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  • 1. Bacca, S.
    et al.
    Hally, K.
    Liebendoerfer, M.
    Perego, A.
    Pethick, Christopher J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Schwenk, A.
    Neutrino processes in partially degenerate neutron matter2012In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 758, no 1, p. 34-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate neutrino processes for conditions reached in simulations of core-collapse supernovae. In regions where neutrino-matter interactions play an important role, matter is partially degenerate, and we extend earlier work that addressed the degenerate regime. We derive expressions for the spin structure factor in neutron matter, which is a key quantity required for evaluating rates of neutrino processes. We show that, for essentially all conditions encountered in the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae, it is a very good approximation to calculate the spin relaxation rates in the nondegenerate limit. We calculate spin relaxation rates based on chiral effective field theory interactions and find that they are typically a factor of two smaller than those obtained using the standard one-pion-exchange interaction alone.

  • 2. Bartl, A.
    et al.
    Pethick, Christopher J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Schwenk, A.
    Supernova Matter at Subnuclear Densities as a Resonant Fermi Gas: Enhancement of Neutrino Rates2014In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 113, no 8, p. 081101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At low energies nucleon-nucleon interactions are resonant and therefore supernova matter at subnuclear densities has many similarities to atomic gases with interactions dominated by a Feshbach resonance. We calculate the rates of neutrino processes involving nucleon-nucleon collisions and show that these are enhanced in mixtures of neutrons and protons at subnuclear densities due to the large scattering lengths. As a result, the rate for neutrino pair bremsstrahlung and absorption is significantly larger below 10(13) g cm(-3) compared to rates used in supernova simulations.

  • 3. Baym, Gordon
    et al.
    Beck, D. H.
    Pethick, Christopher J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Transport in ultradilute solutions of He-3 in superfluid He-42015In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 92, no 2, article id 024504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculate the effect of a heat current on transporting He-3 dissolved in superfluid He-4 at ultralow concentration, as will be utilized in a proposed experimental search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM). In this experiment, a phonon wind will be generated to drive (partly depolarized) 3He down a long pipe. In the regime of 3He concentrations less than or similar to 10(-9) and temperatures similar to 0.5 K, the phonons comprising the heat current are kept in a flowing local equilibrium by small angle phonon-phonon scattering, while they transfer momentum to the walls via the He-4 first viscosity. On the other hand, the phonon wind drives the 3He out of local equilibrium via phonon-He-3 scattering. For temperatures below 0.5 K, both the phonon and He-3 mean free paths can reach the centimeter scale, and we calculate the effects on the transport coefficients. We derive the relevant transport coefficients, the phonon thermal conductivity, and the He-3 diffusion constants from the Boltzmann equation. We calculate the effect of scattering from the walls of the pipe and show that it may be characterized by the average distance from points inside the pipe to the walls. The temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of the He-3 atoms is determined by the time dependent He-3 diffusion equation, which describes the competition between advection by the phonon wind and He-3 diffusion. As a consequence of the thermal diffusivity being small compared with the He-3 diffusivity, the scale height of the final He-3 distribution is much smaller than that of the temperature gradient. We present exact solutions of the time dependent temperature and He-3 distributions in terms of a complete set of normal modes.

  • 4. Baym, Gordon
    et al.
    Beck, D. H.
    Pethick, Christopher J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Transport in very dilute solutions of He-3 in superfluid He-42013In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 014512-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by a proposed experimental search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM) utilizing neutron-He-3 capture in a dilute solution of He-3 in superfluid He-4, we derive the transport properties of dilute solutions in the regime where the He-3 are classically distributed and rapid He-3-He-3 scatterings keep the He-3 in equilibrium. Our microscopic framework takes into account phonon-phonon, phonon-He-3, and He-3-He-3 scatterings. We then apply these calculations to measurements by Rosenbaum et al. [J. Low Temp. Phys. 16, 131 (1974)] and by Lamoreaux et al. [Europhys. Lett. 58, 718 (2002)] of dilute solutions in the presence of a heat flow. We find satisfactory agreement of theory with the data, serving to confirm our understanding of the microscopics of the helium in the future nEDM experiment.

  • 5. Baym, Gordon
    et al.
    Patil, Subodh P.
    Pethick, Christopher
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Damping of gravitational waves by matter2017In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 96, no 8, article id 084033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a unified description, via the Boltzmann equation, of damping of gravitational waves by matter, incorporating collisions. We identify two physically distinct damping mechanisms-collisional and Landau damping. We first consider damping in flat spacetime, and then generalize the results to allow for cosmological expansion. In the first regime, maximal collisional damping of a gravitational wave, independent of the details of the collisions in the matter is, as we show, significant only when its wavelength is comparable to the size of the horizon. Thus damping by intergalactic or interstellar matter for all but primordial gravitational radiation can be neglected. Although collisions in matter lead to a shear viscosity, they also act to erase anisotropic stresses, thus suppressing the damping of gravitational waves. Damping of primordial gravitational waves remains possible. We generalize Weinberg's calculation of gravitational wave damping, now including collisions and particles of finite mass, and interpret the collisionless limit in terms of Landau damping. While Landau damping of gravitational waves cannot occur in flat spacetime, the expansion of the universe allows such damping by spreading the frequency of a gravitational wave of given wave vector.

