibited by the addition of anti-TRPC3 antibody in the patch pipette and smaller in ob/ob than in WT cells. Knockdown of TRPC3, using a novel technique based on small interfering RNA (siRNA) coupled to functionalized carbon nanotubes, resulted in pronounced (similar to 70%) decreases in OAG-induced Ca2+ influx and insulin-mediated glucose uptake. TRPC3 and the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) coimmunoprecipitated, and immunofluorescence staining showed that they were colocalized in the proximity of the transverse tubular system, which is the predominant site of insulin-mediated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our results indicate that TRPC3 interacts functionally and physically with GLUT4, and Ca2+ influx through TRPC3 modulates insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Thus, TRPC3 is a potential target for treatment of insulin-resistant conditions.-Lanner, J. T., Bruton, J. D., Assefaw-Redda, Y., Andronache, Z., Zhang, S.- J., Severa, D., Zhang, Z.- B., Melzer, W., Zhang, S.-L., Katz, A., Westerblad, H. Knockdown of TRPC3 with siRNA coupled to carbon nanotubes results in decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adult skeletal muscle cells. FASEB J. 23, 1728-1738 (2009)

  • 4.
    Li, Jiantong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Unander, Tomas
    López Cabezas, Ana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Shao, Botao
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Liu, Zhiying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Forsberg, Esteban Bernales
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Jögi, Indrek
    Gao, Xindong
    Boman, Mats
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ink-jet printed thin-film transistors with carbon nanotube channels shaped in long strips2011In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 109, no 8, article id 084915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work reports on the development of a class of sophisticated thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on ink-jet printing of pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for the channel formation. The transistors are manufactured on oxidized silicon wafer and flexible plastic substrates at ambient conditions. For this purpose, ink-jet printing techniques are developed aiming at high-throughput production of SWCNT thin-film channels shaped in long strips. Stable SWCNT inks with proper fluidic characteristics are formulated by polymer addition. The present work unveils, through Monte Carlo simulation and in the light of heterogeneous percolation, the underlying physics of the superiority of long-strip channels for SWCNT TFTs. It further predicts the compatibility of such a channel structure with ink-jet printing taking into account the minimum dimensions achievable by commercially available printers. The printed devices exhibit improved electrical performance and scalability, compared to previously reported ink-jet printed SWCNT TFTs. The present work demonstrates that ink-jet printed SWCNT TFTs of long-strip channels are promising building blocks for flexible electronics.

  • 5.
    Li, Jiantong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Qiu, Zhijun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Contact-electrode insensitive rectifiers based on carbon nanotube network transistors2008In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 500-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This letter presents rectifiers based on the diode connection of carbon nanotube network (CNN) transistors. Despite a low density of carbon nanotubes in the CNNs, the devices can achieve excellent performance with a forward/reverse current ratio reaching 10(5). By casting nanotube suspension on oxidized Si substrates with predefined electrodes, CNN-based field-effect transistors are readily prepared. By short-circuiting the source and gate terminals, CNN-based rectifiers are realized with the rectification characteristics independent of whether Pd or Al is employed as the contact electrodes. This independence is especially attractive for applications of CNN-based transistors/rectifiers in flexible electronics with various printing techniques.

  • 6.
    Li, Jiantong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Percolation in random networks of heterogeneous nanotubes2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 253127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrical performance of random carbon nanotube network transistors is found by Monte Carlo simulation to strongly depend on the nature of the conduction path percolating the network. When the network is percolated only by semiconducting nanotube pathways (OSPs), the transistors can directly achieve both high on current and large on/off current ratio. Based on percolation theory, the present work predicts that there exist specific nanotube coverage domains within which OSP has the highest probability and becomes predominant. Simulation results show that the coverage domains depend on the network dimension, nanotube length, and the fraction of metallic nanotubes.

