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  • 1.
    Doorn, Neelke
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Responsibility in Engineering: Towards a New Role for Engineering Ethicists2010In: Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, ISSN 0270-4676, E-ISSN 1552-4183, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 222-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, the management of technology has focused on the stages before or after development of technology. In this approach the technology itself is conceived as the result of a deterministic enterprise; a result that is to be either rejected or embraced. However, recent insights from Science and Technology Studies (STS) have shown that there is ample room to modulate technology during development. This requires technology managers and engineering ethicists to become more involved in the technological research rather than assessing it from an outsider perspective. Instead of focusing on the question whether or not to authorize, approve, or adopt a certain technology or on the question of who is to blame for potential mistakes, the guiding question in this new approach is how research is to be carried out.

  • 2.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven OveKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.Nihlén Fahlquist, JessicaKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Filosofins nya möten2005Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Grill, Kalle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Responsibility, Paternalism and Alcohol InterlocksIn: Ethics of Health Promotion, SpringerChapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drink driving causes great suffering and material destruction. The alcohol interlock promises to eradicate this problem by technological design. Traditional counter-measures to drink driving such as policing and punishment and information campaigns have proven insufficient. Extensive policing is expensive and arguably intrusive. Severe punishment may be disproportionate to the risks created in most single cases. If the interlock becomes inexpensive and convenient enough, and if there are no convincing moral objections to the device, it may prove the only feasible as well as the only justifiable solution to the problem of drink driving. Taking this to heart, the former Swedish government, supported by the National Road Administration and a 2006 final report of the Alcohol Interlock Commission, proposed that interlocks should be required as standard equipment in all cars. This article assesses two possible moral objections to a policy of mandatory interlocks: 1) That it displaces the responsibility of individual drivers, and 2) that it constitutes a paternalistic interference with drivers. The first objection is found unconvincing, while the second has only limited bite and may be neutralized if paternalism is accepted for the sake of greater net liberty. If technological development can make mandatory interlocks cost-efficient, the proposed policy seems a commendable public health measure.

  • 4.
    Grill, Kalle
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Responsibility, Paternalism and Alcohol Interlocks2012In: Public Health Ethics, ISSN 1754-9973, E-ISSN 1754-9981, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 116-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drink driving causes great suffering and material destruction. The alcohol interlock promises to eradicate this problem by technological design. Traditional counter-measures to drink driving such as policing and punishment and information campaigns have proven insufficient. Extensive policing is expensive and intrusive. Severe punishment is disproportionate to the risks created in most single cases. If the interlock becomes inexpensive and convenient enough, and if there are no convincing moral objections to the device, it may prove the only feasible as well as the only justifiable solution to the problem of drink driving. A policy of universal alcohol interlocks, in all cars, has been proposed by several political parties in Sweden and is supported by the National Road Administration and the 2006 Alcohol Interlock Commission. This article assesses two possible moral objections to a policy of universal interlocks: (i) that it displaces the responsibility of individual drivers and (ii) that it constitutes a paternalistic interference with drivers. The first objection is found unconvincing, while the second has only limited bite and may be neutralized if paternalism is accepted for the sake of greater net liberty. Given the expected technological development, the proposed policy seems a commendable health promotion measure for the near future.