  • 6. Baym, Gordon
    et al.
    Pethick, Christopher J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Landau critical velocity in weakly interacting Bose gases2012In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 023602-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow of a uniform Bose gas at speeds greater than the Landau critical velocity nu(c) does not necessarily destroy superfluidity, but rather needs only to lead to a decrease of the superfluid mass density rho(s). Analyzing a weakly interacting Bose gas with a finite-range interparticle interaction that leads to a Landau critical velocity at nonzero quasiparticle momentum, we explicitly construct the (nonuniform) condensate for fluid flow faster than nu(c) and calculate the accompanying decrease in rho s. We briefly comment on the relation of the physics to other problems in superfluids, e.g., solitons and vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates, and critical currents in superconductors.

  • 7. Baym, Gordon
    et al.
    Pethick, Christopher J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Normal mass density of a superfluid Fermi gas at unitarity2013In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 88, no 4, p. 043631-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculate the normal mass density of a paired Fermi gas at unitarity. The dominant contribution near the superfluid transition is from fermionic quasiparticle excitations and is, thus, sensitive to the pairing gap. A comparison with the recent experiment of Sidorenkov et al. [Nature (London) 498, 78 (2013)] suggests that the superfluid gap near the transition temperature is larger than the BCS value, but the data do not permit a quantitative inference of the gap. Calculations of the quenched moment of inertia of a BCS superfluid in a harmonic trap are in reasonable agreement with the earlier experiment of Riedl et al. [New J. Phys. 13, 035003 (2011)].

  • 8. Cetoli, A.
    et al.
    Pethick, C. J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Interaction of gravitational waves with matter2012In: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 85, no 6, p. 064036-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a unified formalism for describing the interaction of gravitational waves with matter that clearly separates the effects of general relativity from those due to interactions in the matter. Using it, we derive a general expression for the dispersion of gravitational waves in matter in terms of correlation functions for the matter in flat spacetime. The self energy of a gravitational wave is shown to have contributions analogous to the paramagnetic and diamagnetic contributions to the self energy of an electromagnetic wave. We apply the formalism to some simple systems: free particles, an interacting scalar field, and a fermionic superfluid.

  • 9. Deuretzbacher, F.
    et al.
    Bruun, G. M.
    Pethick, Christopher J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Jona-Lasinio, M.
    Reimann, S. M.
    Santos, L.
    Self-bound many-body states of quasi-one-dimensional dipolar Fermi gases: Exploiting Bose-Fermi mappings for generalized contact interactions2013In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 033611-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combination of results from exact mappings and from mean-field theory we explore the phase diagram of quasi-one-dimensional systems of identical fermions with attractive dipolar interactions. We demonstrate that at low density these systems provide a realization of a single-component one-dimensional Fermi gas with a generalized contact interaction. Using an exact duality between one-dimensional Fermi and Bose gases, we show that when the dipole moment is strong enough, bound many-body states exist, and we calculate the critical coupling strength for the emergence of these states. At higher densities, the Hartree-Fock approximation is accurate, and by combining the two approaches we determine the structure of the phase diagram. The many-body bound states should be accessible in future experiments with ultracold polar molecules.

  • 10. Hebeler, K.
    et al.
    Lattimer, J. M.
    Pethick, Christopher J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Schwenk, A.
    Equation of state and neutron star properties constrained by nuclear physics and observation2013In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 773, no 1, p. 11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microscopic calculations of neutron matter based on nuclear interactions derived from chiral effective field theory, combined with the recent observation of a 1.97 +/- 0.04 M-circle dot neutron star, constrain the equation of state of neutron-rich matter at sub-and supranuclear densities. We discuss in detail the allowed equations of state and the impact of our results on the structure of neutron stars, the crust-core transition density, and the nuclear symmetry energy. In particular, we show that the predicted range for neutron star radii is robust. For use in astrophysical simulations, we provide detailed numerical tables for a representative set of equations of state consistent with these constraints.

