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  • 1.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Fonseca, K. V. O.
    Nieweglowski, R.
    Schepanski, R.
    Well-to-Wheel analysis of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for conventional, hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric city buses in the BRT system in Curitiba, Brazil2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 58, p. 122-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates Well-to-Wheel (WTW) fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for six types of city buses with conventional, hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric powertrains, including two-axle, articulated and bi-articulated chassis in the BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) system in Curitiba, Brazil. Particular emphasis is put on the operation phase (Tank-to-Wheel, TTW) of the city buses using the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR). The simulations are based on real-world driving patterns collected from Curitiba, comprising 42 driving cycles that represent city bus operation on seven BRT routes with six operation times for each. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric two-axle city buses use 30% and 75% less WTW fossil energy per distance compared to a conventional two-axle city bus (19.46 MJfossil,WTW/km). This gives an absolute reduction of 1115 gCO2e,WTW/km in WTW GHG emissions when operating a plug-in hybrid-electric city bus instead of a conventional two-axle city bus (1539 gCO2e,WTW/km). However, a conventional bi-articulated city bus can be environment-friendlier than hybrid-electric city buses in terms of WTW fossil energy use and WTW GHG emissions per passenger-distance, if its passenger capacity is sufficiently utilised. Nonetheless, the plug-in hybrid-electric city bus remains the most energy-efficient and less polluting option. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric powertrains offer the possibility to achieve much higher levels of decarbonisation in the BRT system in Curitiba than the blending mandate of 7%vol biodiesel into diesel implemented in Brazil in 2016. In addition, the simulations show that TTW energy use can considerably vary by up to 77% between different operation times, BRT routes and types of city buses. In conclusion, advanced powertrains and large passenger capacity utilisation can promote sustainability in Curitiba's BRT system. The results of this analysis provide important insights for decision makers both in Curitiba and other cities with similar conditions.

  • 2.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Fonseca, Keiko V.O.
    Federal University of Technology - Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Nieweglowski, Rafael
    Volvo Bus Corporation, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Schepanski, Renan
    Volvo Bus Corporation, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Energy use and CO2 emissions of city buses in Curitiba, Brazil2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Sennai, Mesfun
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Opportunities to Optimize the Palm Oil Supply Chain in Sumatra, Indonesia2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant amounts of biomass residues were generated in Indonesia. While untreated, residues emit greenhouse gases during the decomposition process. On the other hand, if efficiently utilized, these residues could be used to produce value-added products. This study investigates opportunities for harnessing the full potential of palm oil residues (i.e., empty fruit bunches, kernel shells, fiber, and mill effluent). As far as we are aware, the study is the first attempt to model the palm oil supply chain in a geographically explicit way while considering regional infrastructures in Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The BeWhere model, a mixed integer linear programming model for energy system optimization, was used to assess the costs and benefits of optimizing the regional palm oil supply chain. Different scenarios were investigated, considering current policies and new practices leading to improved yields in small-scale plantations and power grid connectivity. The study shows that a more efficient palm oil supply chain can pave the way for the country to meet up to 50% of its national bioenergy targets by 2025, and emission reductions of up to 40 MtCO2eq/year. As much as 50% of the electricity demand in Sumatra could be met if residues are efficiently used and grid connections are available. We recommend that system improvements be done in stages. In the short to medium term, improving the smallholder plantation yield is the most optimal way to maximize regional economic gains from the palm oil industry. In the medium to long term, improving electricity grid connection to palm oil mills could bring higher economic value as excess electricity is commercialized.

  • 4.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Palmén, Carl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Conditions for a sustainable development of palm-oil-based biodiesel in Indonesia2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The government of Indonesia sees bioenergy as an attractive option to promote socio-economic development and improve energy security. Modernization of bioenergy can add value to existing resources and serve to meet increasing energy demand, as well as create jobs and reduce poverty. Policy efforts have given direction to this development, promoting biodiesel production and use. Indonesia is the largest palm oil producer and exporter in the world. At the same time, palm oil is the basis for both food and biodiesel production in the country. A 30% mandatory biodiesel blending target has been set for 2025. To meet the target, palm oil production needs to increase or palm oil diverted from other uses to produce biodiesel. In addition, the development of biodiesel will have to address environmental impacts, particularly land use change, and the dynamics of palm oil trade. Land allocation affects the development of the agro-industrial sector, and the capacity to deliver the mandatory targets. We investigate the land issue through a cross-sectoral analysis of four policy areas, i.e. renewable energy/biofuel, agriculture, climate and forestry. Our study examines the potential land available for biodiesel feedstock production and the potential yields that can be obtained. Preliminary results indicate that the blending target could be met from palm oil obtained from 5-7 Mha land after meeting palm oil domestic demand for food production and other industrial non-food uses. Degraded land could be used and thus no threat needs to be posed to food security, deforestation and climate change. However, to guarantee the sustainability of the development process, inconsistencies need to be addressed in the sectoral policies, areas suitable for plantation expansion need to be clearly mapped, conditions for exploration more strictly defined, and complementary policy instruments need to be put in place to promote schemes with enhanced yields and upgrading technologies over time. This research is part of the on-going program INSISTs (Indonesian Swedish Initiative for Sustainable Energy Solutions), a joint research and innovation platform established between Sweden and Indonesia. 

