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  • 1.
    Akram, Nadeem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Kjebon, Olle
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Chacinski, Marek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Experimental characterization of high-speed 1.55 mu m buried heterostructure InGaAsP/InGaAlAs quantum-well lasers2009In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 26, no 2, 318-327 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detailed experimental characterization is performed for 1550 nm semi-insulating regrown buried heterostructure Fabry-Perot (FP) lasers having 20 InGaAsP/InGaAlAs strain-balanced quantum wells (QWs) in the active region. Light-current-voltage performance, electrical impedance, small-signal response below and above threshold, amplified spontaneous emission spectrum below threshold and relative intensity noise spectrum are measured. Different laser parameters such as external differential quantum efficiency eta(d), background optical loss alpha(i), K-factor, D-factor, characteristic temperature T-0, differential gain dg/dn, gain-compression factor epsilon, carrier density versus current, differential carrier lifetime tau(d), optical gain spectrum below threshold, and chirp parameter alpha are extracted from these measurements. The FP lasers exhibited a high T-0 (78-86.5 degrees C) and very high-resonance frequency (23.7 GHz). The results indicate that appropriately designed lasers having a large number of InGaAsP well/InGaAlAs barrier QWs with shallow valence-band discontinuity can be useful for un-cooled high-speed direct-modulated laser applications.

  • 2.
    Akram, Nadeem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Kjebon, Olle
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Chacinski, Marek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    High-Speed Performance of 1.55 µm Buried Hetero-Structure Lasers with 20 InGaAsP/InGaAlAs Quantum-Wells2006In: 2006 European Conference on Optical Communications Proceedings, ECOC 2006, IEEE , 2006, 1-2 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1550 nm re-grown FP lasers having 20 InGaAsP/InGaAlAs strain-balanced QWs exhibit low threshold current density, high T0 (78.0 #x000B0;C) and high resonance frequency (24 GHz) indicating that a large number of shallow barrier QWs are attractive for un-cooled high-speed direct-modulation applications.

  • 3.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    InP-based two dimensional photonic crystals: A material and processing perspective2008In: ICTON 2008: PROCEEDINGS OF 2008 10TH ANNIVERSARY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TRANSPARENT OPTICAL NETWORKS, VOL 2 / [ed] Marciniak, M, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2008, 25-25 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The talk will address fabrication and characterization of InP-based two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PhCs). The emphasis will be on material and processing issues. In particular, high aspect ratio etching of PhCs in the InP-based materials will be discussed, including feature-size dependent etching and its impact on the optical properties of PhCs. The physical basis for modification of carrier lifetimes of quantum wells in etched PhCs due to the so-called accumulated side-wall damage and methods to control carrier lifetimes relevant for emitter and switching applications will be discussed. Fundamental investigations of carrier transport across PhC structures will be reported and a new method to determine the etched side-wall Surface potential will be demonstrated.

  • 4.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mulot, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Ferrini, R.
    Houdre, R.
    Kamp, M.
    Forchel, A.
    Towards realization of high quality 2D-photonic crystals in InP/GaInAsP/InP2004In: 2004 International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, Conference Proceedings, 2004, 311-313 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals (PhCs) were etched into InP/GaInAsP/InP planar waveguides using chlorine based chemical assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE). Etching mechanisms and process parameters crucial for high quality PhC definition are discussed, with special attention to the lag-effect. The processed PhCs were optically characterized by measuring transmission through simple slabs and one-dimensional cavities. The optical properties inside the photonic bandgap are much better compared to both previously reported CAME results and results obtained with other etching methods. In particular, we measured a record quality factor of 310 for one-dimensional cavities fabricated in this material system.

  • 5. Aubin, G.
    et al.
    Talneau, A.
    Uddhammar, Anna
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mulot, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Highly dispersive photonic crystal-based guiding structures2006In: CLEO/QELS 2006, Optical Society of America, 2006, 972-974 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Propagating modes supported by Photonic-Crystal guiding structures can demonstrate very high group velocity dispersion close to a cut-off. We investigate here the wavelength dependence of the dispersion for different Photonic Crystal structures.