  • 7.
    Li, Jiantong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Distinguishing self-gated rectification action from ordinary diode rectification in back-gated carbon nanotube devices2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 92, no 133111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-gating leading to rectification action is frequently observed in two-terminal devices built from individual or networked single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on oxidized Si substrates. The current-voltage (I-V) curves of these SWCNT devices remain unaltered when switching the measurement probes. For ordinary diodes, the I-V curves are symmetric about the origin of the coordinates when exchanging the probes. Numerical simulations suggest that the self-gated rectification action should result from the floating semiconducting substrate which acts as a back gate. Self-gating effect is clearly not unique for SWCNT devices. As expected, it is absent for devices fabricated on insulating substrates.

  • 8.
    Li, Jiantong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Improved electrical performance of carbon nanotube thin film transistors by utilizing composite networks2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 92, no 133103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a simple scheme of using composite carbon nanotube networks (c-CNNs) to significantly improve the electrical performance of long-channel thin film transistors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Such c-CNNs comprise two sets of SWCNTs. A primary set consists of dense arrays of perfectly aligned long SWCNTs along the transistor channel direction. A secondary set is composed of short SWCNTs either randomly orientated or perpendicularly aligned with respect to the channel. While retaining a high on/off current ratio, the drive current in such c-CNNs is much higher than that in currently studied systems with single CNNs or SWCNT arrays.

  • 9. Liu, Zhiying
    et al.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Qiu, Zhijun
    Zhang, Zhibin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    On gate capacitance of nanotube networks2011In: IEEE Electron Device Letter, ISSN 0741-3106, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 641-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This letter presents a systematic investigation of the gate capacitance CGof thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on randomly distributed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the channel. In order to reduce false counting of SWCNTs that do not contribute to current conduction, CG is directly measured on the TFTs using a well-established method for MOSFETs. Frequency dispersion of CG is observed, and it is found to depend on the percolation behavior in SWCNT networks. This dependence can be accounted for using an RC transmission line model. These results are of important implications for the determination of carrier mobility in nanoparticle-based TFTs.

  • 10.
    Lopez Cabezas, Ana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Thermal ageing of electrical conductivity in carbon nanotube/polyaniline composite films2013In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 59, p. 270-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of carbon nanotubes on the thermal ageing effect of the electrical conductivity of composite thin films is presented. The composite thin films comprise carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanofibers. When subject to thermal treatment, the presence of nanotubes retards the loss of dopants from the polyaniline and enhances the thermal stability in electrical conductivity of the composite thin films. Specifically, an increase in temperature for the conductivity degradation and a significant reduction in the rate of the conductivity degradation of the composite thin films are observed. Upon prolonged heating, the composite thin films exhibit relative large conductivity at high nanotube content, while the polyaniline thin films become insulating.

  • 11.
    Lopez Cabezas, Ana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Influence of Carbon Nanotubes on Thermal Stability of Water-Dispersible Nanofibrillar Polyaniline/Nanotube Composite2012In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 327--335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant influence on the thermal stability of polyaniline (PANI) in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is reported. By means of in-situ rapid mixing approach, water-dispersible nanofibrillar PANI and composites, consisting of MWCNTs uniformly coated with PANI in the state of emeraldine salt, with a well-defined core-shell heterogeneous structure, were prepared. The de-protonation process in PANI occurs at a lower temperature under the presence of MWCNTs on the polyaniline composite upon thermal treatment. However, it is found that the presence of MWCNTs significantly enhances the thermal stability of PANI's backbone upon exposure to laser irradiation, which can be ascribed to the core-shell heterogeneous structure of the composite of MWCNTs and PANI, and the high thermal conductivity of MWCNTs.

  • 12.
    Lopez Cabezas, Ana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Morphological development of nanofibrillar composites of polyaniline and carbon nanotubes2010In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 160, no 7-8, p. 664-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanofibrillar composite of polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is readily synthesized by means of conventional in situ polymerization process. It is found that the MWNT loading during polymerization has a significant influence on both the micro- and macro-scale morphological properties of the composites. At low MWNT loadings, PANI/MWNTs are formed as individual nanofibers, similar to that of the neat PANI in the absence of MWNTs. With the increase in MWNT loading, the composite exhibits granular form and becomes a continuous porous matrix at higher MWNT loadings. A possible mechanism is proposed to account for the structural variation of the composites caused by MWNTs at the different loadings.

