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  • 1.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Administrativ systemutveckling i teori och praktik, 1960–1980: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 26 november 20072008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”Administrativ systemutveckling i teori och praktik, 1960–1980” [Administrative Data Processing in Theory and Practice, 1960–1980] was held at Tekniska museet [the National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 26 November 2007 and was led by Eva Lindencrona. A topic for discussion was the problems in data processing that eventually led to the emergence of systems development during the 1960s. The development of more formalized methods during the 1970s were debated in length, and it was noted that virtually every company and public authority developed its own methods. Furthermore, the establishment and impact of the national guidelines for systems development, SIS-RAS, received attention. The panelists belonging to the university sector highlighted the crucial role Börje Langefors played, professor in Information Systems at the Royal Institute of Technology/ Stockholm University, in the early establishment of Computer and Systems Sciences in Sweden. On the other hand, the practioners present stressed that many of the more formal methods developed by academics never reached trade and industy or public authorities. Finally, the seminar touched upon the importance of conferences such as NordSAM and NordDATA at a Nordic level, and IFIP at an international level.

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  • 2.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Att arbeta med 1950-talets matematikmaskiner: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 12 september 20052006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar “Att arbeta med 1950-talets matematikmaskiner” [Working with the Computing Machines of the 1950s] was held at Tekniska museet [The National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 12 September 2005, and led by Lars Arosenius. At the seminar the development of the first Swedish electronic computer BESK, at the Swedish Board for Computing Machinery (MMN), and the design of the subsequent BESK copies SMIL, at MMN, and Facit EDB, at AB Åtvidabergs Industrier/Facit AB, were discussed. Different design problems were observed, particularly the problem of developing working memories. The problem of the service reliability of the first computers was brought up. Furthermore the seminar discussed the early use of computers, paying special attention to the role of the largest users, the defense and meteorology areas. Problems such as hardware dependence of programming, memory capacity as a limiting factor and the use of subroutines were brought up. Other subjects touched upon included the peripheral equipment, the importance of the visits to study in the USA, the environment around BESK, the organizational problems at MMN, and the recruiting of the BESK group by AB Åtvidabergs Industrier.

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  • 3.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Bilsamhället: Ideologi, expertis och regelskapande i efterkrigstidens Sverige2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1950s the number of cars in Sweden increased almost fivefold and the country attained the highest level of car ownership per capita in Europe. The rise and establishment of mass motoring was dramatically illustrated by the violent encounter between the car and the city. Despite the fact that congestion as well as road accidents were well-known, everyday occurrences, they reached previously unimagined heights through the growth of mass motoring. In this doctoral thesis Per Lundin focuses on the emergence of a group of planning experts as the key advocates of the idea of the “car society” as the solution to these problems. By fully adapting society to the car it would be possible to eliminate congestion and road accidents, thus affirming the continuing advance of the car. This ideal, which originated in the United States, became the goal and the dream of these experts.

    The general question addressed by Lundin is to what extent the actions and the ideologies of the experts interacted with the advent of mass motoring and the extensive urban building during the post-war period. In order to answer this question Lundin analyzes, firstly how the planning experts laid claim to the problems of congestion and road accidents, thereby restating them as exclusive planning problems, secondly how guidelines and standards for a car-conscious planning of cities and communities were developed based on the formulation of this problem and thirdly how, and to what extent, the guidelines and standards concerned were implemented in the town planning process.

    In the thesis Lundin argues that the dreams about a post-war Swedish society entirely adapted to the car by and large were realized. One important explanation of the fact that the physical adaptation of cities and societies to the car could proceed so quickly, on such a large scale and in similar forms all over the country, is found in the planning rules developed by the experts. The rules were the embodiment of the untroubled and unreflecting dreams nourished by the planning experts of the 1950s and the 1960s. Through the rules these ideological conceptions were reinforced and disseminated in a manner almost unable to stop. As the rules quickly were integrated with the planning instruments of administrative bodies locally, regionally and nationally, they set the tone for the extensive urban renewal of the following decades.

  • 4.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), History of Science and Technology.
    Cars for Comrades: The Life of the Soviet Automobile2009In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 940-942Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Databehandling vid Väg- och vattenbyggnads-styrelsen/Vägverket 1957–1980: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 22 maj 20062007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar “Databehandling vid Väg- och vattenbyggnadsstyrelsen/Vägverket 1957–1980” [Data Processing at the Royal Board of Roads and Water Building/National Road Administration 1957—1980] was held at Tekniska museet [The National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 22 May 2006 and led by Carl-Olof Ternryd. The seminar considered the development of data processing, photogrammetry and metrology at the Royal Board of Roads and Water Building/National Road Administration. The im-portance of these different methods in the planning, design and laying out of roads was discussed. A nine-week study visit to the USA in 1957 was identified as having played a key part in the early introduction of data processing at the Royal Board of Roads and Water Building. The use of quantity computation programmes in road planning, the advent of aerial photography and the introduction of photogrammetric instruments were taken up. Attention was also paid to the significance of information and education in spreading knowledge of data processing, photogrammetry and metrology within the organization. Particular note was taken of topics such as the official choice of the programming language ALGOL-GENIUS, the establishment of the early informa-tion system Vägdatabank, and the joint organization of tech-nical and administrative data processing.

