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  • 1. Ashizuka, M.
    et al.
    Ishida, E.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    Hisanaga, M.
    Elastic modulus, strength and fracture toughness of alumina ceramics containing pores2002In: Nippon Seramikkusu Kyokai gakujutsu rombunshi, ISSN 0914-5400, E-ISSN 1882-1022, Vol. 110, no 6, p. 554-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [ja]

    The effect of pores on elastic modulus, strength and fracture toughness of alumina ceramics was studied. Elastic modulus decreased with increasing porosity, and slightly increased with increasing pore size. On the other hand, strength decreased with increasing both porosity and pore size, being proportional to a reciprocal square root of the pore size. Fracture toughness decreased with increasing porosity and increased with increasing pore size. Fracture surface energy slightly increased with increasing pore size. The crack size at fracture origin were bigger 10 times or more than the maximum pore size, and increased with increasing pore size.

  • 2. Brillo, J.
    et al.
    Egry, I.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Density and surface tension of liquid ternary Ni-Cu-Fe alloys2006In: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1778-1791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The density and surface tension of liquid Ni-Cu-Fe alloys have been measured over a wide temperature range, including the undercooled regime. A non-contact technique was used, consisting of an electromagnetic levitator equipped with facilities for optical densitometry and oscillating drop tensiometry. At temperatures above and below the liquidus point, the density and surface tension are linear functions of temperature. The concentration dependence of the density is significantly influenced by a third-order (ternary) parameter in the excess volume. The surface tensions are rather insensitive to substitution of the two transition metals Ni, Fe against each other and depend only on the copper concentration. By numerically solving the Butler equation, the surface tension of the ternary system can be derived from the thermodynamic potentials (E)G of the binary phases (Ni-Cu, Fe-Cu, Ni-Fe) alone.

  • 3. Brillo, J.
    et al.
    Egry, I.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Density and surface tension of liquid ternary Ni-Cu-Fe alloys2006In: Zeitschrift für Metallkunde, ISSN 0044-3093, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 28-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Density and surface tension of liquid Ni-Cu-Fe alloys have been measured over a wide temperature range, including the undercooled regime. A non-contact technique was used, consisting of an electromagnetic levitator, an optical densitometer, and an oscillating drop tensiometer. At temperatures above and below the liquidus point, density and surface tension are linear functions of temperature. The concentration dependence of the density is significantly influenced by a third-order (ternary) parameter in the volume, while the surface tensions can be derived from the thermodynamic potentials (E)G of the binary phases alone.

  • 4. Brillo, Juergen
    et al.
    Egry, Ivan
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Density and excess volumes of liquid copper, cobalt, iron and their binary and ternary alloys2006In: International Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 1862-5282, Vol. 97, no 11, p. 1526-1532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The densities of liquid copper, cobalt, and iron, their binary and ternary alloys have been measured over a temperature range including the undercooled regime. A non-contact technique was used, consisting of electromagnetic levitation combined with optical dilatometry. For all samples, the density was a linear function of temperature. The concentration dependence was studied by means of the excess volume which was negligible for Co-Fe and positive for Cu-Fe, Cu-Co, and Cu-Co-Fe. The density of the ternary alloy could be predicted from the excess volumes of the binary phases without the need to introduce any ternary interactions.

  • 5.
    Cao, Weimin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Delin, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Theoretical investigation of sulfur adsorption on FE (100)2009In: TMS 2009 138TH ANNUAL MEETING & EXHIBITION - SUPPLEMENTAL PROCEEDINGS, VOL 3: GENERAL PAPER SELECTIONS, WARRENDALE: MINERALS, METALS & MATERIALS SOC , 2009, p. 523-528Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic and structural properties of atomic sulfur adsorbed on the iron surface (100) are examined by using density functional theory (DFT). The sulfur coverage is considered from a quarter of one monolayer (ML) to a full monolayer, and the adsorption energy and work function are calculated for three different adsorption sites of sulfur. Our calculated results indicate that the most likely site for S adsorption is the hollow site on Fe (100), which is agreement with experiment. In addition, at 1 ML coverage, the work function increased after the S adsorption on the Fe (100) surface, which implies that charge transfer from the surface to sulfur has taken place. The results are in agreement with previous theoretical work.

  • 6. Egry, I.
    et al.
    Brillo, J.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Thermophysical properties of liquid Cu-Fe-Ni alloys2005In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 413, p. 460-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Density and surface tension of liquid Cu-Fe-Ni alloys have been measured in an electromagnetic levitator over a wide temperature range, including the undercooled regime. Both properties are linear functions of temperature. Their concentration dependence, however, is highly nonlinear. The fit of the density data requires an excess volume containing a substantial ternary contribution. The surface tension is correctly predicted by the Butler equation from the thermodynamic potentials of the binary phases alone. In addition, a simple model is proposed which describes the surface tension reasonably well and requires as input the surface tensions of the pure components only.

