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  • 1. Ammenberg, J.
    et al.
    Anderberg, S.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Biogas in the transport sector—actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand side in the Stockholm region2018Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 129, s. 70-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has ambitions to phase out fossil fuels and significantly increase the share of biofuels it uses. This article focuses on Stockholm County and biogas, with the aim to increase the knowledge about regional preconditions. Biogas-related actors have been interviewed, focusing on the demand side. Biogas solutions play an essential role, especially regarding bus transports and taxis. Long-term development has created well-functioning socio-technical systems involving collaboration. However, uncertainties about demand and policy cause hesitation and signs of stagnating development. Public organizations are key actors regarding renewables. For example, Stockholm Public Transport procures biogas matching the production at municipal wastewater treatment plants, the state-owned company Swedavia steers via a queuing system for taxis, and the municipalities have shifted to “environmental cars”. There is a large interest in electric vehicles, which is expected to increase significantly, partially due to suggested national policy support. The future role of biogas will be affected by how such an expansion comes about. There might be a risk of electricity replacing biogas, making it more challenging to reach a fossil-free vehicle fleet. Policy issues strongly influence the development. The environmental car definition is of importance, but its limited focus fails to account for several different types of relevant effects. The dynamic policy landscape with uncertainties about decision makers’ views on biogas seems to be one important reason behind the decreased pace of development. A national, long-term strategy is missing. Both the European Union and Sweden have high ambitions regarding a bio-based and circular economy, which should favor biogas solutions.

  • 2.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Biogas in the transport sector - a regional actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand sideManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Biogas in Swedish transport – a policy-driven systemic transition2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis analyzes the conditions for biogas in the Swedish transport sector. Biogas can contribute to the achievement of Sweden’s ambitious targets of decreased emissions of greenhouse gases and an increased share of renewables in the transport sector, a sector that encompasses the major challenges in the phase-out of fossil fuels.

    Biogas development has stagnated during recent years and there are several factors that have contributed to this. The use of biogas in transport has developed in niches strongly affected by policy instruments and in this thesis, the progress is understood as a policy-driven systemic transition. Biogas has (started to) become established at the regime level and has begun to replace fossil fuels. The major obstacles for continued biogas development are found to be the stagnated vehicle gas demand, the low predictability of Swedish policy instruments, and electric car development. Moreover, the current prolonged period of low oil prices has also contributed to a lack of top-down pressure.

    A large share of the cheap and easily accessible feedstock for conventional biogas production is already utilized and an increased use of vehicle gas could enable a commercial introduction of forest-derived methane. However, the technologies to produce forest-derived methane are still not commercial, although there are industrial actors with technological know-how.

    Future biogas development depends on how the policy framework develops. Policy makers should consider the dynamics of biogas as a young sociotechnical system where different system fronts develop at a varying pace. Currently the demand side is lagging behind. However, it is necessary to maintain predictable policy support throughout the entire biogas value chain, since the system fronts that lag can vary over time. The low predictability of Swedish policy instruments indicates that policy makers should exercise care in their design to create a more robust policy framework moving forward.

  • 4.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Bolivia torkar ut2011Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 5.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Bred ansats i tillämpade systemstudier2008Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Competitive renewablegas options-emerging bioenergy segments2010Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Stimulating biogas in the transport sector - an actor and policy analysis with supply side focus.Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser. IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Box 210 60, S-10031 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Stimulating biogas in the transport sector in a Swedish region - An actor and policy analysis with supply side focus2019Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 113, artikel-id UNSP 109269Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses incentives and barriers for the development of biogas production and use in transport. It is based on statistics, interviews with biogas actors in a Swedish region, as well as a literature study. These actors perceive that the stagnating vehicle gas demand is the major barrier for biogas development. Policy support could stimulate the vehicle gas demand to strengthen incentives for investments along the entire biogas value chain. There are opportunities on the supply side to increase biogas production based on waste and residues, to improve digestate handling, and to expand the gas distribution infrastructure. However, the sector perceives a high risk in biogas investments partially due to the low predictability of Swedish policy instruments and this, together with the stagnated demand for vehicle gas, are identified as the main barriers for biogas development. Thus, policy makers should focus on these barriers if the intention is to develop the use of biogas in transport.

