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  • 1.
    Cecconello, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Gravestijn, Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Murari, A
    Total radiation losses studies in EXTRAP T2R2001In: Proceedings of the 28th European Physical Society Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madeira, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2. Coda, S.
    et al.
    Eriksson, L. -G
    Lennholm, M.
    Graves, J.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    DeBaar, M.
    Howell, D. F.
    Jachmich, S.
    Kiptily, V.
    Koslowski, R.
    Mayoral, M. -L
    Mueck, A.
    Pinches, S.
    Saibene, G.
    Santala, M. I. K.
    Stamp, M. F.
    Valisa, M.
    NTM prevention by ICCD control of fast-ion-stabilised sawteeth2007In: 34th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2007, EPS 2007 - Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 2007, no 3, 2138-2141 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. de Vries, P. C.
    et al.
    Joffrin, E.
    Hawkes, N. C.
    Litaudon, X.
    Challis, C. D.
    Andrew, Y.
    Beurskens, M.
    Brix, M.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Crombe, K.
    Giroud, C.
    Hobirk, J.
    Johnson, T.
    Lonnroth, J.
    Salmi, A.
    Tala, T.
    Yavorskij, V.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Effect of toroidal field ripple on the formation of internal transport barriers2008In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 50, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a toroidal field (TF) ripple on the formation and performance of internal transport barriers (ITBs) has been studied in JET. It was found that the TF ripple had a profound effect on the toroidal plasma rotation. An increased TF ripple up to delta = 1% led to a lower rotation and reduced the rotational shear in the region where the ITBs were formed. ITB triggering events were observed in all cases and it is thought that the rotational shear may be less important for this process than, for example, the q-profile. However, the increase in the pressure gradient following the ITB trigger was reduced in discharges with a larger TF ripple and consequently a lower rotational shear. This suggests that toroidal rotation and its shear play a role in the growth of the ITB once it has been triggered.

  • 4. Eriksson, L. -G
    et al.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A K
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Holmström, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas Joe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Nave, F.
    Ongena, J.
    Zastrow, K. -D
    Simulation of fast ion contribution to toroidal rotation in ICRF heated jet plasmas2008In: EPS Conf. Plasma Phys., EPS - Europhys. Conf. Abstr., 2008, no 3, 1679-1682 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Eriksson, L. G.
    et al.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A. K.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Nave, M. F. F.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Holmström, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ongena, J.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Holmström, K.
    Toroidal rotation in RF heated JET plasmas2009In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 51, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of bulk plasma rotation in radio frequency (RF) heated JET discharges are reported. This study is concentrated on RF heated L-mode plasmas. In particular, the toroidal rotation profiles in plasmas heated by ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) waves and lower hybrid (LH) waves have been analysed. It is the first time that rotation profiles in JET plasmas with LH waves have been measured in dedicated discharges. It is found that the toroidal plasma rotation in the outer region of the plasmas is in the co-current direction irrespective of the heating scenario. An interesting feature is that the toroidal rotation profile appears to be hollow in many discharges at low plasma current, but a low current in itself does not seem to be a sufficient condition for finding such profiles. Fast ion transport and finite orbit width effects are mechanisms that could explain hollow rotation profiles. This possibility has been investigated by numerical simulations of the torque on the bulk plasma due to fast ICRF accelerated ions. The obtained torque is used in a transport equation for the toroidal momentum density to estimate the effect on the thermal bulk plasma rotation profile.

  • 6. Eriksson, L. -G
    et al.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Nave, F.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Holmström, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ongena, J.
    Zastrow, K. -D
    Toroidal rotation in RF heated JET plasmas2007In: RADIO FREQUENCY POWER IN PLASMAS, 2007, Vol. 933, 59-62 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments have been carried out on JET aimed at studying rotation in RF heated plasmas with low external momentum input. Both plasmas with Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating and Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) have been investigated. The rotation profiles are measured by Charge Exchange recombination spectroscopy, using short diagnostic Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) pulses. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the central rotation could in some cases be deduced from MHD activity. While most of the measurements were focussed on ICRF heating, the profiles measured in plasmas with LHCD are interesting since they are the first reported from JET in such plasmas. In particular, they allowed for studies of rotation in RF heated plasmas with q>1. The experimental results are presented together with an analysis of the torque from ICRF heated fast ions.