  • 5.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Cost competitiveness of palm oil biodiesel production in Indonesia2019In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 170, p. 62-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates opportunities to improve the cost competitiveness of the palm oil biodiesel industry in Indonesia. It compares costs and revenues of standalone conventional palm oil and biodiesel production with an integrated system that includes utilisation of biomass residues. Economic metrics, viz. net income, NPV, IRR, payback period and biodiesel breakeven price are evaluated. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to verify how parameter changes affect net income. The results show that the integrated concept with upgraded CPO and biodiesel processing plant (Biorefinery), which simultaneously produces biodiesel, electricity, heat and biofertiliser, can obtain an additional income of 14 USD/t-FFB compared to the Conventional System. The biorefinery system helps to reduce dependency on government subsidy for biodiesel production, and lowers the industry vulnerability to fluctuation of fossil diesel prices. The shift to modern facilities with value chain integration provides a pathway to enhance the share of renewable energy in Indonesia through increased biodiesel production and electricity generation from palm biomass residues. It may also promote resource efficiency and climate change mitigation through reduced emissions from untreated residues and fossil energy carriers. The analysis enhances understanding about potential gains and consequences of more stringent policy implementation in the country.

  • 6.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Integrated biorefinery vs. stand alone biodieselproduction in Indonesia – an economic analysis2017In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel policy instruments have largely steered the expansion of the biodiesel industry in Indonesia,promoting investments and creating fuel markets. Despite the growth, biodiesel use has not yet reached thedeployment targets set by the government. Low profitability and dysfunctional markets forces some plants to operatefar below the installed production capacity, which results in a deficit of biodiesel supply for domestic markets. At thesame time, biodiesel is being exported. The current production configuration of biodiesel in a standalone biodieselplant is perceived to be unprofitable without government subsidy. Therefore, we propose a comparative economicanalysis for biodiesel production in Indonesia using two configurations: the standalone production system typicallyused at present, and an integrated bio-refinery plant. The results show that the biodiesel production cost in thebiorefinery is 13% higher compared to the production cost in a standalone plant. However, due to higher revenuesgenerated in the biorefinery (16% higher than standalone system), biorefinery concept offers more profits to theindustry. Under current economic conditions, the integrated biorefinery concept brings advantages throughimprovement of efficiency in the biodiesel production system and higher production of other valuable products suchas electricity.

  • 7.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Land allocation to meet sectoral goals in Indonesia – An analysis of policy coherence2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 61, p. 451-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land is a scarce resource affecting the implementation of many sectoral policies. In Indonesia, the expansion of palm oil plantations has led to non-sustainable land use practices in past years, particularly deforestation. More recently, the government has set ambitious targets for the adoption of biodiesel which will require expansion of oil palm plantations, thus putting further pressure on land. Meanwhile, the need to guarantee food supply, forest conservation and climate change mitigation also imply challenges when it comes to land allocation and use. This paper examines the role that land plays in the implementation of sectoral policies in Indonesia, exploring the availability of land to satisfy the multiple goals defined in national policies. We explore land competition resulting from allocations made in official policy documents starting with biofuel policy. The analysis of policy goals and coherence when it comes to land allocation is made in relation to agriculture, climate and forestry policies. We conclude that adjustments need to be made in the policies to avoid overlappings and misinterpretations when it comes to land allocation. The area made available for meeting each sectoral policy goal when taking into account cross sectoral interactions is: 14.2 Mha for agriculture, 43 Mha for climate mitigation measures, 9.2 Mha for forestry, and 20.9 Mha for biofuels. A more uniform land classification and development of a common reference database will increase transparency on land allocation and use, and help to monitor land use change, ultimately supporting the achievement of multiple national goals.

  • 8.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    A Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Ethanol Blended Fuel (E10) and Conventional Petrol Fuel Car: a Case Study in Nepal2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in different development contexts: A systems approach2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous depletion of fossil fuel reserves, the global agenda on climate change and threats to energy security have led to increased global interest in the exploration, production and utilisation of bioenergy and biofuels. Access to modern bioenergy carriers derived from the efficient conversion of locally available biomass resources is indispensable for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development in developing countries. Deployment of bioenergy/biofuels technologies has significantly varied across the globe. The least developed countries (LDCs) and developing countries are still highly dependent on traditional biomass technologies with low conversion efficiency, which are typically associated with significant environmental and health impacts. Meanwhile, emerging economies and developed countries are progressively promoting biofuel industries and international trade. They are also engaged in making biofuels a sustainable proposition by developing sustainability criteria. The goal of this thesis is to address the sustainability of bioethanol production derived from one of the key feedstocks/energy crops: sugarcane. This will be done by analysing different development contexts and environmental constraints in terms of geopolitical situation, economic development and state-of-the-art technologies in agro-industrial development. Life cycle assessment (LCA), system studies, and techno-economic optimisation are the main methodological approaches applied in the thesis. The thesis primarily addresses three key questions for analysing the sustainability of bioethanol production.