  • 9.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Forest-derived methane in the Swedish transport sector: A closing window?2017Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 105, s. 440-450Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-derived methane could complement biogas from anaerobic digestion as a transport fuel. The conditions for a systemic transition have been analyzed in this article. The analysis contains three blocks: the vehicle gas development, the policy framework, and commercial projects to produce methane from forest biomass. The results reveal that several conditions for a systemic transition are in place. There is established infrastructure for feedstock supply and biofuels distribution. Infrastructure development is an important albeit not determining factor. Private and public actors have advanced plans for commercial scale plants, technological know-how, and experience from a demonstration plant. However, a major barrier for a systemic transition is the low predictability of Swedish policy instruments. The Swedish government is not free to design policy instruments but must consider compatibility with the EU framework and has changed the energy tax on biofuels several times to avoid overcompensation according to the EU regulation. This has contributed to the low predictability. The interviewees have suggested several concrete policy instruments. However, they have also emphasized that the exact design of the policy instruments is less important than the predictability of the support. 

  • 10.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    How can forest-derived methane complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in the Swedish transport sector?2016Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-derived methane may contribute significantly to a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030. At present, there is sufficient technical knowledge about energy conversion methods and several Swedish actors have investigated and prepared investments in production facilities, but the technology is not commercially mature yet and it needs support during a development period. Investments in the technology have become less favorable because of the drop in the oil price in 2014. In addition, the predictability of the policy instruments supporting production and use of renewable energy are perceived as low by investors. This report emphasize that these factors combined are major reasons why potential investments are postponed.

    We have conducted a literature study and an interview study with three industry actors to answer the question “How can forest derived methane complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in the Swedish transport sector?” Interviews were mostly conducted in situ and in co-operation with the f3 project “Examining systemic constraints and drivers for production of forest-derived transport biofuels” (f3 2014-002370). The literature study included the recent development of renewable transport fuels in Sweden, existing and proposed policy instruments, and possible technical pathways from forest biomass to transport fuels.

    Sweden has accomplished a high share of renewables in the transport sector – 12 % based on energy content or 17 % when accounting in accordance with the EU Renewable Energy Sources Directive (RES). Thus, Sweden has the highest share of renewables in the transport sector among the member states and has with a good margin accomplished the EU-RES target of 10 % renewables by 2020. The use of electricity in plug-in electric vehicles is not included in these figures and the number of electric vehicles is increasing rapidly.

    The most common biofuels in transport are biodiesel, ethanol, and biogas. Biodiesel increases rapidly, mainly through low blend-in, and is now the most common biofuel in the Swedish transport sector. The majority is HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils), but the share of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) is still considerable. The use of ethanol peaked during 2008 and has been decreasing since then. Ethanol is distributed through both low and high blend-in (E5 and E85).

    The use of upgraded biogas in the transport sector has increased continuously since its introduction 1996. Upgraded biogas is complemented by natural gas to meet the vehicle gas demand. A voluntary agreement among the distributors maintains a minimum biogas share that corresponds to 50 %. The biogas share is much higher today (74 % by volume, average Jan.-Aug. 2015) and some large end-users use pure upgraded biogas. Upgraded biogas is mainly distributed in compressed form through gas cylinders (79 %), but also through injection to the natural gas grid (21 %). Very little biogas is distributed in liquid form (LBG).

    Studies of the practical production potential shows that the current vehicle gas demand could be met entirely with upgraded biogas. However, an increased demand will eventually require other production pathways based on other feedstocks. Gasification of forest biomass is one such pathway. One alternative is that an increased demand is met with natural gas, resulting in fossil lock-in effects. Another alternative is a stagnated vehicle gas market.

    Production of upgraded biogas and use in the transport sector have been promoted in different ways, e.g., demand on handling of waste that will promote anaerobic digestion, investment support to production facilities, support to distribution infrastructure, environmental car premiums, and exemptions of energy and CO2 taxes. The tax exemptions are only granted until the end of 2015 but the Swedish government has applied for permission to the European Commission for a tax exemption until the end of 2020. A biofuel may only be compensated to a certain level to comply with rules set by the European Commission. If the renewable alternative is cheaper because of tax exemptions or tax reductions it is considered as overcompensation and illegal state aid and the compensation has to be adjusted. This has in Sweden occurred for FAME, E5 and E85, but since the cost for biogas is almost twice that of natural gas, it is not likely that the tax exemptions for biogas will be considered as illegal state aid. 