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  • 6.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Den skandinaviska skolan i systemutveckling under 1970- och 1980-talen: Exemplen DEMOS och UTOPIA: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 31 mars 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”Den skandinaviska skolan i systemutveckling under 1970- och 1980-talen: Exemplen DEMOS och UTOPIA” [The Scandinavian School in Systems Development during the 1970s and the 1980s: The Examples DEMOS and UTOPIA] was held at the National Museum of Science and Technology in Stockholm on 31 March 2008 and was led by Per Lundin. It treated the emergence of user participation in systems development during the 1970s. The project DEMOS which started in 1975 focussed on the consequences of computerization and its prime concern was how employees should be able to influence organization and planning of work in companies. In its approach DEMOS was inspired by the pioneering work made by Kristen Nygaard and the Norwegian trade union in the beginning of the 1970s. The project UTOPIA followed DEMOS. It began in 1981 and was a joint project between the Swedish Centre of Working Life (Arbetslivscentrum), KTH, Aarhus University and graphic workers in the Nordic countries. UTOPIA dealt with trade union based development of, and training in, computer technology and work organization, especially text and image processing in the graphic industries. It was emphasized at the seminar that the cultural, political and social context was important concerning the development of the Scandinavian School, especially the radicalization of the universities in the wake of 1968 as well as the legislation of the Codetermination Act (Medbestämmandelagen, MBL) in 1976. Also discussed was the different computer policies developed by unions such as the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO) and the Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees (TCO).

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  • 7.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Designing Democracy: The UTOPIA-Project and the Role of the Nordic Labor Movement in Technological Change during the 1970s and 1980s2011In: History of nordic computing 3, 2011, p. 187-195Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using the UTOPIA-project as an example, this paper highlights the role of the Nordic labor movement in technological change and underlines that there are different incentives for technological change. While corporations developing technology usually pursued increased efficiency in production, the UTOPIA-project aimed at other, alternative goals such as translating social values regarding job skills, quality of work, and quality of products into new computer hardware and software for the graphic industries. In the larger context, the UTOPIA-project can be seen as an attempt by the labor movement to revitalize and realize the old dream of industrial democracy by designing computing technology.

  • 8.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Documenting the Use of Computers in Swedish Society between 1950 and 1980: Final Report on the Project “From Computing Machines to IT”2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This final report contextualizes, describes, and evaluates the project “From Computing Machines to IT,” which was carried out during 2007–8 as a collaboration between the Swedish Computer Society, the Division of History of Science and Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), and the National Museum of Science and Technology. The project aimed to create, collect, preserve, and disseminate sources on how computing shaped and transformed Swedish society between 1950 and 1980. For this purpose, it adopted a user-centered perspective on the history of computing.

    In the project, more than 160 interviews were conducted, almost 50 witness seminars were arranged, and about 230 autobiographies were acquired with the help of traditional questionnaires as well as an Internet-based collection of memories (the Writers’ Web). The created sources consist of more than eight thousand pages of text. All in all, nearly seven hundred people contributed with their stories. The contacts with these people generated, in turn, several donations of archival records, artifacts, movies, and photographs.

    In this final report, it is noted that a shift toward a more elaborated user perspective has followed with the growing interest in the recent historiography of computing to understand “how computing has changed the world.” Also discussed in the report is how the user concept has been understood by scholars, and it is pointed out that the literature on users fails to acknowledge two categories of users: those not involved in technological invention and innovation, and those empowered by government or corporations with the authority to adapt technology to fit their needs. It is argued that mainly the latter group, which is denoted “elite” users, has had the power to shape major historical transformations. It is concluded that the project mainly has aimed to document the actions of elite users.

    Earlier international documentation efforts in the history of computing are, furthermore, surveyed, and it is pointed out that these have mainly focused on documenting the role of pioneers in computing technology and largely ignored the users of computing technology. Thus, the research tools and methods that they have developed, used, and refined for documenting pioneering figures—in particular the oral history interview—cannot uncritically be adopted for documenting the activities of users. Lacking an obvious model to blueprint, the project “From Computing Machines to IT” chose to employ an ensemble of different methods for documenting the use of computers in Swedish society. Traditional oral history interviews and collections of autobiographies were used alongside new self-structuring and time-saving methods, such as witness seminars and the mentioned Writers’ Web site.