  • 11. Kobyakov, D. N.
    et al.
    Pethick, C. J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Reddy, S.
    Schwenk, A.
    Dispersion and decay of collective modes in neutron star cores2017In: Physical Review C: Covering Nuclear Physics, ISSN 2469-9985, E-ISSN 2469-9993, Vol. 96, no 2, article id 025805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculate the frequencies of collective modes of neutrons, protons, and electrons in the outer core of neutron stars. The neutrons and protons are treated in a hydrodynamic approximation and the electrons are regarded as collisionless. The coupling of the nucleons to the electrons leads to Landau damping of the collective modes and to significant dispersion of the low-lying modes. We investigate the sensitivity of the mode frequencies to the strength of entrainment between neutrons and protons, which is not well characterized. The contribution of collective modes to the thermal conductivity is evaluated.

  • 12.
    Kobyakov, D. N.
    et al.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Appl Phys, Nizhnii Novgorod 603950, Russia..
    Pethick, Christopher
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Superfluid Liquid Crystals: Pasta Phases in Neutron Star Crusts2018In: Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, ISSN 1063-7761, E-ISSN 1090-6509, Vol. 127, no 5, p. 851-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pasta phases predicted to occur near the inner boundary of the crust of a neutron star resemble liquid crystals, a smectic A in the case of sheet-like nuclei (lasagna) and the columnar phase in the case of rod-like nuclei (spaghetti). An important difference compared with usual liquid crystals is that the nucleons are superfluid. We develop the hydrodynamic equations for this system and use them to study collective oscillations. Nucleon superfluidity leads to important qualitative differences in the spectra of these oscillations and also increases their frequencies compared with ordinary liquid crystals. We discuss a number of directions for future work.

  • 13. Kobyakov, D. N.
    et al.
    Pethick, Christopher
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Two-component Superfluid Hydrodynamics of Neutron Star Cores2017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 836, no 2, article id 203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the hydrodynamics of the outer core of a neutron star under conditions when both neutrons and protons are superfluid. Starting from the equation of motion for the phases of the wave functions of the condensates of neutron pairs and proton pairs, we derive the generalization of the Euler equation for a one-component fluid. These equations are supplemented by the conditions for conservation of neutron number and proton number. Of particular interest is the effect of entrainment, the fact that the current of one nucleon species depends on the momenta per nucleon of both condensates. We find that the nonlinear terms in the Euler-like equation contain contributions that have not always been taken into account in previous applications of superfluid hydrodynamics. We apply the formalism to determine the frequency of oscillations about a state with stationary condensates and states with a spatially uniform counterflow of neutrons and protons. The velocities of the coupled sound-like modes of neutrons and protons are calculated from properties of uniform neutron star matter evaluated on the basis of chiral effective field theory. We also derive the condition for the two-stream instability to occur.

  • 14. Kobyakov, D.
    et al.
    Pethick, Christopher
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Dynamics of the inner crust of neutron stars: Hydrodynamics, elasticity, and collective modes2013In: Physical Review C. Nuclear Physics, ISSN 0556-2813, E-ISSN 1089-490X, Vol. 87, no 5, p. 055803-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present calculations of the hydrodynamics of the inner crust of neutron stars, where a superfluid neutron liquid coexists with a lattice of neutron-rich nuclei. The long-wavelength collective oscillations are combinations of phonons in the lattice and phonons in the superfluid neutrons. Velocities of collective modes are calculated from information about effective nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from Lattimer and Swesty's microscopic calculations based on a compressible liquid drop picture of the atomic nuclei and the surrounding neutrons.

  • 15. Kobyakov, D.
    et al.
    Pethick, Christopher J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elastic properties of polycrystalline dense matter2015In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, ISSN 1745-3925, Vol. 449, no 1, p. L110-L112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elastic properties of the solid regions of neutron star crusts and white dwarfs play an important role in theories of stellar oscillations. Matter in compact stars is presumably polycrystalline and, since the elastic properties of single crystals of such matter are very anisotropic, it is necessary to relate elastic properties of the polycrystal to those of a single crystal. We calculate the effective shear modulus of polycrystalline matter with randomly oriented crystallites using a self-consistent theory that has been very successful in applications to terrestrial materials and show that previous calculations overestimate the shear modulus by approximately 28 per cent.

  • 16. Kobyakov, D.
    et al.
    Pethick, Christopher J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Niels Bohr International Academy, Denmark.
    Nucleus-nucleus interactions in the inner crust of neutron stars2016In: Physical Review C, ISSN 2469-9985, Vol. 94, no 5, article id 055806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between nuclei in the inner crust of neutron stars consists of two contributions: the so-called "direct" interaction and an "induced" one due to density changes in the neutron fluid. For large nuclear separations r the contributions from nuclear forces to each of these terms are shown to be nonzero. In the static limit they are equal in magnitude but have opposite signs and they cancel exactly. We analyze earlier results on effective interactions in light of this finding. We consider the properties of long-wavelength collective modes and, in particular, calculate the degree of mixing between the lattice phonons and the phonons in the neutron superfluid. Using microscopic theory, we calculate the net non-Coulombic contribution to the nucleus-nucleus interaction and show that, for large r, the leading term is due to exchange of two phonons and varies as 1/r(7); it is an analog of the Casimir-Polder interaction between neutral atoms.