    Among the suggested policy instruments in the FFF inquiry are the price premium model and the quota obligation. The government prepared for a quota obligation but it was later withdrawn because the European Commission considered it as illegal state aid when combined with Sweden´s current CO2 tax. These changes decrease the predictability for potential investors. The actors that we have interviewed propose different policy instruments to promote production of transport fuels from forest biomass: the price premium model, a quota obligation, or a system inspired by the tradable green certificate system. However, more important than the type of policy instrument is that the support is substantial and predictable during the pay back period of the investment.

    There is a large potential in forest biomass for transport fuel production in Sweden. Different pathways, which result in different transport fuels, compete not only for the feedstock and the end-users, but also for financing, research & development funds, and the policy makers’ attention. This study suggests that:

    • In order to attract investments in forest-derived methane, the vehicle gas market must continue to increase.  Increased policy support directed at the demand may be needed. This is because the gasification technology is sensitive to economies of scale and the size of the facilities that have been considered are equivalent to the entire market for upgraded biogas. To invest in such a facility implies too large a risk given the size of the current demand and the uncertainties of the future market.
    • If methane should be able to play an increasingly important role in a future transportation sector, the gasification technology need policy support during a development period.
    • The predictability of policy support is perceived as low. The predictability is more important than the specific type of policy instrument to attract investments. The interviewees in this report suggest the following policy instruments for the support of forest-derived methane: the price premium model, a quota obligation, or a system inspired by the tradable green certificate system.
    • The current low oil price decreases the likelihood for investments. Policy instruments that compensate for the oil price risk are needed, e.g. the price premium model.
    • Swedish industry actors can realize the potential in forest biomass through production of transport fuels if beneficial conditions are given. Such a development does not only contribute to a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels but also to regional development.
  • 11.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Olsson, Jesper
    MDH.
    Espinosa, Cecilia
    Center for Promotion of Sustainable Technology (CPTS).
    Birbuet, Juan Cristóbal
    Center for Promotion of Sustainable Technology (CPTS).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    MDH.
    Thorin, Eva
    MDH.
    Persson, Per-Erik
    VAFAB Miljö AB.
    Lindblom, Sandra
    VAFAB Miljö AB.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH.
    The potential for waste to biogas in La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia2013Ingår i: 1st International Water Association Conference on HolisticSludge Management, 2013, Västerås Sweden, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the cities of La Paz and El Alto, 573 tons of organic material are disposed in landfills every day. These residues can be used to produce biogas and recycle nutrients, thus alleviating environmental impacts related to waste management. Technical solutions are evaluated through a multicriteria analysis with the purpose of defining a strategy for implementing waste-to-biogas in the two cities. As a result, the development for waste-to-biogas-system is defined in three steps. Step 1 consists of an active extraction system of landfill gas in the already existing landfills. Step 2 implies the establishment of a dry-digestion biogas facility based on present waste collection practices, that is, not segregated waste. Step 3 consists of a biogas plant using dry digestion for processing source segregated bio-waste. The economic feasibility of these three steps is evaluated. Despite prevailing fossil fuels subsidies in the country, implementing waste-to-biogas turn out feasible in the country provided the digestate is commercialized as bio-fertilizer or erosion control material and additional services such as waste collection and deposition are computed in the total economy of the biogas production plant.

  • 12.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik. USP University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Biogas potential for sustainable transport: A Swedish regional case2015Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 108, nr part A, s. 1105-1114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, practical biogas potential has been estimated in order to clarify the role of biogas in policy targets for renewable transport fuels in Sweden. The estimate of the Stockholm County biogas potential is based on a survey directed at key persons at sewage water treatment facilities, as well as official statistics, environmental reports and other sources. The results reveal that the practical biogas potential can meet the vehicle gas demand in Stockholm County by 2020, but that it may cover only 50 % of the demand by 2030. The practical potential is estimated to be 604 GWh by 2020 and 689 GWh by 2030. Fossil gas, biogas from neighboring regions, and/or methane from woody biomass would thus be needed to meet the demand by 2030. The survey shows that digestion capacity exists at sewage water treatment facilities and that the availability of resources for biogas generation is low. Public participation is needed to improve food waste segregation and increase resource availability. Food waste can be co-digested with sewage sludge at sewage water treatment facilities. These results can guide the design of renewable transport fuel policies and one conclusion is that policy support should be directed at the supply rather than at the demand side.