    Finally, it is stressed that the active interest of the communities of computer users was pivotal for realizing the project. In order to arouse their interest, two things were considered crucial: firstly, the importance of an active and continuous collaboration between historians and practitioners. This collaboration shaped the methods, the organization, and the theoretical approach of the project; and, secondly, the importance of creating events where practitioners are given the chance to gather for discussing and remembering their historical past and, at the same time, socialize. While witness seminars and the specially designed Writers’ Web were seen as pure intellectual ventures by historians, they were actually received as social events by practitioners.

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  • 9.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    From Computing Machines to IT: Collecting, Documenting, and Preserving Source Material on Swedish IT-History2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a large-scale project on collecting, documenting, and preserving source material on Swedish IT-history between 1950 and 1980. The project created new source material using methods of contemporary history such as interviews, witness seminars, and autobiographies. The paper describes the project's organization, its methods, and its results.

  • 10.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Styrbjörn: Utvecklingen och användningen av ett konstruktions- och produktionssystem för skeppsbyggnad vid Kockums under 1960- och 1970-talen: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid AVEVA AB i Malmö den 2 oktober 20072008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

     

    The witness seminar ”Styrbjörn: Utvecklingen och användningen av ett konstruktions- och produktionssystem för skeppsbyggnad vid Kockums under 1960- och 1970-talen” [Styrbjörn: The Development and Use of a System for Construction and Production in Ship-Building at Kockums during the 1960s and 1970s] was held at AVEVA AB in Malmö on 2 October 2007 and was led by Tomas Ohlin. It dealt with the development, use, and diffusion of Styrbjörn, a computer-based system for construction and production in ship-building developed by the shipyard Kockums during the 1960s and the 1970s. Originally, Styrbjörn was a numerical system for construction of body details, but soon developed into an integrated system for both construction and production of ships. At the seminar, the cooperation between Kockums and Saab was highlighted. Kockums used the Saab manufactured computer D21 as well as the programming language ALGOLGENIUS created at Saab. Together the two companies developed KOCK, a derivative of ALGOL-GENIUS specially designed for ship-building. When the Saab computers disappeared from the market in the beginning of the 1970s, Styrbjörn was rewritten to the programming language PL/I and was thus made compatible with IBM computers. Also discussed during the seminar was the transition from main frame computers to mini computers during the 1970s and the beginning of 1980s and the implications this shift had for Styrbjörn.

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  • 11.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Tidig programmering: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 16 mars 20062007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”Tidig programmering” [Early pro-gramming] was held at Tekniska museet [The National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 16 March 2006 and led by Lars Arosenius. Different aspects of early programming and the development of programming languages were covered at the seminar. The physical difficulties in the programming of the relay computer BARK were observed. Furthermore the problems that the restricted memory capacity of the early computers brought to their programming were discussed. The importance of the capacity to create program libraries and manage subroutines was discussed. The first operating systems were mentioned. Attention was paid to the design of the early programming language ALFAKOD used on the BESK and FACIT EDB computers. Also the founding of the early software companies Autocode AB and Nordisk ADB AB was mentioned. Moreover the development of a compiler for the ALGOL programming language at Facit AB was dealt with. This work led to the development of the ALGOL-GENIUS language at Saab AB during the first half of the 1960s. Finally the special requirements on programming languages for telecommunication, which led to the development at Ericsson of the ERI-PASCAL and ERLANG programming languages, were debated.

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  • 12.
    Lundin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Tidiga e-postsystem: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 14 februari 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The witness seminar ”Tidiga e-postsystem” [Early E-mail Systems] was held at Tekniska museet [the National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 14 February 2008 and led by Lars Ilshammar. It dealt with FOA’s purchase of a DEC 10 computer, a prerequisite for using early existing e-mail programs such as NIH Mail and FORUM Planet, in the early 70s. The so-called TERESE-project on regional development and telecommunications experimented with the FORUM-system. The computer scientist Jacob Palme’s development of the KOM-system, which started in 1978 was discussed. Several companies independently developed IBM-based e-mail systems around 1980. The airline company SAS had a system named MAIL in operation 1981. The car manufacturer Volvo as well as the manufacturer of ball and and roller bearings SKF developed, in close cooperation with IBM, the systems MEMO and MEST respectively An observation made by the panelists was that these systems were developed alongside ordinary work, just for fun. Decisions were based on visions rather than economical calculations such as cost-benefit analysis.

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