  • 6. Benyattou, T.
    et al.
    Martin, M.
    Orobtchouk, R.
    Talneau, A.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mulot, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Optical Bloch waves studied by near optical field microscopy2005In: Journal of the Korean Physical Society, ISSN 0374-4884, E-ISSN 1976-8524, Vol. 47, S72-S75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic bandgap structures are very promising for the integration of optical function at the nanoscale level and particularly 2D structures perforated on a slab waveguide. In this context, photonic crystal waveguides obtained by removing rows of holes in the periodic structure are very interesting. We will present here, results of near field optical microscopy conducted on PCW. With a Fourier transform analysis of the image, we can image the Bloch waves propagating in the waveguide. The results are compared to FDTD simulations and we will show that the images obtained correspond to the electric field. Such result allows us to study the interaction of the optical tip with the electromagnetic field. 2D FDTD simulations of 1D photonic crystal interaction with a SNOM tip is presented. The results obtained confirm that the SNOM signal is mainly related to the electric field.

  • 7.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    InP-based photonic crystals: Processing, Material properties and Dispersion effects2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) are periodic dielectric structures that exhibit a photonic bandgap, i.e., a range of wavelength for which light propagation is forbidden. The special band structure related dispersion properties offer a realm of novel functionalities and interesting physical phenomena. PhCs have been manufactured using semiconductors and other material technologies. However, InP-based materials are the main choice for active devices at optical communication wavelengths. This thesis focuses on two-dimensional PhCs in the InP/GaInAsP/InP material system and addresses their fabrication technology and their physical properties covering both material issues and light propagation aspects.

    Ar/Cl2 chemically assisted ion beam etching was used to etch the photonic crystals. The etching characteristics including feature size dependent etching phenomena were experimentally determined and the underlying etching mechanisms are explained. For the etched PhC holes, aspect ratios around 20 were achieved, with a maximum etch depth of 5 microns for a hole diameter of 300 nm. Optical losses in photonic crystal devices were addressed both in terms of vertical confinement and hole shape and depth. The work also demonstrated that dry etching has a major impact on the properties of the photonic crystal material. The surface Fermi level at the etched hole sidewalls was found to be pinned at 0.12 eV below the conduction band minimum. This is shown to have important consequences on carrier transport. It is also found that, for an InGaAsP quantum well, the surface recombination velocity increases (non-linearly) by more than one order of magnitude as the etch duration is increased, providing evidence for accumulation of sidewall damage. A model based on sputtering theory is developed to qualitatively explain the development of damage.

    The physics of dispersive phenomena in PhC structures is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Negative refraction was experimentally demonstrated at optical wavelengths, and applied for light focusing. Fourier optics was used to experimentally explore the issue of coupling to Bloch modes inside the PhC slab and to experimentally determine the curvature of the band structure. Finally, dispersive phenomena were used in coupled-cavity waveguides to achieve a slow light regime with a group index of more than 180 and a group velocity dispersion up to 10^7 times that of a conventional fiber.

  • 8.
    Berrier, Audrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Ferrini, R.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Optoelect & Mat Mol.
    Talneau, A.
    CNRS, LPN.
    Houdré, R.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Photon Elect Quant.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Impact of feature-size dependent etching on the optical properties of photonic crystal devices2008In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 103, no 9, 096106-1-096106-3 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feature size dependence in Ar/Cl-2 chemically assisted ion beam etching of InP-based photonic crystals (PhCs) and its influence on the optical properties of PhC devices operating in the band gap are investigated. The analysis of the measured quality factors, the determined mirror reflectivities, and losses of one-dimensional Fabry-Perot cavities clearly demonstrates the importance of feature-size dependent etching. The optical properties show a dramatic improvement up to a hole depth of about 3.5 mu m that is primarily due to a significant reduction in extrinsic losses. However, beyond this hole depth, the improvement is at a lower rate, which suggests that extrinsic losses, although present, are not dominant.

  • 9.
    Berrier, Audrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mulot, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Malm, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Electrical conduction through a 2D InP-based photonic crystal - art. no. 63220J2006In: Tuning the Optic Response of Photonic Bandgap Structures III / [ed] Braun, PV; Weiss, SM, 2006, Vol. 6322, J3220-J3220 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates the current transport across two-dimensional PhCs dry etched into InP-based low-index-contrast vertical structures using Ar/Cl-2 chemically assisted ion beam etching. The electrical conduction through the PhC field is influenced by the surface potential at the hole sidewalls, which is modified by dry etching. The measured current-voltage (I-V) characteristics are linear before but show a current saturation at higher voltages. This behaviour is confirmed by simulations performed by ISE-TCAD software. We investigate the dependence of the conductance of the PhC area as a function of the geometry of the photonic crystal as well as the material parameters. By comparing the experimental and simulated conductance of the PhC, we deduce that the Fermi level is pinned at 0.1 eV below the conduction band edge. The method presented here can be used for evaluating etching processes and surface passivation methods. It is also applicable for other material systems and sheds new light on current driven PhC tuning.