  • 7. Eriksson, L-G
    et al.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Giroud, C
    Kiptily, G
    Kirov, K
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    DeBaar, M
    DeGrassie, J
    Mantsinen, M
    Meigs, A
    Noterdaeme, M
    Staebler, A
    Testa, D
    Tuccillo, A
    Zastrow, D
    Plasma rotation induced by directed waves in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies2004In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 92, no 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes of the toroidal plasma rotation induced by directed waves in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) have been identified experimentally for the first time on the JET tokamak. The momentum carried by the waves is initially absorbed by fast resonating ions, which subsequently transfer it to the bulk plasma. Thus, the results provide evidence for the influence of ICRF heated fast ions on plasma rotation.

  • 8. Hawkes, N. C.
    et al.
    Esposito, B.
    Andrew, Y.
    Biewer, T. M.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Brix, M.
    Cardinali, A.
    Crisanti, F.
    Crombé, K.
    Van Eester, D.
    Felton, R.
    Giroud, C.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Lerche, E.
    Meigs, A.
    Parail, V.
    Sharapov, S.
    Sozzi, C.
    Voitsekhovitch, I.
    Zastrow, K. -D
    Ion transport barrier formation with low injected torque in JET2007In: 34th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2007, EPS 2007 - Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 2007, no 1, 504-507 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion temperature ITB trigger events have been provoked on JET with very low levels of injected torque using a 3He minority ion heating scheme. The evidence indicates that E x B shear driven by toroidal rotation is not important in these ITB triggers, however the ITBs which form are weak and short lived. Evidence from other experiments [4], suggests that higher torque is necessary to establish and maintain strong ITBs. Future experiments with the increased RF power of the new JET ICRH antenna will be made to explore whether 'strong' ITBs can be created at high power and low applied torque.

  • 9. Hokin, S
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Brunsell, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Cecconello, Marco
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Drake, James Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Hedin, G
    Hedqvist, A
    Larsson, D
    Möller, A
    Sallander, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Sätherblom, Hans-Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Locked modes and plasma-wall interaction in a reversed-field pinch with aresistive shell and carbon first wall1999In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Fusion Energy, Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency , 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10. Lamalle, P. U.
    et al.
    Mantsinen, M. J.
    Noterdaeme, J. M.
    Alper, B.
    Beaumont, P.
    Bertalot, L.
    Blackman, T.
    Bobkov, V. V.
    Bonheure, G.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Castaldo, C.
    Conroy, S.
    de Baar, M.
    de la Luna, E.
    de Vries, P.
    Durodie, F.
    Ericsson, G.
    Eriksson, L. G.
    Gowers, C.
    Felton, R.
    Heikkinen, J.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A. K.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Kiptily, V.
    Lawson, K.
    Laxåback, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Lerche, E.
    Lomas, P.
    Lyssoivan, A.
    Mayoral, M. L.
    Meo, F.
    Mironov, M.
    Monakhov, I.
    Nunes, I.
    Piazza, G.
    Popovichev, S.
    Salmi, A.
    Santala, M. I. K.
    Sharapov, S.
    Tala, T.
    Tardocchi, M.
    Van Eester, D.
    Weyssow, B.
    Expanding the operating space of ICRF on JET with a view to ITER2006In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 46, no 2, 391-400 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on ITER-relevant ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) physics investigated on JET in 2003 and early 2004. Minority heating of helium three in hydrogen plasmas-(He-3)H-was systematically explored by varying the 3 He concentration and the toroidal phasing of the antenna arrays. The best heating performance (a maximum electron temperature of 6.2 keV with 5 MW of ICRF power) was obtained with a preferential wave launch in the direction of the plasma current. A clear experimental demonstration was made of the sharp and reproducible transition to the mode conversion heating regime when the 3 He concentration increased above similar to 2%. In the latter regime the best heating performance (a maximum electron temperature of 8 keV with 5 MW of ICRF power) was achieved with dipole array phasing, i.e. a symmetric antenna power spectrum. Minority heating of deuterium in hydrogen plasmas-(D)H-was also investigated but was found inaccessible because this scenario is too sensitive to impurity ions with Z/A = 1/2 such as C6+, small amounts of which directly lead into the mode conversion regime. Minority heating of up to 3% of tritium in deuterium plasmas was systematically investigated during the JET trace tritium experimental campaign (TTE). This required operating JET at its highest possible magnetic field (3.9 to 4 T) and the ICRF system at its lowest frequency (23 MHz). The interest of this scenario for ICRF heating at these low concentrations and its efficiency at boosting the suprathermal neutron yield were confirmed, and the measured neutron and gammay ray spectra permit interesting comparisons with advanced ICRF code simulations. Investigations of finite Larmor radius effects on the RF-induced high-energy tails during second harmonic (omega = 2 omega(c)) heating of a hydrogen minority in D plasmas clearly demonstrated a strong decrease in the RF diffusion coefficient at proton energies similar to 1 MeV in agreement with theoretical expectations. Fast wave heating and current drive experiments in deuterium plasmas showed effective direct electron heating with dipole phasing of the antennas, but only small changes of the central plasma current density were observed with the directive phasings, in particular at low single pass damping. New investigations of the heating efficiency of ICRF antennas confirmed its strong dependence on the parallel wavenumber spectrum. Advances in topics of a more technological nature are also summarized: ELM studies using fast RF measurements, the successful experimental demonstration of a new ELM-tolerant antenna matching scheme and technical enhancements planned on the JET ICRF system for 2006, they being equally strongly driven by the preparation for ITER.