  • 5.
    Hermansson Järvenpää, Hélène
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    ”Mer etik till ingenjörerna, tack”2011In: Ny teknik, ISSN 0550-8754, no 2011-05-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Hermansson Järvenpää, Hélène
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Vi behöver ingenjörer med moralfilosofisk träning!2011In: Ny Teknik, ISSN 0550-8754Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7. Lindblom, L
    et al.
    Clausen, J
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Hayenhielm, M
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Palm, Elin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Wikman, P
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    How Agencies inspect: A comparative study of inspection policies in eight Swedish government agencies2003Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Ethical challenges for traffic safety policyArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    How to Save Lives in Road traffic: An Ethical Approach2005In: European Transport Conference Proceedings 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Individual Responsibility, Alternative Actions and Environmental ProblemsArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Kränkande att gps-övervaka barn: (GPS-surveillance of Children – an Infringement of Privacy)2011In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Moral responsibility and the ethics of traffic safety2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis is to present and analyse traffic safety from an ethical perspective and to explore some conceptual and normative aspects of moral responsibility. Paper I presents eight ethical problem areas that should be further analysed in relation to traffic safety. Paper II is focused on the question of who is responsible for traffic safety, taking the distribution of responsibility adopted through the Swedish policy called Vision Zero as its starting point. It is argued that a distinction should be made between backwardlooking and forward-looking responsibility and that Vision Zero should be understood in terms of this distinction. Paper III discusses responsibility ascriptions in relation to public health problems like obesity and lung cancer. It is argued that what makes discussions about who is responsible for such problems complicated is that we have two aims when ascribing responsibility to someone. First, we want responsibility ascriptions to be fair and morally justified. Second, we also want to achieve progress and solve problems through ascribing responsibility to someone. It is argued that the two aims influence debates concerning who is responsible for problems like obesity and lung cancer and that we should attempt at striking a balance that is both perceived as fair and that is efficient. Paper IV discusses two potential arguments against the suggestion that alcohol interlocks should be mandatory in all cars, namely 1) that it displaces the responsibility of individual drivers, and 2) that it constitutes a paternalistic interference with drivers. The first objection is found unconvincing, while the second only has limited bite and may be neutralized if paternalism is accepted for the sake of greater net liberty. It is argued that if technological development can make mandatory interlocks cost-efficient, the policy seems a commendable public health measure. In Paper V, the question discussed is to what extent individuals should be ascribed moral responsibility for the environmentally damaging consequences of their actions. It is argued that responsibility depends on the reasonableness of the alternatives open to an individual when acting. The lack of reasonable alternatives should reduce the degree of individual responsibility.

  • 13.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Moral responsibility in traffic safety and public health2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 14.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Responsibility and Privacy: Ethical Aspects of Using GPS to Track Children2015In: Children & society, ISSN 0951-0605, E-ISSN 1099-0860, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 38-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With GPS technology, children can be monitored 24 h a day throughout their childhood and teens. In spite of the advantages in terms of safety and security, there are ethical problems with this. In this article, some of these are discussed. First, the concept of parental responsibility is explored and discussed in the context of GPS and children. Second, against the background of psychological research, it is argued that it is not conducive for children's sense of responsibility to be constantly monitored. Third, the question whether children have a right to privacy is discussed. It is concluded that due to the considerable uncertainty concerning the effects of constant monitoring as well as the ethical problems discussed, we ought to adopt a cautious attitude to using GPS to track children.

  • 15.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Responsibility Ascriptions and Public Health Problems: Who is responsible for obesity and lung cancer?2006In: Journal of Public Health, ISSN 2198-1833, E-ISSN 1613-2238, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 15-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discussions about who is responsible for public health problems such as obesity and smoking-related diseases are often heated. A central question concerns the extent to which individuals are responsible for the consequences of their health-impairing behaviour and whether the State and the food and tobacco industries can justifiably be said to be responsible, too. The controversy may be partly due to the two aims of responsibility ascriptions: that they should be morally justified and that they should be efficient. The primary aim of this article is to achieve more clarity in the analysis of this issue. The method used in the article is conceptual analysis in the tradition of moral philosophy. There are two major perspectives on responsibility ascriptions. First, there is the merit-based idea that responsibility should be ascribed to someone who deserves to be held accountable, e.g. because he or she voluntarily and knowingly brought about his or her own health impairment. Second, there is the consequentialist view that responsibility should be ascribed in ways that have as good effects as possible. There are two values at stake here: responsibility ascriptions in public health should satisfy criteria of moral norms or fairness as well as of efficiency. It is argued that both perspectives should be taken into account in public health policymaking. It is concluded that it is important to be aware of the two views of responsibility ascriptions in public health discussions and the policy-making process and to aim at striking a balance between the two.

  • 16.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Responsibility Ascriptions and Vision Zero2006In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 1113-1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vision Zero is a traffic safety policy that was adopted by the Swedish Parliament in 1997. Similar policies have been adopted in Norway and Denmark. In essence, Vision Zero states that it is unacceptable for anyone to die while using the road transport system. The policy also introduces an explicit distribution of responsibility for traffic safety, in which the system designers are ultimately responsible. In this article, it is argued that the proposed new distribution of responsibility can be better understood if we distinguish between two general types of responsibility ascriptions, namely backward-looking and forward-looking responsibility ascriptions. Both types include some kind of causal responsibility and whereas backward-looking responsibility implies an element of blame, forward-looking responsibility implies potential blame, meaning that in cases where the agent who was ascribed responsibility did not achieve the expected result, we are likely to blame her. Vision Zero still ascribes backward-looking responsibility and to some degree forward-looking responsibility to individuals, but adds the explicit forward-looking responsibility of the system designers.