    The first research question investigates the key parameters affecting the sustainability of bioethanol production and use in a low-income country using the case of Nepal. The net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances are identified to be the main sustainability criteria of the sugarcane-molasses bioethanol (Paper I and II). Results of the lifecycle studies show that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce the renewable fuel. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production and combustion of ethanol are also lower than those from gasoline. The study also evaluates the socio-economic and environmental benefits of ethanol production and use in Nepal, concluding that the major sustainability indicators are in line with the goals of sustainable development (Paper III). Assessment of the biofuel (molasses-bioethanol) sustainability in Nepal is the first of its kind in low-income countries, and serves also the purpose of motivating the assessment of ethanol production potential in other LDCs, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.

    The second question critically evaluates methodologies for accounting the lifecycle GHG emissions of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol in European and American regulations, depicting commonalities and differences among them (Paper IV). GHG emissions are becoming increasingly important as part of sustainability criteria in the context of the expansion of biofuel production and international trade. However, different methodologies still lead to quite different results and interpretation. To make this an operational criterion for international comparisons, it is necessary to establish unified methodological procedures for accounting GHG emissions. The thesis identifies the major issues as  N2O emissions from agricultural practices, bioelectricity credits in fuel production, and modelling approaches in estimating emissions related to direct and indirect land use change (LUC & iLUC), that need to be addressed for establishing methodological coherences.

    The third research question investigates how the sugarcane bioethanol industry can be developed in terms of energy security and the diversification of energy sources. The case of complementarity between bioelectricity and hydropower is evaluated in the cases of Nepal and Brazil and presented in Paper V. Bioelectricity could offer a significant share of electricity supply in both countries provided that favourable political and institutional conditions are applied. Finally, in order to find the choice of technological options for the production of second generation (2G) bioethanol and/or of bioelectricity, a techno-economic optimisation study on the bulk of sugarcane bio-refineries in Brazil is carried out in Paper VI, taking into account the entire lifecycle costs, emissions, and international trade. The study shows that it is worthwhile to upgrade sugarcane bio-refineries. Energy prices, type of power generation systems, biofuel support and carbon tax, and conversion efficiencies are the major factors influencing the technological choice and potential bioethanol trade.

    In short, this dissertation provides insights on the sustainability of the bioethanol production/industry and its potential role in the mitigation of climate change, improved energy security and sustainable development in different country contexts, as well as methodological contributions for assessing the sustainability of biofuels production in connection with energy and climate policies.

  • 10.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in Nepal2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to modern energy services derived from renewable sources is a prerequisite, not only for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development, but also for energy security and climate change mitigation. The least developed countries (LDCs) primarily use traditional biomass and have little access to commercial energy sources. They are more vulnerable to problems relating to energy security, air pollution, and the need for hard-cash currency to import fossil fuels. This thesis evaluates sugarcane-molasses bioethanol, a renewable energy source with the potential to be used as a transport fuel in Nepal.

    Sustainability aspects of molasses-based ethanol have been analyzed. Two important indicators for sustainability, viz. net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances have been used to assess the appropriateness of bioethanol in the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. This thesis has found that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce it. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and combustion are also lower than those of gasoline. The impacts of important physical and market parameters, such as sugar cane productivity, the use of fertilizers, energy consumption in different processes, and price have been observed in evaluating the sustainability aspects of bioethanol production.

    The production potential of bioethanol has been assessed. Concerns relating to the fuel vs. food debate, energy security, and air pollution have also been discussed. The thesis concludes that the major sustainability indicators for molasses ethanol in Nepal are in line with the goals of sustainable development. Thus, Nepal could be a good example for other LDCs when favorable governmental policy, institutional set-ups, and developmental cooperation from donor partners are in place to strengthen the development of renewable energy technologies.

  • 11.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Future of Fuel2014In: The Kathmandu Post, Vol. 24 Sept., p. 6-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Pursuing engergy generation from biomass is crucial to complementing investments in seasonal hydropower.

  • 12.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Garbage to gas2014In: The Kathmandu Post, Vol. 11 May, p. 6-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Converting waste to biogas could be a solution to Kathmandu's mounting energy problems.

  • 13.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Optimizing ethanol and bioelectricity production in sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil2012Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Drabik, Dusan
    Agricultural Economics and Rural Policy Group, Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Harahap, Fumi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analyzing the economics of palm oil biodiesel production in Indonesia2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Indonesia is the largest palm oil producer and exporter in the world and the palm oil industry has contributed significantly to the national economy and socioeconomic development. Of the total palm oil production, 69% is exported (the third most important traded commodity in the country), 17% is used in the domestic food industry, and 11% is used in biodiesel production. Aiming at reducing fossil oil dependency, diversifying energy sources, and promoting socioeconomic development, the country has enacted several rules and regulations for biofuel production. The most important is the 30% biodiesel target for transportation by 2025. The government of Indonesia also provides subsidies to palm oil feedstock producers, processing industries, and consumers. Other regulations include a new funding mechanism for biofuel subsidies, a levy on palm oil exports, and the creation of a ‘plantation fund’. Despite increased amount of palm oil feedstock production, the stipulated biodiesel mandates have not been achieved due to a lack of competitiveness and ineffective policies. Volatile international prices of petroleum, international trade/exports of palm oil, and fossil fuel subsidies have hindered the development of a domestic market for biodiesel. This study examines the economics of palm oil biodiesel production and use in Indonesia in connection with government policies, production costs, fossil fuel substitution, and market prices of liquid fuels (i.e., biodiesel and diesel). We develop a novel biofuel economic model that captures the complexities of the palm oil-biodiesel sector in Indonesia.