  • 11. Lawson, K. D.
    et al.
    Barnsley, R.
    Maggi, C. F.
    Tyrrell, S.
    Beldishevski, M.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy
    KTH.
    Buckley, M.
    Cass, G.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH.
    Griph, S.
    Heesterman, P.
    Hogben, C.
    Jennison, M.
    Stamp, M. F.
    Williams, J.
    Zastrow, K. -D
    Enhancements to the JET poloidally scanning vacuum ultravioletvisible spectrometers2012In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 83, no 10, 10D536- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancements to the JET poloidally scanning spectrometers are presented, which will aid the exploitation of the recently installed ITER-like wall in JET. They include the installation of visible filterphotomultiplier tube assemblies and spectrometers and the replacement of large rotating mirrors in the JET vacuum with small oscillating mirrors outside. The upgrade has resulted in a more robust and reliable diagnostic than before, which is described. Drifts in the mirror angle reconstructed from quadrature encoder signals are found, a reference signal being required. The use of the small scanning mirrors necessitated the inclusion of focusing mirrors to maintain throughput into the vacuum ultraviolet spectrometers. The mirror design has taken account of the extreme sensitivity of the focusing to the grazing angle of incidence, an aspect of importance in the design of grazing incidence focusing components on future machines, such as ITER. The visible system has been absolutely calibrated using an in-vessel light source.

  • 12. Loarer, T.
    et al.
    Philipps, V.
    Bucalossi, J.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Esser, G.
    Grünhagen, S.
    Hobirk, J.
    Knipe, S.
    Kreter, A.
    Morgan, Ph.
    Stagg, R.
    Worth, L.
    Balshaw, N.
    Brennan, D.
    Clarke, R.
    Fuel retention in L and H mode experiments in JET2007In: 34th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2007, EPS 2007 - Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 2007, no 1, 13-16 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fuel retention has been studied out in JET in L mode, Type III and Type I ELMy H-modes using gas balance in series of repetitive pulses with an overall accuracy of about 1.2%. The short term (dynamic) retention is important for both L mode and Type III ELMy H-mode over the heating phases (respectively 13 and 17 sec) but decreases already significantly during the pulse. It becomes small already after 6 sec for the Type I ELMy H-mode conditions. In all the cases, the recovery after the pulse contributes for a weak part in the gas balance and in the overall fuel retention. The absolute long term fuel retention (on the time basis of typically 5 hours) for the different plasma conditions is between 1.3 and 2.8 1021Ds-1 (averaged over the plasma heating time) and in reasonable agreement with the value deduced from post mortem tile analysis of about 5 1020Ds-1 considering the additional long term outgassing, conditioning and disruptions included in the post mortem analysis. The increase of the long term retention observed from L mode to Type I ELMy H-mode is associated to the increase of the recycling flux and the ELM energy. This larger long term retention is attributed to an enhanced carbon erosion and transport in the SOL leading to stronger carbon deposition and fuel codeposition. The results confirm the strong concerns about fuel retention in a carbon clad tokamak and a possible full carbon wall ITER which could reach the T-inventory limit in only a small number of high performance shots. A reasonable ITER operation time depends thus on a significant reduced T codeposition under the different ITER material conditions (which has to be confirmed in a relevant tokamak experiment such as the JET ILW project) and an effective routine T removal technique.