  • 10.
    Berrier, Audrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mulot, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Talneau, A.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Feature size effects in Ar/Cl-2 chemically assisted ion beam etching of InP-based protonic crystals2006In: 2006 International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials Conference Proceedings, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2006, 341-344 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work addresses feature size effects (the lag-effect and roughness development) in chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) etching of InP-based photonic crystals. Photonic crystal fields The slope of the etch,with varying hole size and periods were etched with different etching times. depth versus diameter cures (lag-curves) reveals an aspect ratio dependence, with an etch limiting aspect ratio of the order of 25. A model of the etch rate specific to Ar/Cl-2 CAIBE is proposed. We calculate the etch rate using a physico-chemical model which takes in to account the effect of Ar-ion sputtering and surface chemical reactions. lit addition, it combines the aspect ratio dependence of the gas conductance of the etched holes. Finally, the bottom roughness of the etched holes is examined; its origin and evolution are discussed.

  • 11.
    Berrier, Audrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mulot, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Talneau, A.
    Ferrini, R.
    Houdre, R.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Feature size effects in chemically assisted ion beam etching of InP-based photonic crystals - art. no. 6327072006In: Nanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices III / [ed] Dobisz, EA; Eldada, LA, BELLINGHAM, WA: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2006, Vol. 6327, 32707-32707 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work addresses feature size effects (the lag-effect and roughness development) in chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) etching of InP-based photonic crystals. Photonic crystal fields with varying hole size and periods were etched with different etching times. The slope of the etch depth versus diameter curves (lag-curves) reveals a hole size dependence, with a critical aspect ratio higher than 25. A model for the etch rate specific to Ar/Cl-2 CAIBE is proposed. We calculate the etch rate using a physico-chemical model which takes in to account the effect of Ar-ion sputtering and surface chemical reactions. In addition, it combines the aspect ratio dependence of the gas conductance of the etched holes. The origin and evolution of the bottom roughness of the etched holes is examined. The impact of the feature size dependence of the etching on the photonic crystal optical properties is then assessed by measuring the quality-factor of one-dimensional Fabry-Perot cavities using the Internal Light Source method, and discussed in terms of hole shape and depth. A systematic trend between the determined quality factor (Q) and the lag-effect is evidenced: Q decreases from about 250 to 60 when the hole depth drops from 5 mu m to 2 mu m.

  • 12.
    Berrier, Audrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Mulot, Mikaël
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Talneau, A.
    CNRS, LPN.
    Ferrini, R.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Optoelect Mat Mol.
    Houdre, R.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Photon & Elect Quant.
    Characterization of the feature-size dependence in Ar/Cl2 chemically assisted ion beam etching of InP-based photonic crystal devices2007In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 25, no 1, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors address feature-size dependence in Ar/Cl-2, chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) in the context of the fabrication of photonic crystal (PhC) structures. They systematically investigate the influence of various parameters such as hole diameter (115-600 nm), etch duration (10-60 min), and ion beam energy (300-600 eV) on PhC etching in InP with Ar/Cl-2, CAIBE. For a 60 min etching at an Ar-ion energy of 400 eV, the authors report an etch depth of 5 mu m for hole diameters d larger than 300 nm; the etch depth is in excess of 3 mu m for d larger than 200 nm. The evolution of roughness at the bottom of the etched holes and its dependence on hole size and etching conditions,is discussed. The physical mechanism of the observed feature-size dependent etching (FSDE) is then discussed and the effect of the process parameters is qualitatively understood using a model combining the effect of ion sputtering and surface chemical reactions. Finally, the effect of FSDE on the PhC optical properties is assessed by measuring the quality factor of one-dimensional Fabry-Perot PhC cavities. The measured quality factors show a clear trend with the etch depth: the cavity Q increases as the etch depth increases.