  • 7. Egry, I.
    et al.
    Brooks, R.
    Holland-Moritz, D.
    Novakovic, R.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Plevachuk, Y.
    Ricci, E.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Sklyarchuk, V.
    Wunderlich, R.
    Thermophysical properties of liquid Al-Ni alloys2009In: High Temperatures-High Pressures, ISSN 0018-1544, E-ISSN 1472-3441, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 343-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Integrated Project IMPRESS, funded by the EU, thermophysi cal properties of two Al-Ni alloys have been investigated: Raney-nickel (Al-31.5at%Ni) and Al-25at%Ni, corresponding to the intermetallic phase Al3Ni. Transition temperatures, latent heat, heat capacity, density and electrical resistivity were measured in the solid and liquid phases. In addition, surface tension and viscosity of the melts were also determined. All quantities have been obtained as a function of temperature, in some cases also in the undercooled liquid. In this paper, we report on results obtained for the liquid phase using advanced container-based and containerless measurement methods. The obtained data yield a comprehensive characterisation of this technologically relevant class of alloys.

  • 8. Egry, I.
    et al.
    Brooks, R.
    Holland-Moritz, D.
    Novakovic, R.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Ricci, E.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Wunderlich, R.
    Jarvis, D.
    Thermophysical properties of gamma-titanium aluminide: The European IMPRESS project2007In: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 1026-1036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of its 6th Framework Programme, the European Union funds the Integrated Project IMPRESS, related to industrial applications of Ti-Al and Ni-Al alloys. One central task of this project is the precise determination of the relevant thermophysical properties of selected alloys for both the solid and liquid phases. The properties to be measured include thermal data such as heat of fusion, specific heat, and thermal conductivity, as well as thermophysical and transport properties such as density, surface tension, and viscosity. In addition to conventional high-temperature equipment, containerless methods are used. This article introduces the IMPRESS project, and discusses the first results obtained to date.

  • 9.
    Elfsberg, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Determination of the interfacial tension between commercial steel grades and mould flux slags by experiments and by empirical modelsIn: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344XArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Elfsberg, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Measurements and Calculation of Interfacial Tension between Commercial Steels and Mould Flux Slags2011In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 82, no 4, p. 404-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface quality of continuously cast is strongly influenced by the interfacial tension between steel and mould flux slag. The meniscus shape and the inclusion entrapment are directly determined by interfacial tension. To achieve a better understanding of the continuous casting process, the interface between four commercial steels and the mould fluxes used at the continuous casting of each steel grade have been investigated. The situation at this interface is determined by the surface tension of steel and slag respectively and also by the mass transfer occurring across the interface. The surface tensions of the mould flux slags have been measured by sessile drop method. The results indicate that the surface tension of mould flux slags decreases with increasing temperature but does not vary so much within the present composition range. Interfacial tensions between steel samples and mould flux slags have been measured in the same way with the aid of X-ray unit. Estimation of interfacial tension from the steel and slag composition was done by applying empirical models. The measured and the calculated values were in agreement. The interfacial tension was lower for higher alloyed steel grades according to both experiments and calculations though the influence of surface active elements is significant.

  • 11.
    Elfsberg, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    X-Ray Observation of Gas Evolution, Flotation, and Emulsification of Molten Carbon Steel Immersed in Mold Flux2011In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 265-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At two interfacial-tension measurement experiments with the same experimental conditions, steel samples and mold flux samples of the same compositions were melted in crucibles from the same batch. During the first experiment, the steel drop melted far below its liquidus and then was emulsified. At the second experiment, the steel melted at the expected temperature but did not emulsify. The difference that can be identified is the mass of the steel samples.

  • 12.
    Elfsberg, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Experimental study of interfacial phenomena between commercial steel and mould flux slag: influence of oxide additions to the mould fluxIn: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13. Hara, Kyosuke
    et al.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Nagata, Kazuhiro
    In-situ X-ray Transmission Observation of Carbothermic Reduction of Magnetite Powder and Macroscopic Agglomeration of Reduced Iron2013In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 1010-1019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The agglomeration behaviour of reduced iron, made from magnetite powder by carbothermic reduction, was observed by using the in-situ X-ray transmission observation technique. The iron particles, above 1 mm, were clearly observed as black points. Further, the reduction speed was examined by using the thermogravimetric analysis. The bulk density of the packed powder layer and the grain size distribution of magnetite powder and carbon black powder were changed and the effects of them on the reduction speed and the agglomeration degree were examined. The agglomeration degree was evaluated with diameter of iron particles on the X-ray photographs, taken during heating, and the weight of collected iron particles after the observation experiments. Neither the bulk density of powder layer nor the grain size distribution of powder mixture affected to the reduction speed. The agglomeration degree decreased when the bulk density of the powder layer was increased by compacting. On the other hand, the agglomeration degree was increased when the grain size distribution of powder mixture was widened. Further, the height change of powder layer was also measured on the X-ray photographs and compared with the iron particles appearing behaviour to estimate the microscopic agglomeration behaviour. The mechanisms that grain size distribution affected the agglomeration degree were discussed.