  • 15.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    Ecosystems Services & Management (ESM) program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    McCallum, Ian
    Ecosystems Services & Management (ESM) program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Optimizing ethanol and bioelectricity production in sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil2016In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 85, p. 371-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sugarcane biorefineries, the lignocellulosic portion of the sugarcane biomass (i.e. bagasse and cane trash) can be used as fuel for electricity production and/or feedstock for second generation (2G) ethanol. This study presents a techno-economic analysis of upgraded sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil, aiming at utilizing surplus bagasse and cane trash for electricity and/or ethanol production. The study investigates the trade-off on sugarcane biomass use for energy production: bioelectricity versus 2G ethanol production. The BeWhere mixed integer and spatially explicit model is used for evaluating the choice of technological options. Different scenarios are developed to find the optimal utilization of sugarcane biomass. The study finds that energy prices, type of electricity substituted, biofuel support and carbon tax, investment costs, and conversion efficiencies are the major factors influencing the technological choice. At the existing market and technological conditions applied in the upgraded biorefineries, 300 PJ y-1 2G ethanol could be optimally produced and exported to the EU, which corresponds to 2.5% of total transport fuel demand in the EU. This study provides a methodological framework on how to optimize the alternative use of agricultural residues and industrial co-products for energy production in agro-industries considering biomass supply chains, the pattern of domestic energy demand, and biofuel trade.

  • 16.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Palmén, Carl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Evaluating the palm oil demand in Indonesia: Production trends, yields, and emerging issues2018In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the development of domestic and international demand for Indonesian palm oil, in line with national biofuel mandates and established export markets. Domestic demand for palm oil for (i) achieving biodiesel targets and (ii) meeting food and industrial uses reaches 20 million tonnes by 2025, equivalent to 61% of Indonesian production in 2014. Thus, it is possible for Indonesia to be self-sufficient, reaching the biodiesel targets without increasing plantation areas. However, to meet both domestic and international demand, a total 51 million tonnes of crude palm oil will be needed in 2025. This requires additional land up to 6 million hectares with current yields. The expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has led to debates related to deforestation, threatened biodiversity, and greenhouse gas emissions. We show that increasing agricultural yields could serve the purpose, benefiting biodiesel production while reducing the need for new land. Therefore, we recommend that the ambitious Indonesian biodiesel mandates are pursued in combination with a strategy for increased productivity in palm oil production, utilization of degraded land to contain greenhouse gas emissions, and use of palm oil biomass residues for energy production.

  • 17.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Scheer, Jannik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Egeskog, Ylva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analyzing the lifecycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of palm oil biodiesel production in Indonesia2016In: 15th World Renewable Energy Congress, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study performs sustainability analysis of palm oil biodiesel production systems in Indonesia. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach is used to evaluate the net GHG emissions (climate change impact) and energy inputs (resource consumption) in the entire production chain. The main aim of the study is to investigate the energy and environmental aspects of the palm oil biodiesel production chain. The worthiness of biodiesel production and use in terms of GHG emissions is compared with conventional diesel. The system boundary includes the mass and energy flows during the cultivation, harvesting, palm oil milling, and bio-refining phases. Energy inputs and emissions due to agricultural activities such land preparation, seedling, application of fertilizers/chemicals, and planting are considered in the analysis. The scope of the study also includes collection and transport of palm oil feedstock, fresh fruit brunch (FFB) and crude palm oil (CPO) for biodiesel production. Assessment of climate change impact is also performed when it comes to improvements of agricultural practices and alternation of soil carbon stocks due to land use change.

    The study examines the utilization of co-products (e.g. kernel oil, glycerol), palm oil residues, and waste water (effluents) generated during the palm biodiesel production system. Palm kernel and glycerol are important commodities/products which have high market values. The use of biomass residues (e.g. fibres and shells) for energy production in efficient cogeneration, and different waste management options for the treatment of palm oil milling effluent (POME) are also explored. Sensitivity analysis is performed for the most influencing parameters such as palm oil yield, the rate of fertilizer application, plant conversion efficiencies while determining the environmental and energy gains. Since the palm oil biodiesel production systems involve multiple co-products and services, it is of utmost importance to use appropriate allocation methods in order to divide environmental burdens and resource inputs. We use allocation by energy content and economic values, and system expansion considering the substitution of fossil based power by bioelectricity derived from biomass cogeneration plants and/or electricity generation using biogas produced from POME treatment. The study finds that bioelectricity generation from surplus biomass residues and biogas from POME, and their use for fossil fuel substitution can significantly help improve energy and environmental gains. The study also compares important results with other relevant international LCA studies and discusses issues related to land use on climate change impact. Recommendations are made for the appropriate utilization of palm oil, its co-products, and residues for the both energy and climate benefits.  