  • 13. Qu, Minni
    et al.
    Qiu, Zhi-Jun
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Li, Hui
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Charge-Injection-Induced Time Decay in Carbon Nanotube Network-Based FETs2010In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 1098-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A voltage-pulse method is utilized to investigate the charge-injection-induced time decay of the source-drain current of field-effect transistors with randomly networked single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the conduction channel. The relaxation of trapped carriers in the CNT networks can be accounted for by assuming two exponential decays occurring simultaneously. The slow decay is characterized by a time constant comparable to literature data obtained for a carrier recombination in the semiconducting CNTs. The faster decay with a time constant that has a smaller order of magnitude is attributed to the annihilation of trapped carriers in metallic CNTs or at metal-CNT contacts. Both time constants are gate-bias dependent.

  • 14.
    Seger, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Jarmar, T.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Ericson, Fredric
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Smith, Ulf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Morphological instability of NiSi1-uGeu on single-crystal and polycrystalline Si1-xGex2004In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 1919-1928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The morphological stability of NiSi1-uGeu ternary alloy films formed by reacting Ni with single-crystal (sc) and polycrystalline (poly) Si1-xGeu is studied (u can be different from x). The agglomeration of NiSi1-uGeu films on Si0.7Ge0.3 occurs at 550degreesC after rapid thermal processing for 30 s, independently of the crystallinity of the Si1-xGeu. This behavior distinctly different from NiSi: NiSi films on poly-Si display a poorer morphological stability and degrade at lower temperatures than NiSi on sc-Si. On strained Si1-xGex, the presence of Ge simultaneously gives rise to two effects of different origin: mechanical and thermodynamic. The main driving forces behind the agglomeration of NiSi1-uGeu on sc-Si1-xGex are found to be the stored strain energy in the Si1-xGex and the larger (absolute) free energy of formation of NiSi compared to NiGe. The latter constitutes the principal driving force behind the agglomeration of NiSi1-uGeu on poly-Si1-xGex and is not affected by the degree of crystallinity of Si1-xGex. The total free-energy change also includes terms corresponding to the entropy of mixing of Si and Ge in both Si1-xGex and NiSi1-uGeu. Calculations show that the strain energy and the total free-energy change can be 5-7 times (with 30 at.% Ge) the surface/interface and grain-boundary energies in a NiSi film or the grain-boundary energy in an underlying poly-Si. These latter energies are responsible for the agglomeration of NiSi on sc- and poly-Si. The agglomeration takes place primarily via the interdiffusion of Si and Ge between Si1-xGex and NiSi1-uGeu. A structure likely to improve the stability of NiSi1-uGeu/Si1-xGex is discussed.

  • 15.
    Seger, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Jarmar, Tobias
    Ericson, Fredric
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Smith, Ulf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hållstedt, Julius
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Influence of a Si layer intercalated between Si0.75Ge0.25 and Ni on the behavior of the resulting NiSi1-uGeu film2004In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 96, no 12, p. 7179-7182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction of Ni films with epitaxially grown Si-capped and not capped Si0.75Ge0.25 layers on Si(100) at 500degreesC leads to the formation of NiSi1-uGeu films as a bilayer NiSi on NiSi0.75Ge0.25 with a rather clear compositional boundary. In the absence of a Si cap at the surface, NiSi0.75Ge0.25 is formed on NiSi. Epitaxy of NiSi on NiSi0.75Ge0.25, and vice versa, occurs across the compositional boundary. The crystallographic orientation of the NiSi1-uGeu films is strongly affected by the initial layer thicknesses and the layer sequence. Without a Si cap, the NiSi1-uGeu films show an increased fiber texture with increasing Si0.75Ge0.25 thickness. In the presence of a Si cap, on the other hand, the texture collapses into a random orientation already for thin caps. Rapid diffusion of Ge at 500degreesC results in the presence of some Ge at the NiSi/Si interface for a NiSi0.75Ge0.25/NiSi/Si structure. This diffusion is accompanied by an increased roughness at the NiSi/Si interface, as compared to the quite flat NiSi/Si interface in the absence of Ge. For thin Si caps, severe interface roughening with thick NiSi0.75Ge0.25 grains protruding deeply into the remaining Si0.75Ge0.25 is observed.