  • 17. Kobyakov, D.
    et al.
    Pethick, Christopher J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Towards a Metallurgy of Neutron Star Crusts2014In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 112, no 11, p. 112504-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the standard picture of the crust of a neutron star, matter there is simple: a body- centered-cubic lattice of nuclei immersed in an essentially uniform electron gas. We show that, at densities above that for neutron drip (similar to 4 x 10(11) g cm(-3) or roughly one- thousandth of nuclear matter density), the interstitial neutrons give rise to an attractive interaction between nuclei that renders the lattice unstable. We argue that the likely equilibrium structure is similar to that in displacive ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO3. As a consequence, the properties of matter in the inner crust are expected to be much richer than previously appreciated, and we mention possible consequences for observable neutron star properties.

  • 18.
    Pethick, Christopher
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Schäfer, T.
    Schwenk, A.
    Bose-Einstein condensates in neutron stars2017In: Universal Themes of Bose-Einstein Condensation, Cambridge University Press , 2017, p. 573-592Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the two decades since the appearance of the book Bose-Einstein Condensation in 1995, there have been a number of developments in our understanding of dense matter. After a brief overview of neutron star structure and the Bose-Einstein condensed phases that have been proposed, we describe selected topics, including neutron and proton pairing gaps; the physics of the inner crust of neutron stars, where a neutron fluid penetrates a lattice of nuclei, meson condensates; and pairing in dense quark matter. Especial emphasis is placed on basic physical effects and on connections to the physics of cold atomic gases. 

  • 19.
    Watanabe, Gentaro
    et al.
    Zhejiang Univ, Dept Phys, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.;Zhejiang Univ, Zhejiang Inst Modern Phys, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Pethick, Christopher J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Int Acad, Niels Bohr Inst, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.
    Superfluid Density of Neutrons in the Inner Crust of Neutron Stars: New Life for Pulsar Glitch Models2017In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 119, no 6, article id 062701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calculations of the effects of band structure on the neutron superfluid density in the crust of neutron stars made under the assumption that the effects of pairing are small [N. Chamel, Phys. Rev. C 85, 035801 (2012)] lead to moments of inertia of superfluid neutrons so small that the crust alone is insufficient to account for the magnitude of neutron star glitches. Inspired by earlier work on ultracold atomic gases in an optical lattice, we investigate fermions with attractive interactions in a periodic lattice in the mean-field approximation. The effects of band structure are suppressed when the pairing gap is of order or greater than the strength of the lattice potential. By applying the results to the inner crust of neutron stars, we conclude that the reduction of the neutron superfluid density is considerably less than previously estimated and, consequently, it is premature to rule out models of glitches based on neutron superfluidity in the crust.

  • 20. Yakovlev, D. G.
    et al.
    Haensel, P.
    Baym, G.
    Pethick, Christopher
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Lev Landau and the concept of neutron stars2013In: Physics Uspekhi, ISSN 1063-7869, E-ISSN 1468-4780, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 289-295Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review Lev Landau's role in the history of neutron star physics in the 1930s. According to the recollections of Rosenfeld (Proc. 16th Solvay Conference on Physics, 1974, p. 174), Landau improvised the concept of neutron stars in a discussion with Bohr and Rosenfeld just after the news of the discovery of the neutron reached Copenhagen in February 1932. We present arguments that the discussion must have taken place in March 1931, before the discovery of the neutron, and that they, in fact, discussed the paper written by Landau in Zurich in February 1931 but not published until February 1932 (Phys. Z. Sowjetunion 1, 285). In this paper, Landau mentioned the possible existence of dense stars that look like one giant nucleus; this could be regarded as an early theoretical prediction or anticipation of neutron stars, albeit prior to the discovery of the neutron. The coincidence of the dates of the neutron discovery and the publication of the paper has led to an erroneous association of Landau's paper with the discovery of the neutron. In passing, we outline Landau's contribution to the theory of white dwarfs and to the hypothesis of stars with neutron cores.

  • 21.
    Yu, Zhenhua
    et al.
    Niels Bohr Inst, Copenhagen O, Denmark ; Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH USA ; Tsinghua Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China .
    Pethick, Christopher J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Induced interactions in dilute atomic gases and liquid helium mixtures2012In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 85, no 6, p. 063616-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In dilute mixtures of two atomic gases, interactions between two minority atoms acquire a contribution due to interaction with the majority component. Using thermodynamic arguments, we derive expressions for this induced interaction for both fermions and bosons for arbitrary strength of the interaction between the two components. Implications of the work for the theory of dilute solutions of He-3 in liquid He-4 are discussed.

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