  • 13.
    Malmberg, Jenny A.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Brunsell, Per R.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Cecconello, Marco
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Drake, James R.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Mode- and plasma rotation in a resistive shell reversed-field pinch2004In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 11, no 2, 647-658 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mode rotation studies in a resistive shell reversed-field pinch, EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell , Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1 (2001)] are presented. The phase relations and nonlinear coupling of the resonant modes are characterized and compared with that expected from modeling based on the hypothesis that mode dynamics can be described by a quasi stationary force balance including electromagnetic and viscous forces. Both m=0 and m=1 resonant modes are studied. The m=1 modes have rotation velocities corresponding to the plasma flow velocity (20-60 km/s) in the core region. The rotation velocity decreases towards the end of the discharge, although the plasma flow velocity does not decrease. A rotating phase locked m=1 structure is observed with a velocity of about 60 km/s. The m=0 modes accelerate throughout the discharges and reach velocities as high as 150-250 km/s. The observed m=0 phase locking is consistent with theory for certain conditions, but there are several conditions when the dynamics are not described. This is not unexpected because the assumption of quasi stationarity for the mode spectra is not fulfilled for many conditions. Localized m=0 perturbations are formed in correlation with highly transient discrete dynamo events. These perturbations form at the location of the m=1 phase locked structure, but rotate with a different velocity as they spread out in the toroidal direction. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  • 14. Mazon, D.
    et al.
    Moreau, D.
    Ariola, M.
    De Tommasi, G.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Felton, R.
    Nunes, I.
    Piccolo, F.
    Sartori, F.
    Zabeo, L.
    Real-time profile control for advanced Tokamak operation2008In: AIP Conf. Proc., 2008, 430-433 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simultaneous control of the plasma shape, the magnetic and kinetic plasma profiles (such as the safety factor, q(x), and gyro-normalized temperature gradient, ρTe *;(x), respectively) and the boundary flux is being investigated on JET, and has potential applications in the operation of ITER steady state advanced tokamak discharges. The control of radially distributed parameters was achieved for the first time on JET in 2004 [1-4]. The controller was based on the static plasma response only. The approach newly implemented on JET aims to use a dynamical plasma model, all the available heating and current drive (H&CD) systems, and the poloidal field (PF) system in an optimal way to achieve a set of requested magnetic and kinetic profiles. This paper describes the new model-based optimal profile controller which has been tested during the last 2007 experimental campaign. The controller aims to use the combination of heating and current drive systems - and optionally the PF system. First experimental results of current profile control obtained during the last 2007 JET campaign are presented.

  • 15. McDonald, C.
    et al.
    Cordey, J. G.
    Righi, E.
    Ryter, F.
    Saibene, G.
    Sartori, R.
    Alper, B.
    Becoulet, M.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Coffey, I.
    de Baar, M.
    de Vries, P.
    Erents, K.
    Fundamenski, W.
    Giroud, C.
    Jenkins, I.
    Loarte, A.
    Lomas, P. J.
    Maddison, G. P.
    Mailloux, J.
    Murari, A.
    Ongena, J.
    Rapp, J.
    Pitts, R. A.
    Stamp, M.
    Strachan, J.
    Suttrop, W.
    ELMy H-modes in JET helium-4 plasmas2004In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 46, no 3, 519-534 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ELMy H-modes in helium-4 plasmas provide valuable information on ELMy H-mode physics as well as a possible early low activation operational phase for next-step tokamaks, such as ITER. With this in mind, a series of helium-4 H-mode experiments were performed on JET with pure helium-4 NBI auxiliary heating (up to 12 MW). A set of ELMy H-mode plasmas were produced, in both the Type I ELM regime and a second regime, which showed characteristics similar to the deuterium Type III regime, but with a reverse ELM frequency dependence on power. Sawteeth were also observed, and had similar behaviour to those seen in deuterium. Compared with deuterium plasmas, Type I ELMy H-mode confinement is seen to be 28 +/- 6% poorer in helium-4 plasmas and the L-H power threshold 42 +/- 10% larger. This is the opposite of the behaviour predicted by experimental isotope mass scalings from hydrogenic plasmas.Comparison with a wider hydrogenic database, enables the effects of isotopic charge and mass to be studied independently.