  • 13.
    Berrier, Audrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Mulot, Mikaël
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Malm, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Carrier transport through a dry-etched InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal2007In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 101, no 12, 123101-1-123101-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrical conduction across a two-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) fabricated by Ar/Cl-2 chemically assisted ion beam etching in n-doped InP is influenced by the surface potential of the hole sidewalls, modified by dry etching. Carrier transport across photonic crystal fields with different lattice parameters is investigated. For a given lattice period the PhC resistivity increases with the air fill factor and for a given air fill factor it increases as the lattice period is reduced. The measured current-voltage characteristics show clear ohmic behavior at lower voltages followed by current saturation at higher voltages. This behavior is confirmed by finite element ISE TCAD (TM) simulations. The observed current saturation is attributed to electric-field-induced saturation of the electron drift velocity. From the measured and simulated conductance for the different PhC fields we show that it is possible to determine the sidewall depletion region width and hence the surface potential. We find that at the hole sidewalls the etching induces a Fermi level pinning at about 0.12 eV below the conduction band edge, a value much lower than the bare InP surface potential. The results indicate that for n-InP the volume available for conduction in the etched PhCs approaches the geometrically defined volume as the doping is increased.

  • 14.
    Berrier, Audrey
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mulot, Mikaël
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Qiu, Min
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Talneau, A.
    CNRS, Lab Photon & Nanostruct.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal2004In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 93, no 073902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the first experimental evidence of negative refraction at telecommunication wavelengths by a two-dimensional photonic crystal field. Samples were fabricated by chemically assisted ion beam etching in the InP-based low-index constrast system. Experiments of beam imaging and light collection show light focusing by the photonic crystal field. Finite-difference time-domain simulations confirm that the observed focusing is due to negative refraction in the photonic crystal area.

  • 15.
    Berrier, Audrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Shi, Yaocheng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Marcinkevicius, Saulius
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Development of damage and its impact on surface recombination velocities in dry-etched InP-based photonic crystalsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Berrier, Audrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Shi, Yaocheng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Siegert, Jörg
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Marcinkevicius, Saulius
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Accumulated sidewall damage in dry etched photonic crystals2009In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 27, no 4, 1969-1975 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence for accumulated damage is provided by investigating the effect of etch duration on the carrier lifetime of an InGaAsP quantum well (QW) inside the InP-based photonic crystal (PhC) structures. It is found that once the quantum well is etched through, additional etching reduces the carrier lifetimes from 800 to 70 ps. The surface recombination velocity (SRV) at the exposed hole sidewalls is determined from the measured carrier lifetimes of the PhC fields with different lattice parameters. The observed variation in the SRV with etch duration also confirms the presence of accumulated sidewall damage. It increases from 6x10(3) to 1.2x10(5) cm s(-1) as the etching time increases from 3 to 50 min. A geometric model based on sputtering theory and on the evolution of the hole shape is developed to explain the accumulation of sidewall damage. The model is used to estimate the number of impact events from sputtered species reaching the QW sidewalls, and the variation in the accumulated impact events with etch duration is shown to be qualitatively consistent with the experimental observations. Finally, the results suggest a new method for tailoring the carrier lifetimes in PhC membrane structures.

  • 17.
    Berrier, Audrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Shi, Yaocheng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Siegert, Jörg
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Marcinkevicius, Saulius
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Evidence for accumulated sidewall damage in dry etched photonic crystals2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Berrier, Audrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Shi, Yaocheng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Siegert, Jörg
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Marcinkevicius, Saulius
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Srinivasan, Anand
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Impact of dry-etching induced damage in InP-based photonic crystals2008In: PHOTONIC CRYSTAL MATERIALS AND DEVICES VIII, 2008, Vol. 6989, U9890-U9890 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work variations of the carrier lifetime in a GaInAsP/InP quantum well in two-dimensional PhC structures etched by Ar/Cl-2 chemically assisted ion beam etching as a function of the processing parameters is investigated. It is shown that the deposition conditions of the SiO2 mask material and its coverage as well as other process steps such as annealing affect the carrier lifetimes. However the impact of patterning the semiconductor on the carrier lifetime is dominant, showing over an order of magnitude reduction. For given PhC lattice parameters, the sidewall damage is shown to be directly related to the measured carrier lifetimes. A simple qualitative model based on sputtering theory and assuming a conical hole-shape development during etching is used to explain the experimental results.

  • 19.
    Berrier, Audrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Le Thomas, N.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Photon & Elect Quant.
    Houdré, R.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Photon & Elect Quant.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Bloch mode excitation in two-dimensional photonic crystals imaged by Fourier optics2009In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 79, no 16, 165116-1-165116-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coupling into the Bloch modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) field is investigated by Fourier optics. The PhC was designed to operate in the second band above the air-light line, close to the autocollimation regime for TE polarization. The sample was fabricated in an InP-based heterostructure and an access ridge waveguide provides in-plane excitation of the PhC. The spatial Fourier transform of the field maps obtained from finite-difference time-domain simulations and those calculated by plane-wave expansion are compared to the experimentally obtained equifrequency surfaces (EFS). The shape of the imaged EFS and its variation with the excitation wavelength is shown to be consistent with the theoretical simulations. Finally, the results indicate that if combined with different excitation geometries, Fourier optics can be a powerful technique to assess photonic crystal devices and to design efficient structures.