  • 14.
    Jönsson, Pär
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Aune, Ragnhild E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Du, Sichen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Sundberg, Sven
    The Seetharaman Seminar June 14-15, 2010 in Stockholm, Sweden2012In: High Temperature Materials and Processes, ISSN 0334-6455, E-ISSN 2191-0324, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 193-193Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15. Kaptay, G.
    et al.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Metallurgy.
    Mukai, K.
    Ohuchi, T.
    On different modifications of the capillary model of penetration of inert liquid metals into porous refractories and their connection to the pore size distribution of the refractories2004In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 471-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different modifications to the classical capillary model of penetration of liquid metals into porous refractories are presented; (1) with capillaries having different radii, (2) with zigzag capillaries, and (3) with capillaries, having periodically changing capillary radius along the path of penetration. All the modified capillary models were checked against our experimental results of measuring the penetration of liquid mercury into three types of alumina refractories, having different microstructure and pore size distribution. The maximum penetration height was measured by X-ray radiography, as a function of applied outside pressure. The model with periodically changing capillary has been found to describe the experimental data satisfactorily. This model divides the process of penetration into two stages. During the first period of pre-penetration, the maximum penetration height changes very slowly (but not linearly) as the outside pressure is increased in the interval between the minimum threshold pressure and the maximum threshold pressure. In the second, bulk penetration period, appearing above the maximum threshold pressure, the maximum height of penetration increases rapidly with outside pressure, according to the classical capillary model of penetration. The three structural model parameters of the model (minimum pore radius, maximum pore radius, and period of pore structure) were connected with the measured pore size distribution curves of the refractories through semiempirical equations. As a result, our complex semiempirical model is able to predict penetration diagrams for any inert liquid metal into any refractory of a similar type.

  • 16. Kikuchi, N.
    et al.
    Sridhar, S.
    Nabeshima, S.
    Kishimoto, Y.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    The influence of ti-oxidation on microstructure evolution in low carbon high manganese steels2007In: 2007 International Conference on Microalloyed Steels: Processing, Microstructure, Properties and Performance Proceedings, 2007, p. 239-249Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17. Kikuchi, Naoki
    et al.
    Nabeshima, Seiji
    Kishimoto, Yasuo
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Sridhar, Seetharaman
    Effect of Ti de-oxidation on solidification and post-solidification microstructure in low carbon high manganese steel2007In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 1255-1264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the effect of de-oxidation inclusions on micro-structure in low-carbon steels. Low carbon (0.07 wt%), high Mn (0.9 wt%) steel in a Al2O3 or MgO crucible was deoxidized by adding either aluminum (0.05 wt%) or titanium (0.05, 0.03 or 0.015 wt%) in a 400 g-scale vacuum furnace, and cast in a Cu mold at cooling rates between 2.0-6.0 K/s. The oxide inclusions were identified as Al2O3 (1-3 mu m) in the Al-killed steel and Ti-Al-(Mg)-O (0.3-0.5 mu m) in the Ti-killed steel. Oxide inclusion sizes in all the Ti-killed steels were smaller and inclusion densities higher than those in the Al-killed steel. Solidification structure, defined as the density of primary dendrite arms within a defined region was finer with increasing inclusion density and as a result, the solidification structure of the Ti-killed steel was finer than that of the Al-killed steel. A Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM) and a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) were used to study the differences in solid state micro-structural evolution between the Ti-killed, Al-killed and the non de-oxidized samples. The growth of austenite grains were studied under isothermal conditions and it was found that both grain-boundary mobility and final grain size were lower in the Ti-killed sample than for the others. With regards to austenite decomposition, during continuous cooling from a comparable austenite grain structure, the resulting austenite decomposition structure was finer for the Ti-killed sample due to a higher Widmanstatten lath density due to precipitation at particles in addition to grain boundaries.