  • 16.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Cardenas, J.
    Campbell, E. E. B.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Reversible surface functionalization of carbon nanotubes for fabrication of field-effect transistors2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 87, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence of the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) residuals on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is shown using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption of SDS on semiconducting SWNTs (s-SWNTs) is believed to result in deposition and alignment of s-SWNTs between predefined electrode pairs using ac dielectrophoresis. However, the presence of SDS on SWNTs degrades electrical properties of the fabricated devices. Attempts at surface cleaning, aimed at removal of the SDS residuals and formation of an improved contact between the SWNTs and the metal, are described.

  • 17.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Cabezas, Ana Lopez
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Characterization of acid-treated carbon nanotube thin films by means of Raman spectroscopy and field-effect response2009In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 476, no 4-6, p. 258-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining Raman spectroscopy with transistor transfer characteristics, acid treatment of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a mixture of concentrated HNO3/H2SO4 has been characterized. The acid treatment results in a sharp decrease in the Raman resonant signals of the metallic SWCNTs but no observable change in those of the semiconducting SWCNTs. However, the acid treatment causes disappearing gate modulation of the thin-film transistors made of the SWCNTs, contrary to what would be expected referring to the Raman results. These experimental results suggest that the energy band of the semiconducting SWCNTs is significantly affected by absorbates induced by the acid treatment.

  • 18.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Qu, Minni
    Cabezas, Ana Lopez
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Photo-Activated Interaction Between P3HT and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Studied by Means of Field-Effect Response2009In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 1302-1304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown in this letter that the field-effect electrical response of transistors with their channel made of networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) embedded in a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) matrix can be significantly altered by light illumination. The experimental results indicate a photo-activated electron transfer from P3HT selectively to the semiconducting SWNTs. This finding points to a potential optoelectronic application of such a field-effect device as a photo-triggered electronic switch.

  • 19.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Liu, X. J.
    Campbell, E. E. B.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Alternating current dielectrophoresis of carbon nanotubes2005In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 98, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the deposition of individual semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) , suspended in an aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), onto predefined electrodes using alternating current dielectrophoresis up to 100 MHz. The successful deposition is attributed to the formation of an ionic double layer encapsulating the nanotubes by surface adsorption of the SDS molecules. The nanotube-micella complex formed has a greater polarization than that of the s-SWNTs, which is theoretically shown to be frequency dependent up to 10 GHz. Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors showing large on/off-state current ratios of 108 were demonstrated.

  • 20.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Photon-induced selective interaction between small-diameter metallic carbon nanotubes and triton X-1002007In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 129, no 3, p. 666-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a highly selective chemical interaction between single-walled carbon nanotubes and Triton X-100 according to nanotubes' electronic structure and diameter. The interaction is induced by laser irradiation at power densities down to 10(-2) mu W/mu m(2) but with photon energies matching those for electronic transition in nanotubes. Our experimental results point to a photon-induced chemical interaction of Triton X-100 with metallic nanotubes below 1.1 nm in diameter and indicate the selectivity being dictated by Fermi electrons and enhanced by curvature-induced strain.

  • 21.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Campbell, E. E. B.
    All-around contact for carbon nanotube field-effect transistors made by ac dielectrophoresis2006In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 131-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) are fabricated by depositing one bundle of sinole-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) per device between a pair of predefined Pd electrodes using ac dielectrophoresis. By repeating the process for the formation of the Pd electrodes after the bundle deposition, all-around Pd contacts are made to the SWNT bundles. After the formation of all-around contact, the CNFETs with only semiconducting SWNTs in the bundles retain a strong a 106,ate modulation with a high ratio of on to off current I-on/I-off For the CNFETs with at least one metallic SWNT in the bundles, their gate modulation disappears and carbon nanotube resistors (CNRs) are obtained. The on current I-on of CNFETs is found to be sensitive to the process for the formation of all-around contact. In contrast, the two-probe resistance of CNRs is consistently reduced after the all-around contacts. The electrical measurements also indicate the presence of an interlayer residing at the SWNT/Pd contacts.