  • 20. El-Kallassi, P.
    et al.
    Ferrini, R.
    Zuppiroli, L.
    Le Thomas, N.
    Houdré, R.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Talneau, A.
    Optical and local tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules2007In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007, CLEO 2007, 2007, 1375-1376 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the optical tuning of InP-based planar photonic crystals (PhCs) infiltrated with a photoresponsive liquid crystal system. Preliminary results on the local tuning of PhC devices are also presented.

  • 21. El-Kallassi, P.
    et al.
    Ferrini, R.
    Zuppiroli, L.
    Le Thomas, N.
    Houdré, R.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Talneau, A.
    Optical and local tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules2007In: Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 European Conference on and the International Quantum Electronics Conference, 2007, 4387041- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the optical tuning of InP-based planar photonic crystals infiltrated with a photoresponsive liquid crystal system. Preliminary results on the local tuning of infiltrated structures are also presented.

  • 22. El-Kallassi, Pascale
    et al.
    Ferrini, Rolando
    Zuppiroli, Libero
    Le Thomas, Nicolas
    Houdré, Romuald
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Talneau, Anne
    Optical tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules2007In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 24, no 9, 2165-2171 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical tuning of InP-based planar photonic crystals (PhCs) infiltrated with a photoresponsive liquid crystal system is presented. Photoinduced phase transitions of a liquid crystal blend doped with azobenzene molecules are used to tune the optical response of PhC cavities. This process is found to be reversible and stable. Several tuning conditions are analyzed in terms of the blend phase diagram.

  • 23.
    Ferrini, R.
    et al.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Int Photon & Elect Quant.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Dunbar, L. A.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Int Photon & Elect Quant.
    Houdré, R.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Int Photon & Elect Quant.
    Mulot, Mikaël
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    de Rossi, S.
    CNRS, Lab Photon & Nanostruct.
    Talneau, A.
    CNRS, Lab Photon & Nanostruct.
    Minimization of out-of-plane losses in planar photonic crystals by optimizing the vertical waveguide2004In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 85, no 18, 3998-4000 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-dimensional phenomenological approach previously developed for the modeling of out-of-plane losses in low refractive index contrast planar photonic crystals (PPhCs) is used to study the dependence of the different loss terms on the planar waveguide parameters. It is demonstrated that: (i) Losses can be minimized by designing vertical heterostructures optimized for a given technological process and/or for a given hole shape; and (ii) any small reduction of the loss value has a strong impact on the optical performances of PPhC structures.

  • 24.
    Jaskorzynska, Bozena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Qiu, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Dainese, Matteo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Zawistowski, Zygmunt J.
    Applications of wavelength dispersion in 1D and 2D photonic crystals2005In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering / [ed] Waclaw Urbanczyk, Bozena Jaskorzynska, Philip St. J. Russell, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2005, 1-9 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most distinctive features of photonic crystals (PhCs) is their unique wavelength dispersion allowing novel device concepts for enhancement of photonic functionality and performance. Here, we present examples of our design and demonstrations utilizing dispersion properties of 1D and 2D photonic crystals. This includes the demonstration of negative refraction in 2D PhC at optical wavelengths, filters based on 1D and 2D PhC waveguides, and the design of a widely tunable filter involving 1D PhC.

  • 25.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Electrum Laboratory, ELAB.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Electrum Laboratory, ELAB.
    Barrios, C. A.
    Hakkarainen, Teppo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Electrum Laboratory, ELAB.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Electrum Laboratory, ELAB. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Aubert, Amandine
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Electrum Laboratory, ELAB.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Electrum Laboratory, ELAB. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Broeke, R. G.
    Cao, J.
    Chubun, N.
    Seo, S. -W
    Baek, J. -H
    Aihara, K.
    Pharn, Anh-Vu
    Ben Yoo, S. J.
    Avella, M.
    Jimenez, J.
    Heteroepitaxy and selective epitaxy for discrete and integrated devices2006In: 2006 CONFERENCE ON OPTOELECTRONIC AND MICROELECTRONIC MATERIALS & DEVICES, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2006, 309-311 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present first results on heteroepitaxy of InP on silicon on insulator (SOI). We also demonstrate InP nanopillar fabrication by means of selective epitaxy. Selective epitaxy is also exploited to fabricate advanced photonic integrated devices for Optical Code Division Multiplex Access (OCDMA) networking applications.