  • 13.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Birbue, Juan Cristóbal
    Olsson, Jesper
    Espinosa, Cecilia
    Thorin, Eva
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Gómez, María F.
    Large-scale biogas generation in Bolivia – a stepwise reconfiguration2018Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 180, s. 494-504Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energy is well recognized not only as resource that helps to protect the environment for future generations but also as a driver for development. Waste-to-energy systems can provide renewable energy and also improve sustainability in waste management. This article contributes a case study of stepwise reconfiguration of the waste management system in a developing country to the literature of transitions. The conditions for a systemic transition that integrates large-scale biogas generation into the waste management system have been analyzed. The method included a multi-criteria evaluation of three development steps for biogas, an economic analysis, and an institutional and organizational analysis. The results revealed economic as well as institutional and organizational barriers. Clearly, public and private sectors need to engage in sustainability. There is also a lack of pressure – mainly because of fossil fuel subsidies – that prevents a transition and creates a lock-in effect. To break the lock-in effect the municipality's institutional capacity should be strengthened. It is possible to strengthen biogas economically by integrated waste management services and sales of biofertilizer. A stepwise reconfiguration would be initiated by adopting technologies that are already established in many developed countries but are novelties in a Bolivian context – as a response to sustainability challenges related to waste management. The article focuses on the main challenges and the potential for biogas technology in Bolivia and a pathway towards a new, more sustainable system is suggested.

  • 14.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Enhancing the biogas potential from residues and energy crops in Sweden2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas has played a marginal role in the Swedish energy system not only because Sweden lacks fossil gas resources but also due to the lack of specific policies to develop the segment. This contrasts with the present situation in many other European countries where gas grids and markets are well developed. More recently, changing demand patterns in the transport sector and stringent environmental policies have triggered the development of biogas and provided a strong incentive for the development of infrastructure for biomethane in many Swedish towns. On-going initiatives often combine public and private efforts mainly at the municipal level. They build upon new opportunities in the transport sector and, thus, the biogas is upgraded to biomethane to fulfil the standard requirements of vehicle engines. However, biomethane production and infrastructural efforts have not always been in phase with the rapid expansion of the vehicle fleet.Only a small part of the practical production potential for biogas has been realized in Sweden so far. There is considerable potential for further expansion based on agricultural, urban and industrial residues, but also energy crops. However, assessments regarding the potential for energy crops in Sweden are rather divergent. This paper provides a comparison between different Swedish assessments and also European ones and further discusses the practical potential for biogas generation in Sweden. Immediate opportunities for biogas generation are identified. The study results from a collaboration between the division of Energy and Climate Studies at KTH and Fortum Värme.

  • 15.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Potential to transform waste to biogas in La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia – Challenges and opportunities2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation deals with the potential to transform waste to energy in La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia. The urban area of these municipalities is facing problems with waste management, water contamination, land use, and environmental burdens.

    The existing waste management system is inefficient for recycling and reusing resources since segregation of waste is not common practice. Nevertheless, it represents an opportunity for implementing waste-to-biogas. The existing waste management system can be used to redirect the flow from landfills to biogas plants offering synergies between waste management and energy generation. Many advantages, for example, cost reductions might be achieved through waste-to-biogas in La Paz and El Alto. Currently only 30% of the waste management costs are covered by the collected fees, and thus municipalities are keen to find new ways for recovering costs. Biogas can also replace subsidized fossil fuels, such as domestic fossil gas and imported diesel, leading to environmental gains. Despite these potential benefits, there are policy incentives in other directions, institutional bottlenecks, and socioeconomic constraints that need to be tackled before the existing potential can be realized. In an on-going project led by KTH, we bring together actors along the waste management chain, as well as municipalities and ministries to define a common agenda to promote waste-to-biogas in La Paz and El Alto.

  • 16.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Sanches-Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Swedish resource potential from residues and energy crops to enhance biogas generation2013Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 21, s. 298-314Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper verifies the plausibility of existing assessments of the biogas potential in Sweden and whether a target of 1.1 TWh of biogas for transport, as per defined by Swedish authorities, can be met within the next ten years. We estimate that the Swedish resource potential for biogas generation from residues and energy crops amounts to 8.86 TWh in the midterm, equivalent to around 9% of the current domestic transport energy consumption. A large share of this potential remains unrealized and there is uncertainty regarding the existing resource potential, especially concerning energy crops. Nevertheless, the remaining biogas potential can make an important contribution to meet targets of an increased share of renewables in transport.  The study concludes that not only it is possible to meet the increased demand expected for gas in transport until 2020 but the existing potential could justify more ambitious goals than presently set by Swedish authorities.