  • 18.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory, Brazil.
    Seabra, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Accounting greenhouse gas emissions in the lifecycle of Brazilian sugarcane bioethanol: Methodological references in European and American regulations2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 47, p. 384-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses four European and American regulatory schemes designed for accounting lifecycle GHG emissions in relation to the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol. The objective is to critically examine the methodologies and associated parameters used in existing regulatory schemes for calculating GHG emissions, and to explore methodological convergences. The issues related to direct lifecycle and indirect land use change emissions have been addressed. It is found that there are commonalities between the European Renewable Energy Directive (EU-RED) and the UK's Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (UK-RTFO), but the US-EPA's Renewable Fuel Standard (US-EPA) and the Low Carbon Fuel Standard of the California Air Resources Board (CA-CARB) vary greatly not only among themselves, but also in relation to the European regulations. Agricultural practices (especially soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics), co-product credits from surplus electricity and uncertainties around economic modeling approaches for indirect land use change are the major areas where methodological divergences exist. Incorporation of domestic agricultural practices, sugarcane mills operations, and realistic modeling of indirect impacts of land use change using regional models could provide more coherence in estimations of GHG emissions. Furthermore, the Brazilian trend of novelty in all phases of sugarcane bioenergy systems should be considered when projecting GHG emissions.

  • 19.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Seabra, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Methodologies for accounting greenhouse gas emissions of bioethanol production in Brazil2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have performed life cycle assessment for evaluating GHG balances of biofuels. However, the result of life-cycle GHG emissions varies significantly, depending on LCA approach used, type and characteristics of biomass feedstocks, system boundaries, functional unit, reference energy systems, conversion technologies, treatment of co-products, direct/indirect land-use change, among others. This study shows how these issues have been addressed in the regulatory schemes for accounting GHG emissions. The objective is to review and critically discuss the methodologies and associated parameters used in existing regulatory schemes in the context of developing a unified methodology for calculating GHG emissions. Four regulatory schemes on biofuels are scrutinized in order to compare the GHG calculation methodologies. The European Commission’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (RTFO) of UK describe methodologies for calculation of life-cycle GHG emissions of biofuels, including common biofuel production pathways such as the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol. In the US, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program under the Energy Independence and Security Act has introduced the threshold of life-cycle GHG emissions of different biofuels in transport, while the California Air Resource Board has enacted the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) to increase the share of low carbon fuels. European (e.g. RED and RTFO) and US (e.g. RFS and LCFS) regulatory schemes have proposed different methodologies for estimating GHG balances. This paper provides an overview of these four accounting methodologies, depicting commonalities and differences among them. We use the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol pathway as reference for the comparison. The comparative analysis helps identify common ground for the development of a unified methodology for sugarcane bioethanol.

  • 20.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Seabra, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Power generation from sugarcane biomass - A complementary option to hydroelectricity in Nepal and Brazil2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 241-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the complementarity between hydroelectricity and surplus electricity from sugarcane biomass based cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills. The paper investigates opportunities and barriers in the context of governments' initiatives, institutions and prevailing regulatory frameworks in Brazil and Nepal. The paper finds that bioelectricity from cogeneration can be a good complementary option for hydroelectric power, helping foster diversification on the generation side and enhance security of electricity supply based on local resources. Bioelectricity potential from sugarcane biomass is estimated to be in the range of 209 - 313 GWh for Nepal and 62 -93 TWh for Brazil. In Nepal, the grid connected bioelectricity can provide power for operating industries, and support local development through rural electrification. In Brazil, the biomass potential can be further enhanced through a better utilization of the biomass in the sugar-ethanol industry to balance hydropower availability. This comparative study offers a reflection on the need for better planning and policies to address the barriers which are hindering the development of bioelectricity even in places where the potential is large.

  • 21.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Seabra, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Power generation from sugarcane biomass: a complementary option to hydroelectricity in Nepal and Brazil2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the complementarity between hydroelectricity and surplus electricity from sugarcane biomass based cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills. The paper investigates opportunities and barriers in the context of governments’ initiatives, institutions and prevailing regulatory frameworks in Brazil and Nepal. The paper finds that bioelectricity from cogeneration can be a good complementary option for hydroelectric power, helping foster diversification on the generation side and enhance security of electricity supply based on local resources. Bioelectricity potential from sugarcane biomass is estimated to be in the range of 209 – 313 GWh for Nepal and 62 – 93 TWh for Brazil. In Nepal, the grid connected bioelectricity can provide power for operating industries, and support local development through rural electrification. In Brazil, the biomass potential can be further enhanced through a better utilization of the biomass in the sugar-ethanol industry to balance hydropower availability. This comparative study offers a reflection on the need for better planning and policies to address the barriers which are hindering the development of bioelectricity even in places where the potential is large.