  • 22. Zhang, Zhibin
    et al.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Zhu, D. H.
    Xu, H. J.
    Chen, Y.
    Formation of C54TiSi(2) on Si(100) using Ti/Mo and Mo/Ti bilayers2002In: International Journal of Modern Physics B, ISSN 0217-9792, Vol. 16, no 1-2, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of Mo on the formation of C54 TiSi2 on Si (100) substrates is studied using crosssectional transmission electron microscopy. For a Ti/Mo bilayer on Si, the interfacial Mo film reacts with Ti and Si to form C40 (Mo,Ti)Si-2 at 550 degreesC. Crystal grains of metastable C40 TiSi2 and equilibrium C54 TiSi2 are found in the region near the interfacial (Mo,Ti)Si-2 layer due to the template phenomenon. Increasing the temperature to 600 degreesC leads to the growth of C54 TiSi2 throughout the film. No C49 grains can be detected. The findings confirm that the usual sequence for the formation of C54 TiSi2, i.e. the C49 TiSi2 forms first followed by a phase transition to the C54 TiSi2, is altered by the interposed Mo layer. For a Mo/Ti bilayer on Si, the surface Mo layer is found to be present sequentially in (Mo,Ti)(5)Si-3 at 550 degreesC, C49 (Mo,Ti)Si-2 at 600 degreesC and C54 (Mo,Ti)Si-2 at 650 degreesC. The bulk Ti beneath forms the C54 TiSi2 following the usual route through the C49-C54 phase transition. However, this transition is now enhanced, in comparison with the C54 TiSi2 formation with pure Ti, by the C54 (Mo,Ti)Si-2 atop that plays the role as a template precisely as the interfacial C40 (Mo,Ti)Si-2.

  • 23. Zhang, Zhibin
    et al.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Zhu, D. Z.
    Xu, H. J.
    Chen, Y.
    Different routes to the formation of C54TiSi(2) in the presence of surface and interface molybdenum: A transmission electron microscopy study2002In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 784-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct evidence revealing fundamental differences in sequence of phase formation during the growth of TiSi2 in the presence of an ultrathin surface or interface Mo layer is presented. Results of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that when the Mo layer was present at the interface between Ti films and Si substrates, C40 (Mo,Ti)Si-2 formed at the interface, and Ti5Si3 grew on top after annealing at 550 degreesC. Additionally, both C54 and C40 TiSi2 were found in the close vicinity of the C40 (Mo,Ti)Si-2 grains. No C49 grains were detected. Raising the annealing temperature to 600 degreesC led to the formation of C54 TiSi2 at the expense of Ti5Si3, and the interfacial C40 (Mo,Ti)Si-2 also began to transform into C54 (Mo,Ti)Si-2 at 600 degreesC. When the Mo was deposited on top of Ti, the silicide film was almost solely composed of C49 TiSi2 at 600 degreesC. However, a small amount of (Mo,Ti)(5)Si-3 was still present in the vicinity of the sample surface. Upon annealing at 650 degreesC, only the C54 phase was found throughout the entire TiSi2 layer with a surface (Mo,Ti)Si, on top of TiSi2 Hence, it was unambiguously shown that in the presence of surface versus interface Mo, different routes were taken to the formation of C54 TiSi2.

  • 24.
    Zhang, Zhibin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zhang, SL
    Campbell, EEB
    Dielectrophoretic behavior of ionic surfactant-solubilized carbon nanotubes2006In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 421, no 1-3, p. 11-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), suspended in aqueous sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) solution, to predefined microelectrodes using alternating current dielectrophoresis is found to strongly depend on the frequency and SDBS concentration. The deposition rate of CNTs increases with increasing frequency. At high SDBS concentrations, the alignment of CNTs between electrode pairs is only achievable at high frequencies above 1 MHz. The morphology of the deposited CNTs relative to the electrodes varies with the SDBS concentration. The experimental observations are discussed by treating the CNTs as a rigid rod.

1 - 24 of 24
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