  • 18.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Chapman, L.
    Brooks, R.
    Egry, I.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Thermal diffusivity of TiAlNb and AlNi alloys - The European IMPRESS project2008In: Diffusion and defect data, solid state data. Part A, Defect and diffusion forum, ISSN 1012-0386, E-ISSN 1662-9507, Vol. 273-276, p. 375-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal diffusivities of some industrially important alloys have been measured as a part of the EU funded Intermetallic Materials Processing in Relation to Earth and Space Solidification (IMPRESS) project which is coordinated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The thermal diffusivities of the alloys were measured by the Laser flash method with a carefully designed gas cleaning system to remove traces of oxygen from the argon atmosphere. In the present work, the thermal diffusivity of TiAlNb (Ti46.1Al45.9Nb8 at %) and AlNi alloy (Al-Ni31.5 at %) alloys have been measured independently at Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden (KTH) and National Physical Laboratory, UK (NPL). The results from both laboratories were consistent, and have been compared with predictions of phase transformation temperatures calculated using Thermo Calc and MTDATA software. Generally the variation of thermal diffusivity appears to be related to the phase transformation. However, one anomaly observed in the present work on TiAlNb was a maximum thermal diffusivity value at about HOOK. No corresponding peak was found for the density, ρ, the specific heat capacity, Cp, or the electrical resistivity, 1/σ, which were also measured as part of the project. In view of the fact that the thermal diffusivity could be related to electrical conductivity by the Wiedemann-Franz law describing electronic contribution to heat conduction, the present results indicate a non-electron contribution. This aspect is being currently investigated further. The recommended thermal diffusivity value of TiAlNb and AlNi alloys were obtained as follows. TiAlNb alloy: a = 3.75+ 5.16 ·10-3T+1.89·10-6 T2-2. 69·10-9 T3 [10-6 m2 s -1] (293 K < T < 1573 K) AlNi alloy: a = 4.77+ 5.41·10-2T- 7.14·10-5T2 + 2.88·10-8T3 [10-6 m2/s] (373K <T<943K).

  • 19.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Chapman, Lindsay
    Brooks, Rob
    Egry, Ivan
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Thermal diffusivity of TiAlNb and AN alloys - the European IMPRESS project2008In: Diffusion In Solids And Liquids III / [ed] Ochsner, A; Murch, GE, 2008, Vol. 273-276, p. 375-380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal diffusivities of some industrially important alloys have been measured as a part of the EU funded Intermetallic Materials Processing in Relation to Earth and Space Solidification (IMPRESS) project which is coordinated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The thermal diffusivities of the alloys were measured by the Laser flash method with a carefully designed gas cleaning system to remove traces of oxygen from the argon atmosphere. In the present work, the thermal diffusivity of TiAlNb (Ti46.1A145.9Nb8 at %) and AlNi alloy (Al-Ni31.5 at %) alloys have been measured independently at Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden (KTH) and National Physical Laboratory, UK (NPL). The results from both laboratories were consistent, and have been compared with predictions of phase transformation temperatures calculated using Thermo Calc and MTDATA software. Generally the variation of thermal diffusivity appears to be related to the phase transformation. However, one anomaly observed in the present work on TiAlNb was a maximum thermal diffusivity value at about HOOK. No corresponding peak was found for the density, p, the specific heat capacity, C, or the electrical resistivity, 1/sigma, which were also measured as part of the project. In view of the fact that the thermal diffusivity could be related to electrical conductivity by the Wiedemann-Franz law describing electronic contribution to heat conduction, the present results indicate a non-electron contribution. This aspect is being currently investigated further. The recommended thermal diffusivity value of TiAlNb and AIM alloys were obtained as follows. TiAlNb alloy: alpha = 3.75+ 5.16.10(-3)T+1.89.10(-6) T-2-2.69.10(-9) T-3 [10(-6) m(2) s(-1)] (293 K < T < 1573 K) AlNi alloy: alpha = 4.77+ 5.41.10(-2)T - 7.14.10(-5)T(2)+ 2.88.10(-8)T(3) [10(-6) m(2)/s] (373K < T < 943K).

  • 20.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Däcker, C. -Å
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Thermophysical properties of mould flux from Swedish steel companies2008In: Proc. ICS 2008: The 4th Int. Congress Sci. Technol. Steelmaking, 2008, p. 718-721Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Fecht, H. J.
    Wunderlich, R. K.
    Egry, I.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Studies of the Thermophysical Properties of Commercial CMSX-4 Alloy2009In: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, ISSN 0021-9568, E-ISSN 1520-5134, Vol. 54, no 9, p. 2584-2592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, measurements of the heat capacities and thermal diffusivities of commercial CMSX-4 nickel-based superalloy are described, and the results are presented. Since the as-received commercial alloy sample is not at the thermodynamic equilibrium state, the phases present in the alloy undergo transformations toward equilibrium state as the measurements are made at temperatures above which the rate of transformation can be significant. The microstructures of the as-received sample as well as heat treated samples were observed, and the relation with the properties was discussed. The results are discussed considering the phase changes Occurring with the thermodynamic equilibrium state as the reference. The results are of great relevance in the performance of these alloys in industrial applications.