  • 26.
    Qiu, Min
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Ruan, Zhichao
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Xiao, S S
    Mulot, M.
    Swillo, M.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Thylen, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Negative refraction in semiconductor photonic crystals2005In: SEMICONDUCTOR AND ORGANIC OPTOELECTRONIC MATERIALS AND DEVICES, 2005, Vol. 5624, 345-352 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling efficiency between external plane waves and the Bloch waves in photonic crystals are investigated. It is found that the coupling coefficient is highly angular dependent even for an interface between air n=l and a photonic crystal with effective index -1. It is also shown that, for point imaging by a photonic crystal slab owing to the negative refraction, the influence of the surface termination to the transmission and the imaging quality is significant. Finally, we present results demonstrating experimentally negative refraction in a two-dimensional photonic crystal.

  • 27.
    Sanatinia, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA. Universität Stuttgart, Germany.
    Dhaka, Veer
    Aalto University.
    P. Perros, Alexander
    Aalto University.
    Huhtio, Teppo
    Aalto University.
    Lipsanen, Harri
    Aalto University.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Wafer-Scale Self-Organized InP Nanopillars with Controlled Orientation for Photovoltaic Devices2015In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 26, no 41, 415304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A unique wafer-scale self-organization process for generation of InP nanopillars is demonstrated, which is based on maskless ion-beam etching (IBE) of InP developed to obtain the nanopillars, where the height, shape, and orientation of the nanopillars can be varied by controlling the processing parameters. The fabricated InP nanopillars exhibit broadband suppression of the reflectance, 'black InP,' a property useful for solar cells. The realization of a conformal p-n junction for carrier collection, in the fabricated solar cells, is achieved by a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) overgrowth step on the fabricated pillars. The conformal overgrowth retains the broadband anti-reflection property of the InP nanopillars, indicating the feasibility of this technology for solar cells. Surface passivation of the formed InP nanopillars using sulfur-oleylamine solution resulted in improved solar-cell characteristics. An open-circuit voltage of 0.71 V and an increase of 0.13 V compared to the unpassivated device were achieved.

  • 28.
    Shi, Yaocheng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Shahid, Naeem
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Li, Mingyu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Experimental demonstration of an ultracompact polarization beamsplitter based on a multimode interference coupler with internal photonic crystals2010In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 49, no 6, 060503- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fabrication and characterization of a compact InP-based polarization beamsplitter (PBS) is presented. A multimode interference (MMI) coupler with an internal air hole photonic crystal (PhC) section is utilized to separate the two polarizations. The PhC structure in the middle of the MMI is polarization dependent, so that one polarization is reflected and the other one is transmitted; both are collected by the respective output ports of the MMI coupler. The obtained experimental results show that the PBS as short as similar to 400 mu m has an extinction ratio as large as 15 dB.

  • 29.
    Talneau, A.
    et al.
    CNRS, Lab Photon & Nanostruct.
    Aubin, G.
    CNRS, Lab Photon & Nanostruct.
    Uddhammar, Anna
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mulot, Mikaël
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Highly dispersive photonic crystal-based coupled-cavity structures2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 88, no 20, 201106-1-201106-3 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We measured the wavelength dependence of the group velocity dispersion (GVD) for different photonic-crystal coupled-cavity structures through a phase analysis of the transmitted modulated signal. GVD values as large as 10(6)-10(7) times the dispersion of a standard single mode fiber are obtained when operating close to the band edge of the miniband, in agreement with the calculated group index. The GVD is found to be smaller for the structure based on more open cavities.

  • 30. Talneau, A.
    et al.
    LeGratiet, L.
    Gentner, J. L.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mulot, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Olivier, S.
    High external efficiency in a monomode full-photonic-crystal laser under continuous wave electrical injection2004In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 85, no 11, 1913-1915 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate continuous wave with an external efficiency over 0.15 W/A and monomode operation of a full photonic crystal (PhC) laser. The optical confinement and a wavelength selectivity better than 25 dB are all ensured by a unique PhC. We take advantage of the feedback on the fundamental mode which exists within the photonic gap for some specific designs of the PhC guide. These designs are calculated using the plane wave expansion method.

1 - 30 of 30
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