  • 17.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Saving lives in road traffic-ethical aspects2009In: Journal of Public Health, ISSN 2198-1833, E-ISSN 1613-2238, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 385-394Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This article aims at giving an overview of five ethical problem areas relating to traffic safety, thereby providing a general framework for analysing traffic safety from an ethical perspective and encouraging further discussion concerning problems, policies and technology in this area. Subjects and methods: The problems presented in the article are criminalisation, paternalism, privacy, justice and responsibility, and the reasons for choosing these are the following. First, they are all important areas in moral philosophy. Second, they are fairly general and it should be possible to categorise more specific problems under these headings. Ethical aspects of road traffic have not received the philosophical attention they deserve. Every year, more than 1 million people die globally in traffic accidents, and 20 to 50 million people are injured. Ninety per cent of the road traffic fatalities occur in low- and middle-income countries, where it is a growing problem. Politics, economics, culture and technology affect the number of fatalities and injuries, and the measures used to combat deaths in traffic as well as the role of road traffic should be ethically scrutinised. The topics are analysed and discussed from a moral-philosophical perspective, and the discussion includes both theory and applications. Results and conclusion: The author concludes with some thoughts on how the ethical discussion can be included in the public debate on how to save lives in road traffic. People in industrialised societies are so used to road traffic that it is almost seen as part of nature. Consequently, we do not acknowledge that we can introduce change and that we can affect the role we have given road traffic and cars. By acknowledging the ethical aspects of road traffic and illuminating the way the choices society makes are ethically charged, it becomes clear that there are alternative ways to design the road traffic system. The most important general conclusion is that discussion concerning these alternative ways of designing the system should be encouraged.

  • 18.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The Ethics of Traffic SafetyArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The Problem of Many Hands and Responsibility as the Virtue of Care2009In: Managing in Critical Times: Philosophical Responses to Organisational Turbulence Proceedings, Reason in Practice Ltd. , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Vad är ansvar?2005In: Filosofins nya möten / [ed] Edvardsson, K. Hansson, SO and Nihlén Fahlquist J., Gidlunds förlag, 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Lindblom et al., L
    Agencies Inspect: A Comparative Study of Inspection Policies in Eight Swedish Government Agencies2003Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Roeser, S
    Ethical Problems with Information on Infant Feeding in Developed Countries2011In: Public Health Ethics, ISSN 1754-9973, E-ISSN 1754-9981, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 192-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most sources providing information on infant feeding strongly recommend breastfeeding. The WHO and UNICEF recommend that women breastfeed their babies and that health professionals promote breastfeeding. This creates severe pressure on women to breastfeed, a pressure which is ethically questionable since many women have physical or emotional problems with breastfeeding. In this article, we use insights from the ethics of risk to criticize the current breastfeeding policy. We argue that there are problems related to balancing aggregate wellbeing versus individual wellbeing, that not enough attention is paid to alternatives, that women's emotions and their need for free choice should be considered and that issues of equity are currently overlooked. We also criticize the way scientific information is presented in the current policy. We conclude that the official sources of information on infant feeding should be revised. Information should be more nuanced and designed to support mothers, and families in making a free choice on what is the best way to feed their babies.