  • 22.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Hayashi, M.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Thermochemical and thermophysical property measurements in slag systems2005In: International journal of materials & product technology, ISSN 0268-1900, E-ISSN 1741-5209, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 351-390Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews developments on experimental methods and results of thermochemical and thermophysical property measurements of molten silicate slag systems and its theoretical achievements. Several selected topics are focused on, including experimental procedure and measurements of viscosity, density, surface-interfacial tension, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and velocity and absorption coefficient of ultrasonic waves. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of slags have been mainly measured by the transient techniques such as the laser flash and hot wire methods. Most of the measurements for velocity and absorption coefficient of ultrasonic waves are carried out using a pulse technique. The reliable data for thermochemical and thermophysical properties are required for the optimisation of metallurgical processes and the data is needed in order to improve the numerical models of processing. For academic interest, the results were discussed from the viewpoint of slag structure, as these properties are closely related to the slag structure.

  • 23.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Ishikawa, T.
    Paradis, P. F.
    Mukai, K.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Density measurements of mould flux slags by electrostatic levitation method2006In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 606-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the densities of a mould flux slag were measured as a function of temperature by electrostatic levitation (ESL) method. The density of a mould flux, as measured by ESL method decreased linearly with increasing temperature. The results obtained are compared with the value measured by the sessile drop method just above the melting point of the slag. The discrepancies are explained on the basis of the inherent merits and demerits of the two types of measurements. The experimental values of present work were also compared with the density data for other mould flux slags from Swedish plant practice, obtained by the sessile drop method as part of the present work as well as literature data. A thermodynamic model of molar volume, developed in the present group was used to predict the density of slags. The molar volume was described as a function of integral molar enthalpies of mixing. In the case of ternary systems corresponding to the mould flux slag, the calculated values are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

  • 24. Matsushita, Taishi
    et al.
    Mukai, K.
    Penetration behavior of molten metal into porous oxides2004In: Tetsu to hagane, ISSN 0021-1575, E-ISSN 1883-2954, Vol. 90, no 6, p. 429-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [ja]

    This paper reviews recent developments on experimental methods and results of molten metal penetration into porous media and its theoretical achievements. Several selected topics are focused on, including experimental procedure, threshold pressure, penetration behavior, time dependence of penetration height, etc. studied by authors. And several interesting results of some researcher, including spontaneous penetration, influence of atmosphere or surface treatment on the penetration behavior are also highlighted. On the experimental method, authors have recently developed a new observation method of penetration of molten metal into porous refractory. The penetration behavior was observed by using X-ray radiographic apparatus. On the theoretical achievements, the data for penetration height were analyzed based on a capillary model in which a labyrinth (or tortuosity) factor was introduced, that is, a modified capillary model. The penetration behavior of molten metal was predictable based on penetration behavior of mercury. And some countermeasures to suppress or accelerate the penetration of molten metal into porous media was suggested.

  • 25.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Sasaki, Yasushi
    Gornerup, Marten
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Stress relaxation behavior of molten slags2006In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1258-1263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, a method to measure stress relaxation of molten slags, developed earlier by one of the authors, was applied to mould flux slags as well as synthetic slags. The molten slag was sandwiched by two Pt plates and was compressed. And stress relaxation tests (the structural relaxation of molten slags) have been conducted by compressing the molten slags as well as mould flux slags at strain rates of 10 mm/min. The results of stress relaxation tests were discussed from the viewpoint of relaxation time and structure of slags with the aid of Raman spectroscopy. The stress relaxation behavior is found to be linked to the structure of slags. The residual stress after a compression was increased with increasing of Al2O3 content and with decreasing of CaF2 content. The relaxation behavior was changed drastically with increasing of temperature for some molten slags.

  • 26.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    ThermoLab project: Results on Thermophysical Properties Data of Iron Alloys2008In: High Temperature Materials and Processes, ISSN 0334-6455, E-ISSN 2191-0324, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 413-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of ThermoLab project, the thermophysical properties of industrially important iron alloys were measured. In this paper, the measurement results of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, surface tension and viscosity of one Fe-Cr and of a low oxygen eutectoid manganese steel are reported. In addition to the ground based experiments, parabolic flights (microgravity) experiments with a non-contact electromagnetic levitation device were employed for surface tension and viscosity measurements.