  • 22.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production: Key criteria and methodological improvements2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Greenhouse gas balances of molasses based ethanol in Nepal2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 13, p. 1471-1485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) balances in production and use of molasses-based ethanol (EtOH) in Nepal. The total life cycle emissions of EtOH is estimated at 432.5 kgCO(2eq) m(-3) ethanol (i.e. 20.4 gCO(2eq) MJ(-1)). Avoided emissions are 76.6% when conventional gasoline is replaced by molasses derived ethanol. A sensitivity analysis was performed to verify the impact of variations in material and energy flows, and allocation ratios in the GHG balances. Market prices of sugar and molasses, amount of nitrogen-fertilizers used in sugarcane production, and sugarcane yield per hectare turn out to be important parameters for the GHG balances estimation. Sales of the surplus electricity derived from bagasse could reduce emissions by replacing electricity produced in diesel power plants. Scenario analysis on two wastewater processes for treatment of effluents obtained from ethanol conversion has also been carried out. If wastewater generated from ethanol conversion unit is treated in pond stabilization (PS) treatment process, GHG emissions alarmingly increase to a level of 4032 kgCO(2eq) m(-3) ethanol. Results also show that the anaerobic digestion process (ADP) and biogas recovery without leakages can significantly avoid GHG emissions, and improve the overall emissions balance of EtOH in Nepal. At a 10% biogas leakage, life cycle emissions is 1038 kgCO(2eq) m(-3) ethanol which corresponds to 44% avoided emissions compared to gasoline. On the other hand, total emissions surpass the level of its counterpart (i.e. gasoline) when the leakage of biogas exceeds 23.4%.

  • 24.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Net energy balance of molasses based ethanol: The case of Nepal2009In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 2515-2524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates life cycle energy analysis of molasses based ethanol (MOE) in Nepal. Net energy value (NEV), net renewable energy value (NREV) and energy yield ratio are used to evaluate the energy balance of MOE in Nepal. Total energy requirements in sugarcane farming, cane milling and ethanol conversion processes are estimated and energy allocation is made between co-products (molasses and sugar) as per their market prices. The result shows negative NEV (−13.05 MJ/L), positive NREV (18.36 MJ/L) and energy yield ratio (7.47). The higher positive value of NREV and energy yield ratio reveal that a low amount of fossil fuels are required to produce 1 L of MOE. However, negative NEV reveals that the total energy consumption (both fossil and renewables) to produce the ethanol is higher than its final energy content. Nevertheless, the renewable energy contribution amounts to 91.7% of total energy requirements. The effect of the increased price of molasses and reduced energy consumption in the sugarcane milling and ethanol conversion are found to be significant in determining the energy values and yield ratio of MOE. In addition, there are clear measures that can be taken to improve efficiency along the production chain. Finally, energy security, scarcity of hard currency for importing fossil fuels and opportunities for regional development are also strong reasons for considering local renewable energy options in developing countries.

  • 25.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Scenarios for bioethanol production in Indonesia: How can we meet mandatory blending targets?2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, ISSN ISSN: 0360-5442, Vol. 119, p. 351-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the potential of bioethanol production and fossil fuel substitution using sugarcane feedstock in Indonesia. Current production practices, government biofuel policies (esp. mandatory blending targets), and sugar self-sufficiency are simulated to project the total potential of fuel ethanol and land requirements in the timeframe between 2015 and 2025. At present conditions, 450 million liters bioethanol can be annually produced in Indonesia using sugarcane molasses, a low-value co-product. This gives only a marginal contribution equivalent to 1% of the total gasoline consumption in 2015. The study examines the ethanol production potential after domestic sugar self-sufficiency is achieved by 2020. In 2015, 0.71 Mha land were required for sugarcane cultivation in order to meet a 2% blend mandate i.e. 0.68 billion liters (BL) ethanol using only cane-molasses. Juice ethanol is needed to meet the blending targets set for 2020 (i.e., 4.45 BL ethanol) and 2025 (i.e., 11.48 BL ethanol). This translates into sugarcane feedstock obtained from 1.60 Mha and 2.76 Mha land, respectively. The study also evaluates how improved resource efficiency can be achieved, exploring the bioelectricity production potential from sugarcane biomass, improvements in yields, and modernization of sugarcane mills. The results highlight how the use of established technologies and production methods can help develop agro-industries in the sugar ethanol segment of Indonesia.

  • 26.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Johnson X., Francis
    Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) Africa Centre, c/o ICRAF, United Nations Avenue, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya.
    Energy production from sugarcane feedstock: Assessing fossil fuel substitution and climate change mitigation potential in Indonesia2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the potential for energy (i.e. bioethanol and bioelectricity) production and fossil fuel substitution in Indonesia based on sugarcane feedstock. Indonesia is one of the top ten cane producers in the world, and has huge potential to produce bioethanol and bioelectricity. Current agricultural practices, industrial milling operations, supply-chain management, and feedstock (i.e. sugarcane) supply and main/co-products (i.e. sugar, molasses, and bagasse) production and their demand/utilization are identified. At present conditions, around 350 million litres bioethanol can be annually produced in Indonesia using sugarcane molasses (a low-value co-product). In addition, approximately 400 MW surplus bioelectricity can be generated and connected to the grid using the state-of-the-art or efficient bagasse cogeneration technologies in sugar mills. The substitution of fuel ethanol in transport helps reduce the imports of subsidised oil products while bioelectricity substitutes coal based electricity in the nation. Associated climate benefits, i.e. climate change mitigation potential, will also be estimated. The study also explores the potential of fuel ethanol and power production considering the improvement of cane yield and the expansion of sugarcane field as the country wants to modernize sugarcane sector and expand the cultivation areas aiming at achieving sugar self-sufficiency. Indonesia has set differentiated and time-bound mandatory biofuel targets, and sugarcane is one of the main feedstocks for bioethanol production. Therefore, it is vital to scrutinize how sugarcane bioethanol could help meet the target in synergy with agricultural, industrial and energy development in a sustainable way.