  • 17.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Tailor-made solutions: Small-scale biofuels and trade2010Ingår i: Bridges Trade BioRes Review, ISSN 1996-9198, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 10-11Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    In current debates on biofuels trade, the focus tends to be on large-scale production. However, the production of small-scale biofuels is better suited for many smaller developing and least-developed countries. Small-scale biofuels can bring many social and environmental benefits at the local level and, cumulatively, their production and utilisation can bring significant trade benefits.

  • 18.
    Peck, Philip
    et al.
    International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Hansson, Julia
    Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL).
    Voytenko, Yulija
    International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Investigating socio-technical and institutional constraints to development of forest-derived transport biofuels in Sweden: A Study design2015Ingår i: EUBSE 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest industry portfolio diversification into transport fuels is important for Swedish climate and energy policy goal achievement, and for Swedish forest industry competitiveness. This paper presents the research background and methodology for a project that examines constraints/drivers to the expansion of Swedish forest-derived transport biofuels. It focuses on the interaction of innovation niches with the incumbent socio-technical regime, and the interplay of innovators as they seek to advance their technology systems. The study is on going and about to enter field interviews using this preparatory work as a base. Literature reviews, interviews and web-survey(s) are to deliver improved understanding of the positions/views and activities of transportation biofuel producers, heavy transport motor platform developers, and incumbent petrochemical industry actors. The investigation addresses a) synergies or competition for resources or political support; b) proponent strategies in forest, biofuel and petrochemical sectors; c) general ‘viability perceptions’ for leading fuel-engine systems/pathways. It is to provide improved knowledge for decision-making to policy makers, industry, and researchers, regarding the structural function of important regime level drivers and constraints – and where policy interventions are a help/hinder to desired progress. This article delivers the theoretical considerations, research approach, and a mapping of research targets.

  • 19.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik. University of São Paulo, Brazil .
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    Universidad de La Sabana.
    Teixeira Coelho, Suani
    USP University of São Paulo.
    Tudeschini, Luís G.
    USP University of São Paulo.
    Is natural gas a backup fuel against shortages of biogas or a threat to the Swedish vision of pursuing a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels?2015Ingår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 83, s. 1187-1199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to verify whether natural gas is only a backup fuel against shortages of upgraded biogas or a threat to the Swedish vision of pursuing a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels. The paper uses Stockholm County as a case study to guide our analysis. The region not only concentrates the largest number of inhabitants in Sweden but also holds alone around 35% of the Swedish fleet of passenger cars using gas as fuel. The region's potential vehicle gas demands are 460 GWh by 2020 and 1202 GWh by 2030. The methodological approach relies on Network Theory to guide the numerical analysis of the vehicle gas supply chain in the region. Our results show that natural gas will keep on being an important resource and playing a vital role within the local vehicle gas supply chain but no longer as a backup fuel against upgraded biogas shortages. In fact, natural gas has become a price regulator responsible for vehicle gas attractiveness, especially for passenger cars in the region. As a result, phasing out natural gas could hamper future developments of biogas supply chain in the country, hindering the achievement of a green fleet.

  • 20.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Tudeschini, Luís Gustavo
    USP University of São Paulo.
    Mapping the Stockholm vehicle gas supply chain using Network Theory to assess local upgraded biogas supply and demand relations2015Ingår i: 5th International Workshop Advances in Cleaner Production: Cleaner Production Towards a Sustainable Transition / [ed] Giannetti, B. F., Almeida, C. M. V. B., Bonilla, S. H, São Paulo: Universidade Paulista, Brazil , 2015, s. 1-8Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper uses Stockholm County as a case study to guide our analysis. The region not only concentrates the largest number of inhabitants in Sweden but also holds alone around 35% of the Swedish fleet of passenger cars using gas as fuel. The region’s potential vehicle gas demands are 460 GWh by 2020 and 1 202 GWh by 2030. The methodological approach relies on Network Theory to guide the numerical analysis of the vehicle gas supply chain in the region. Our results indicates that local vehicle gas supply chain is a rigid structure that might be averse to new entrants such as new distribution companies but, at the same time, it offers opportunities for biogas producers. Distribution companies, especially those placed in the 1st-tier segment are averse to new entrants because they present high homophily and strong ties. Hence, they are more prone to maintain the network’s status quo since the Swedish vehicle gas market is not yet well developed, which results in a lack of multiple players, which leads to cluster formation.

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