  • 27.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Umezawa, Y.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Rupture Strength of some Mould Flux Slag Films relevant to Swedish Continuous Casting Practice2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the high temperature rupture strengths of some solid mould flux slag films in Swedish continuous casting processes are presented. The apparatus, designed and constructed in the present laboratory is based on the principle that the solidified film of the mould flux slag is subjected to elongation stress at temperatures below the solidus points of the fluxes. The rupture strength tests were conducted in air. The results indicate that the rupture strength is dependent on the extent of polymerization of the silicate network. The results of Raman spectra studies of the mould flux slags used in the present work were corroborated by estimations of the NBO/T ratios of the slags. It was found that lower NBO/T ratios in the slag led to higher rupture strengths. Earlier measurements of the viscosities, thermal diffusivities as well as stress relaxation results for the same slags followed a similar trend indicating the dependency of these properties on the slag structure and a clear link between thermophysical and mechanical properties of slags. The results are expected to provide some basic guidelines to develop the next-generation mould flux and modelling of the continuous casting process.

  • 28.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Watanabe, T.
    Dynamic in situ X-ray observation of a molten steel drop shape change in molten slag2011In: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy, Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, ISSN 0371-9553, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 49-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the interfacial reactions between molten synthetic slag (Al2O3-CaO-SiO2- FeO) and liquid iron alloy were investigated at 1873 K with the aid of an X-ray radiographic apparatus. The mother slag consists of 40 mass%CaO, 40 mass%SiO2 and 20 mass%Al2O3.FeO was added to this slag at the experimental temperature, and the movement of the droplet and deformation of the droplet shape were monitored in the dynamic mode. The change of the shape of the droplet is discussed based on the reaction and mass transfer at the slag/metal interface. From the movement of the droplet, interfacial velocity of the metal droplet induced by Marangoni flow was estimated and compared with the results obtained in the present laboratory earlier. The importance of surface velocity values on steel refining process simulations is discussed.

  • 29.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Watanabe, T.
    Hayashi, M.
    Mukai, K.
    Thermal, optical and surface/interfacial properties of molten slag systems2011In: International Materials Reviews, ISSN 0950-6608, E-ISSN 1743-2804, Vol. 56, no 5-6, p. 287-323Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In modelling mass and heat transfer steps in metallurgical processes, it is important to have knowledge of the physical properties of slags, the most important among these being the surface and interfacial tensions, thermal diffusivities, optical properties and viscosities. A critical review is presented of work reported in the past two decades relating to the following properties of slag systems: (i) surface/interfacial tensions and related interfacial phenomena; (ii) thermal diffusivities and thermal conductivities; (iii) velocities and coefficients of absorption of ultrasonic waves; (iv) optical properties. A perspective for further work is also provided.

  • 30. Mostaghel, S.
    et al.
    Holmgren, H.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Samuelsson, C.
    Integrated recycling at Boliden's Rönnskär Smelter; formation of slag products2012In: International Smelting Technology Symposium: Incorporating the 6th Advances in Sulfide Smelting Symposium, 2012, p. 117-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rönnskär Smelter of Boliden Mineral AB, Sweden, is a large end-processor of secondary raw materials and waste, including electronic scrap. Electronic scrap may introduce various impurities to the smelter's flow-sheet, among which alumina is a common and significant one. This article summarizes the results of an ongoing research at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden, to study the influences of alumina on different properties of slag from the zinc filming process at Rönnskär smelter. A combination of different experimental techniques and thermodynamic calculations have been used to investigate properties such as density, surface tension, effective thermal diffusivity, viscosity, and melting/leaching behaviors. Results show that the addition of alumina to this slag increases the degree of polymerization of the melt, and physical properties vary correspondingly. Mineralogy of the semi-rapidly solidified samples is also changed due to alumina addition. A correlation between mineralogy and leaching behavior can be observed.

  • 31. Mostaghel, S.
    et al.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Samuelsson, C.
    Björkman, B.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Influence of alumina on physical properties of an industrial zinc-copper smelting slag: Part 1 - Viscosity2013In: Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy Section C - Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855, Vol. 122, no 1, p. 42-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rotating cylinder method was applied to measure the viscosities of an industrial iron silicate slag and mixtures of this slag with 5, 10 and 15 wt-% alumina addition, in temperature range 1100-1300 C. The measured viscosities were compared with the predicted values using two of the commercially available software products for viscosity calculations, namely Thermoslag®1·5 and FactSageTM6·2. As the models can only predict viscosities for a solid free melt, obtained values by FactSageTM6·2 were modified using the Einstein-Roscoe equation. Results show that aluminium behaves as a network former cation in this type of slag, and by increasing the alumina concentration, the melt becomes progressively polymerised. Consequently, the viscosity of the slag increases at a given temperature, which is supported by thermodynamic predictions. According to the modified FactSage TM6·2 calculations, the viscosity of the solid containing slag increases from 2·1 to 5·5 poise at the industrial operating temperature (∼1250 C).