  • 27.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Sylvain, Leduc
    Ecosystems Services & Management (ESM) program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    McCallum, Ian
    Ecosystems Services & Management (ESM) program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Optimizing second generation bioethanol production in sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Venkata K., Bharadwaj
    World Bioenergy Association, Holländargatan 17, 111 60 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Johnson X., Francis
    Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) Africa Centre, c/o ICRAF, United Nations Avenue, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya.
    Energy and GHG balances of ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 164, p. 756-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the sustainability of fuel ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed to evaluate the net emissions (climate change impact) and energy inputs (resource consumption) in the production chain. The lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the production and use of ethanol are estimated at 29 gCO2eq per MJ of ethanol produced which is a 67% reduction in comparison to gasoline emissions. Net Energy Value (NEV) and Net Renewable Energy Value (NREV) are -7 MJ/l and 17.7 MJ/l, while the energy yield ratio (ER) is 6.1. Economic allocation is chosen for dividing environmental burdens and resource consumption between sugar (i.e. main product) and molasses (i.e. co-product used for fuel production). Sensitivity analysis of various parameters is performed. The emissions and energy values are highly sensitive to sugarcane yield, ethanol yield, and the price of molasses. The use of sugarcane biomass residues (bagasse/trash) for efficient cogeneration, and different waste management options for the treatment of spent wash (effluent of distilleries) are also explored. Surplus bioelectricity generation in the efficient cogeneration plant, biogas recovery from wastewater treatment plant, and their use for fossil fuel substitution can help improve energy and environmental gains. The study also compares important results with other relevant international studies and discusses issues related to land use change (LUC) impact.

  • 29.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, Austria.
    Natarajan, Karthikeyan
    University of Eastern Finland (UEF), Joensuu, Finland.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Policies and Modeling of Energy Systems for Reaching European Bioenergy Targets2015In: Handbook of Clean Energy Systems / [ed] Professor Jinyue Yan, John Wiley & Sons, 2015, p. 3165-3182Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Olsson, Jesper
    MDH.
    Espinosa, Cecilia
    Center for Promotion of Sustainable Technology (CPTS).
    Birbuet, Juan Cristóbal
    Center for Promotion of Sustainable Technology (CPTS).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    MDH.
    Thorin, Eva
    MDH.
    Persson, Per-Erik
    VAFAB Miljö AB.
    Lindblom, Sandra
    VAFAB Miljö AB.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH.
    The potential for waste to biogas in La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia2013In: 1st International Water Association Conference on HolisticSludge Management, 2013, Västerås Sweden, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the cities of La Paz and El Alto, 573 tons of organic material are disposed in landfills every day. These residues can be used to produce biogas and recycle nutrients, thus alleviating environmental impacts related to waste management. Technical solutions are evaluated through a multicriteria analysis with the purpose of defining a strategy for implementing waste-to-biogas in the two cities. As a result, the development for waste-to-biogas-system is defined in three steps. Step 1 consists of an active extraction system of landfill gas in the already existing landfills. Step 2 implies the establishment of a dry-digestion biogas facility based on present waste collection practices, that is, not segregated waste. Step 3 consists of a biogas plant using dry digestion for processing source segregated bio-waste. The economic feasibility of these three steps is evaluated. Despite prevailing fossil fuels subsidies in the country, implementing waste-to-biogas turn out feasible in the country provided the digestate is commercialized as bio-fertilizer or erosion control material and additional services such as waste collection and deposition are computed in the total economy of the biogas production plant.

  • 31.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Potential to transform waste to biogas in La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia – Challenges and opportunities2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation deals with the potential to transform waste to energy in La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia. The urban area of these municipalities is facing problems with waste management, water contamination, land use, and environmental burdens.

    The existing waste management system is inefficient for recycling and reusing resources since segregation of waste is not common practice. Nevertheless, it represents an opportunity for implementing waste-to-biogas. The existing waste management system can be used to redirect the flow from landfills to biogas plants offering synergies between waste management and energy generation. Many advantages, for example, cost reductions might be achieved through waste-to-biogas in La Paz and El Alto. Currently only 30% of the waste management costs are covered by the collected fees, and thus municipalities are keen to find new ways for recovering costs. Biogas can also replace subsidized fossil fuels, such as domestic fossil gas and imported diesel, leading to environmental gains. Despite these potential benefits, there are policy incentives in other directions, institutional bottlenecks, and socioeconomic constraints that need to be tackled before the existing potential can be realized. In an on-going project led by KTH, we bring together actors along the waste management chain, as well as municipalities and ministries to define a common agenda to promote waste-to-biogas in La Paz and El Alto.