  • 23.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Roeser, S.
    Viktigt diskutera amning2011In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 108, no 35, p. 1634-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Roeser, S.
    WHO:s amningsrekommendation oetisk i utvecklade länder2011In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 108, no 32-33, p. 1503-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    van de Poel, I.
    Technology and Parental Responsibility: The Case of the V-Chip2012In: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 285-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the so-called V-chip is analysed from the perspective of responsibility. The V-chip is a technological tool used by parents, on a voluntary basis, to prevent children from watching violent television content. Since 1997 in the United States, the V-chip is installed in all new televisions sets of 12″ and larger. We are interested in the question whether and how the introduction of the V-chip affects who is to be considered responsible for children. In the debate, it has been argued that the V-chip reduces parents' responsibility for children, but it has also been argued that it gives parents a tool to exercise their responsibility. It may appear as though all debaters are discussing the same thing and merely have different opinions. However, we argue that there are at least three notions of responsibility underlying these claims and that these should be kept separate. First, arguments on responsibility may refer to responsibility as task distribution. Second, they can refer to responsibility as control. Finally, a thicker concept of parental responsibility understood as a virtue may be referred to. It becomes clear that whereas task distribution changes to some extent and the possibilities for control are increased, only certain parts of parental responsibility as a virtue are affected. The finding that there appear to be different notions of responsibility involved in a debate that prima facie is about one issue, indicates that discussions on other technologies and how they affect responsibility may suffer from the same conceptual lack of clarity.

  • 26.
    Nilhlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Moral Responsibility for Environmental Problems-Individual or Institutional?2009In: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 109-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The actions performed by individuals, as consumers and citizens, have aggregate negative consequences for the environment. The question asked in this paper is to what extent it is reasonable to hold individuals and institutions responsible for environmental problems. A distinction is made between backward-looking and forward-looking responsibility. Previously, individuals were not seen as being responsible for environmental problems, but an idea that is now sometimes implicitly or explicitly embraced in the public debate on environmental problems is that individuals are appropriate targets for blame when they perform actions that are harmful to the environment. This idea is criticized in this paper. It is argued that instead of blaming individuals for performing actions that are not environmentally friendly we should ascribe forward-looking responsibility to individuals, a notion that focuses more on capacity and resources than causation and blameworthiness. Furthermore, it is important to emphasize that a great share of forward-looking responsibility should also be ascribed to institutional agents, primarily governments and corporations. The urge to ascribe forward-looking responsibility to institutional agents is motivated by the efficiency aim of responsibility distributions. Simply put, if responsibility is ascribed to governments and corporations there is a better chance of creating a society in which the opportunities to act in an environmentally friendly way increase.

  • 27. Van de Poel, I
    et al.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Risk and Responsibility2012In: Handbook of Risk Theory: Epistemology, Decision Theory, Ethics, and Social Implications of Risk / [ed] Sabine Roeser, Rafaela Hillerbrand, Martin Peterson, Per Sandin, Springer, 2012, p. 877-907Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a risk materializes, it is common to ask the question: who is responsible for the riskbeing taken? Despite this intimate connection between risk and responsibility, remarkably little hasbeen written on the exact relation between the notions of risk and responsibility. This contributionsets out to explore the relation between risk and responsibility on basis of the somewhat dispersedliterature on the topic and it sketches directions for future research. It deals with three more specifictopics. First we explore the conceptual connections between risk and responsibility by discussingdifferent conceptions of risk and responsibility and their relationships. Second, we discussresponsibility for risk, paying attention to four more specific activities with respect to risks: riskreduction, risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication. Finally, we explore theproblem of many hands (PMH), that is, the problem of attributing responsibility when largenumbers of people are involved in an activity.We argue that the PMH has especially becomeprominenttodayduetotheincreasedcollectivenatureofactionsandduetothefactthatouractionsoften do not involve direct harm but rather risks, that is, the possibility of harm. We illustrate thePMH for climate change and discuss three possible ways of dealing with it: (1) responsibility-as-virtue, (2) a procedure for distributing responsibility, and (3) institutional design

  • 28. Van de Poel, I.
    et al.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Doorn, N.
    Zwart, S.
    Royakkers, L.
    di Lima, T.
    The Problem of Many Hands: Climate Change as an Example2012In: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 49-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In some situations in which undesirable collective effects occur, it is very hard, if not impossible, to hold any individual reasonably responsible. Such a situation may be referred to as the problem of many hands. In this paper we investigate how the problem of many hands can best be understood and why, and when, it exactly constitutes a problem. After analyzing climate change as an example, we propose to define the problem of many hands as the occurrence of a gap in the distribution of responsibility that may be considered morally problematic. Whether a gap is morally problematic, we suggest, depends on the reasons why responsibility is distributed. This, in turn, depends, at least in part, on the sense of responsibility employed, a main distinction being that between backward-looking and forward-looking responsibility.

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