  • 32. Mukai, K.
    et al.
    Li, L. F.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    Behavior of gas curtain formed at the boundary between container wall and liquid by injection gas2004In: Tetsu to hagane, ISSN 0021-1575, E-ISSN 1883-2954, Vol. 90, no 6, p. 439-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [ja]

    An almost continuous gas film, which may be called gas curtain, was formed at the boundary between water solution and solid wall with poor wettability when nitrogen gas was injected into the water solution from the bottom end of the solid wall trough porous brick. Length of the gas curtain was observed and briefly discussed in relation to gas injection rate, inclined angle of the solid wall, NaCl concentration, concentration of surface active agent (C8H17SO3Na), roughness of the solid wall and porosity of the porous brick.

  • 33. Mukai, K.
    et al.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Mills, K. C.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Furuzono, T.
    Surface tension of liquid alloys - A thermodynamic approach2008In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 561-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A formula is derived to describe the surface tensions of binary and dilute multicomponent alloys such as iron alloys. It was thermodynamically proved that the surface tension can be described by a function of the concentrations of the alloy components in bulk phase through the use of thermodynamic parameters. The formula was applied to the binary alloys, Fe-O-N and Fe-O-S systems. The described surface tensions were found to be in good agreement with the measured values.

  • 34. Mukai, K.
    et al.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Motion of fine particles in liquid caused by interfacial tension gradient in relation to metals separation technologies2005In: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 137-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some ideas for promoting the metal separation process are proposed based on the consideration of the force caused by interfacial tension gradient as a driving force. The force drives the particle toward the direction of the lower interfacial tension side, which has been confirmed by water model experiments. Therefore, it is possible to move fine metal particles by producing interfacial tension gradient between fine metal particles and molten slag. The force in molten slag-metal (iron) system was evaluated under some assumptions. The evaluation indicates that the force is enough large to engulf the fine metal particle by the interface between metal particle and slag for promoting metal separation process.

  • 35. Mukai, K.
    et al.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Mills, K. C.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Feasibility of an iron and steelmaking process combining blast furnace with converter - MUSE-K process2005In: ICS 2005 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking, 2005, p. 277-283Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36. Persson, Mikael
    et al.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Zhang, Jiayun
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Estimation of molar volumes of some binary slags from enthalpies of mixing2007In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 102-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an effort to interlink the thermo chemical and thermo physical properties of slags, the present work was undertaken to derive the molar volumes of complex slags from the enthalpies of mixing of the corresponding slags. As a first step, binary systems of the following oxides were investigated; Al2O3, CaO, FeO, MgO, MnO, and SiO2. An empirical correlation was derived between the enthalpies of mixing and molar volumes. A comparison of the computed results on the basis of the above relationship with the experimental data on molar volumes available in literature shows that the agreement between the calculated results and measured densities is satisfactory in the case of most of the binary systems, within the limits of experimentally uncertainties. The advantage of the present approach is that it would enable prediction of molar volumes of slags that are compatible with the thermodynamic data available.

  • 37.
    Persson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Zhang, T.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Seetharaman, Sesadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Estimation of molar volumes of some binary slags from enthalpies of mixings2007In: Steel research, ISSN 0177-4832, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 102-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an effort to interlink the thermo chemical and thermo physical properties of slags, the present workwas undertaken to derive the molar volumes of complex slags from the enthalpies of mixing of thecorresponding slags. As a first step, binary systems of the following oxides were investigated; Al2O3,CaO, FeO, MgO, MnO, and SiO2. An empirical correlation was derived between the enthalpies ofmixing and molar volumes. A comparison of the computed results on the basis of the aboverelationship with the experimental data on molar volumes available in literature shows that theagreement between the calculated results and measured densities is satisfactory in the case of mostof the binary systems, within the limits of experimentally uncertainties. The advantage of the presentapproach is that it would enable prediction of molar volumes of slags that are compatible with thethermodynamic data available.

  • 38. Ricci, E.
    et al.
    Giuranno, D.
    Novakovic, R.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Brooks, R.
    Chapman, L. A.
    Quested, P. N.
    Density, surface tension, and viscosity of CMSX-((R)) superalloy2007In: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1304-1321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface tension, density, and viscosity of the Ni-based superalloy CMSX-4((R)) have been determined in the temperature ranges of 1,650-1,850 K, 1,650-1,950 K, and 1,623-1,800 K, respectively. Each property has been measured in parallel by different techniques at different participating laboratories, and the results are compared with the aim to improve the reliability of data and to identify recommended values. The following relationships have been proposed: density-rho (T) [kg.m(-3)] = 7,876 - 1.23(T - 1,654 K); surface tension-gamma (T) [mN.m(-1)] = 1,773 - 0.56 (T - 1, 654 K); viscosity-eta (T) [mPa.s] = 8.36 - 1.82 x 10(-2)(T - 1,654 K). For a comparison, surface-tension measurements on the Al-88.6 at% Ni liquid alloy with the same Al-content as the CMSX-4((R)) alloy were also performed. In addition, the surface tension and density have been theoretically evaluated by different models, and subsequently compared with new experimental data as well as with those reported in the literature. The surface-tension experimental data for the liquid CMSX-4((R)) alloy were found to be close to that of the A1-88.6 at% Ni alloy which is consistent with results from the compound formation model (CFM).

