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  • 1.
    Dömstedt, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Lundberg, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Szakalos, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Corrosion Studies of Low-Alloyed FeCrAl Steels in Liquid Lead at 750 degrees C2019In: Oxidation of Metals, ISSN 0030-770X, E-ISSN 1573-4889, Vol. 91, no 3-4, p. 511-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New ductile experimental FeCrAl alloys, based on the composition of Fe-10Cr-4Al, were exposed to stagnant liquid lead at 750 degrees C for up to 1970h. Two exposures with different test conditions were performed: one with addition of oxygen (as H2O) to the liquid lead and one without. The experimental alloys showed generally good oxidation and self-healing properties. The exposures showed that this specific category of steels has the potential to operate in liquid lead at very high temperatures with only minor oxidation. With this new material development, new energy technologies such as the CSP plants may be able to utilize liquid lead at very high temperatures as heat transfer fluid, thus achieving increased thermal efficiency.

  • 2. Hagman, H.
    et al.
    Boström, D.
    Lundberg, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Backman, R.
    Alloy degradation in a co-firing biomass CFB vortex finder application at 880 °C2019In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 150, p. 136-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanisms of alloy degradation in a fireside N-S-O-C-H-Cl-Na-K atmosphere at 880 °C were elucidated using SEM-EDS, chemical equilibrium calculations, and XRD. Alloys 310S, 800H/HT, and 600 were studied after 0, 8000, and 16,000 h exposure in a boiler co-firing biomass waste. For 310S and 800H/HT it was shown that nitrogen formed internal Cr nitrides lowering the Cr activity and inhibiting internal alloy Cr permeation, and that NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 reacted with Cr oxide to form chromate and to accelerate the S and the Cl pickup. Alloy 600 showed no nitride or major chromate formation.

  • 3. Hagman, H.
    et al.
    Lundberg, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Boström, D.
    Alloy Selection for a Cofired Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Vortex Finder Application at 880 °c in a Complex Mixed Mode Corrosion Environment2017In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 11, p. 12857-12866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used on a corroded industrial-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler vortex finder (VF) 253MA alloy plate material to identify the dominating corrosion products and to enable a qualified selection of candidate alloys for the long-term, full-scale exposure study. Alloys 253MA, 310S, 800H/HT, Alloy DS, and Alloy 600 were chosen, and the alloy plates were exposed to the CFB boiler combustion atmosphere having an average temperature of approximately 880 °C, consisting of a moist globally oxidizing gas, burning hydrocarbons, CO2, CO, SO2, HCl, NH3, N2, alkali species, and erosive particles. The exposure times used in this study were 1750, 8000, 12000, and 16000 operating hours. After exposure, the alloy samples were cut, and cross-sections were dry-polished and analyzed with an SEM-backscatter electron detector (BSD) setup to quantify material loss and penetration depth of the corrosion attack. This work suggests two novel concepts: heavily affected depth (HAD) enabling quantitative evaluation of heavily degraded alloys and remaining serviceable metal thickness (RSMT) enabling the use of long-term corrosion data from one alloy to make rough service life estimations of other alloys exposed for significantly shorter periods. The findings of this work show that there is no simple correlation between the heavily affected depth of the alloy and the nickel, chromium, or iron content. Instead, there seem to be two successful alloy composition principles that work well for this application. Furthermore, the work shows that major improvements can be made in terms of both technical life-span and the cost-effectiveness of the VF application if the most appropriate alloy is selected. In this study, a replacement of the frequently used Alloy 253MA with Alloy 310S doubled the lifespan of full-scale VFs, reducing the average VF maintenance cost to half.

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