  • 32.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Tailor-made solutions: Small-scale biofuels and trade2010In: Bridges Trade BioRes Review, ISSN 1996-9198, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 10-11Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In current debates on biofuels trade, the focus tends to be on large-scale production. However, the production of small-scale biofuels is better suited for many smaller developing and least-developed countries. Small-scale biofuels can bring many social and environmental benefits at the local level and, cumulatively, their production and utilisation can bring significant trade benefits.

  • 33.
    Palmén, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Will Improved Palm Oil Yields suffice to the Development of Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstock in indonesia?2015In: CYSENI 2015, Lithuanian Institute , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By the expansion of oil palm plantations, Indonesia has become a world leading producer of crude palm oil. However, Indonesia has also been largely criticized due to issues of land use change and deforestation. The country now promotes the use of palm oil for biodiesel production as part of policies to achieve renewable energy targets. Currently yields on palm oil plantations are far from optimal. Do new policies promoting biodiesel production address the issue of yields properly? This study analyses the driving forces for the expansion of palm oil plantations in Indonesia and the palm oil yields obtained in the country. Data is collected through a multi-disciplinary structured literature review of relevant palm oil publications from the last 15 years. We identify the policies that have been put in place and the strategies used to establish palm oil plantations in the past years. We look at the newly defined policies of the Indonesian government towards renewables and climate mitigation, in particular, targets for biodiesel production and fuel substitution. The idea is to verify whether the new policy will address the low yield issue. Presently, palm oil yields are much lower in Indonesia than in neighbouring Malaysia, also a major producer. Particularly, smallholders have lower yields than private and government estate plantations. Expanding production has been focused on covering new areas with palm oil plantations and less on developing farming methods. In earlier stages, the establishment of plantations included proper education of farmers and incentives to maintain production. Smallholders nowadays start palm oil production with little or no previous experience; still they favour oil palm over traditional crops. New policies have to address farming improvements to guarantee sustainable feedstock for biodiesel.

  • 34.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Harahap, Fumi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Sustainable Bioenergy Development in Indonesia - Summary for Policy Makers2018Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Ethanol production and fuel substitution in Nepal—Opportunity to promote sustainable development and climate change mitigation2010In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 1644-1652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential for ethanol production and fuel substitution in Nepal based on established sugarcane production, installed capacity for sugar and ethanol production, economic opportunities for the national economy, and potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At present conditions, 18,045 m3 ethanol can be annually produced in Nepal without compromising the production of food products from sugar cane such as sugar, chaku and shakhar. The effects for the country can be manifold. As much as 14% of gasoline import reduction, and annual savings of US$ 10 million could be achieved through the introduction of the E20. The activity can provide an incentive for improved yields in sugarcane production, and help develop the industrial sector. This, in turn, will have a positive effect in terms of job and income generation in the rural areas where 85% of the population live. Improvement of agricultural practices for sugarcane could also have an indirect and positive effect on improving other agriculture activities. Furthermore, the use of ethanol in the transport sector will have a positive environmental effect while reducing CO2 emissions and combating pollution in the Kathmandu Valley. Finally, the substitution of ethanol in transport will imply lower imports of oil products and less draining of resources from the Nepalese economy.

  • 36.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The role of ethanol from sugarcane in mitigating climate change and promoting sustainable development in LDCs: the case of Nepal2013In: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and International Competitiveness: The Role of Sugar Cane in Africa / [ed] Francis X Johnson and Vikram Seebaluck, Taylor & Francis, 2013, p. 350-368Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Leduc, S.
    Kraxner, F.
    Venkata, B. K.
    Tilvikine, V.
    Gaubyte, V.
    Romagnoli, F.
    Tauraite, E.
    Kundas, S.
    Blumberga, D.
    Peterson, K.
    Utsar, K.
    Vigants, E.
    Kalinichenko, A.
    Opportunities for bioenergy in the Baltic Sea Region2017In: International Scientific Conference “Environmental and Climate Technologies”, CONECT 2017, 10-12 May 2017, Riga, Latvia, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 128, p. 157-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security of energy supply, promotion of the bio-economy, nutrient recycling, and innovation are prioritized policy areas in the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUBSR). The Baltic Sea Region (BSR) has a great bioenergy potential worth exploring in this context. This paper explores the state-of-art of bioenergy systems and synergies with eco-systems services in the BSR region in the context of developing the region's bio-economy. In this brief assessment, we consider 8 countries (i.e. Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Denmark, and Belarus) in the region. While the production and use of modern bioenergy can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, promote energy security, diversify energy resources, and contribute to a successful circular economy and rural development, it is important to find a balance between the exploration of resources and the management of eco-systems services. In addition, both climate change vulnerability and bioenergy production may affect the environment and the capacity of the BSR to deliver ecosystem services (ESS). We recommend integrated strategies for optimal use of bioresources in the region. Bioeconomy can be realized by innovative approaches, establishing cross-cutting institutional and policy linkages for increased prosperity and green growth in the Baltic Sea Region.

  • 38.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Green energy for development in Nepal2011In: The Road to Rio +20: For a development-led green economy, United Nations,UNCTAD , 2011, 2, p. 79-83Chapter in book (Refereed)
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