  • 39.
    Umezawa, Yuzo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Rupture strength of solid mould flux film2005In: ICS 2005 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking, 2005, p. 781-785Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40. Watanabe, T.
    et al.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    "Break points" with respect to mold flux2008In: Proc. ICS 2008: The 4th Int. Congress Sci. Technol. Steelmaking, 2008, p. 710-713Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41. Wunderlich, R. K.
    et al.
    Fecht, H. -J
    Egry, I.
    Etay, J.
    Battezzati, L.
    Ricci, E.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Thermophysical Properties of a Fe-Cr-Mo Alloy in the Solid and Liquid Phase2012In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of a thermophysical characterization of a Fe-Cr-Mo alloy in the solid and liquid phases are reported. Methods applied include calorimetry, dilatometry; the laser flash technique for thermal diffusivity measurement and ultrasound pulse echo for the measurement of the room temperature sound velocities and elastic constants. Density in the liquid phase and surface tension were measured by optical dilatometry and by the oscillating drop method on electromagnetic levitated specimen. In addition, surface tension and viscosity were measured by the oscillating drop method on board parabolic flights under reduced gravity conditions. The methods applied and results obtained are presented. This work represents a collaborative effort, including round robin measurements in different laboratories for a characterization of the basic thermophysical properties needed for process simulation.

  • 42.
    Zhang, Zuotai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Li, Wenchao
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Investigation of Wetting Characteristics of Liquid Iron on Dense MgAlON-based Ceramics by X-Ray Sessile Drop Technique2006In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 421-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wetting characteristics of liquid iron on dense MoAlON-based composite ceramics were investigated using X-ray sessile drop technique. The contact angles were measured on substrates of different composites as functions of temperature and varying partial pressures of oxygen. The results with pure argon gas showed that contact angles kept almost constant in the temperature range 1823 to 1873 K. The contact angle was found to show a slight increase with increasing boron nitride (BN) content in MgAlON-BN composites. These are attributed to the higher contact angle between BN substrate and liquid iron drop compared with that obtained for MgAlON substrate. When the CO-CO2-Ar gas mixtures were introduced into the system, the contact angle showed an initial quick decrease followed by a slow decrease and then a period of nearly constant contact angle at a given temperature corresponding to the steady-state condition. Even in this case, BN seemed to cause an increase in the equilibrium contact angle. The equilibrium contact angle was found to decrease with increasing temperature. XRD results indicated that the substrate was oxidized and the oxidation products combined with FeO formed by the oxidation of the iron drop to form FeAl2O4 and Mg1-xFexO. These were likely to form a ternary FeO-Al2O3-MgO slag or a quaternary slag by combining with B2O3. An interesting observation is that the iron drop moved away from the original site, probably due to the Marangoni effect.

  • 43.
    Zhang, Zuotai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Li, Wenchao
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Reactions between MgAlON-BN composites and CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-''FeO'' slag2007In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 231-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reactions between MgAlON and MgAlON-BN composites and synthetic CaO-SiO2-Al2O3MgO-"FeO" slag at different temperatures were investigated under stagnant condition using the "finger" experiment as well as X-ray sessile drop methods. The corrosion rate was denoted by the radius difference between the initial radius of the specimen rod and the unreacted core at definite time intervals. The experimental results showed that the radius difference is linear with the square root of time. This indicated that the diffusion of ions in the slag through the product layer is the rate-determining step. One product layer was observed between the unreacted core and slag. X-ray images showed that gas bubbles were generated during the slag penetration. The slag penetration process depends strongly on the temperature. The apparent activation energy was evaluated to be 376.4 kJ/mol. The FeO addition into slag increased the slag corrosion rate. This is most probably due to the decrease of the slag viscosity, because the Fe+2 generally behaves as a network breaker. Furthermore, MgAlON and boron nitride (BN) can be oxidized by FeO, which also increased the slag corrosion rate. The slag corrosion rate decreased with increasing BN content. This can be explained by the fact that the grain boundary interfacial energy decreases with the increase of BN content and nonwetting of BN by molten slag compared to pure MgAlON.

1 - 43 of 43
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