  • 16. Moreau, D.
    et al.
    Mazon, D.
    Ariola, M.
    De Tommasi, G.
    Laborde, L.
    Piccolo, F.
    Sartori, F.
    Tala, T.
    Zabeo, L.
    Boboc, A.
    Bouvier, E.
    Brix, M.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Challis, C. D.
    Cocilovo, V.
    Cordoliani, V.
    Crisanti, F.
    De la Luna, E.
    Felton, R.
    Hawkes, N.
    King, R.
    Litaudon, X.
    Loarer, T.
    Mailloux, J.
    Mayoral, M.
    Nunes, I.
    Surrey, E.
    Zimmerman, O.
    A two-time-scale dynamic-model approach for magnetic and kinetic profile control in advanced tokamak scenarios on JET2008In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 48, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time simultaneous control of several radially distributed magnetic and kinetic plasma parameters is being investigated on JET, in view of developing integrated control of advanced tokamak scenarios. This paper describes the new model-based profile controller which has been implemented during the 2006-2007 experimental campaigns. The controller aims to use the combination of heating and current drive (H&CD) systems-and optionally the poloidal field (PF) system-in an optimal way to regulate the evolution of plasma parameter profiles such as the safety factor, q(x), and gyro-normalized temperature gradient,. rho*(Te)(x). In the first part of the paper, a technique for the experimental identification of a minimal dynamic plasma model is described, taking into account the physical structure and couplings of the transport equations, but making no quantitative assumptions on the transport coefficients or on their dependences. To cope with the high dimensionality of the state space and the large ratio between the time scales involved, the model identification procedure and the controller design both make use of the theory of singularly perturbed systems by means of a two-time-scale approximation. The second part of the paper provides the theoretical basis for the controller design. The profile controller is articulated around two composite feedback loops operating on the magnetic and kinetic time scales, respectively, and supplemented by a feedforward compensation of density variations. For any chosen set of target profiles, the closest self-consistent state achievable with the available actuators is uniquely defined. It is reached, with no steady state offset, through a near-optimal

  • 17. Murari, A.
    et al.
    Alper, B.
    Bertalot, L.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Coad, P.
    Conroy, S.
    De la Luna, E.
    Ericsson, G.
    Esser, H. G.
    Hacquin, S.
    Kaellne, J.
    Kiptily, V.
    Lawson, K.
    O'Mullane, M.
    Philipps, V.
    Sharapov, S.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    New diagnostic techniques and technologies at JET (invited)2006In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 77, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Fusion Development Agreement's mission for JET is the development of ITER scenarios exploiting the specific properties of the device. This task requires significant improvements in the measuring techniques. The most innovative diagnostic upgrades are in the fields of edge measurements, detection of fast magnetohydrodynamics modes and burning plasma diagnostics. The importance of plasma-wall interactions, and, in particular, the issue of tritium inventory promoted the development of the quartz microbalance, a detector with improved time resolution to measure material redeposition in the remote areas of the inner divertor. Measurement of Alfven cascades with unprecedented spectral resolution, reaching a toroidal n number of up to 16, was obtained using an O-mode microwave reflectometer as an interferometer. For the diagnosis of the fusion products, a new approach is being developed to measure the He ash based on double charge exchange between thermalized particles and neutrals from JET beams. There have been several upgrades of the neutron diagnostic systems, one of which, the new time of flight neutron spectrometer designed for high counting rates is described.

  • 18. Murari, A.
    et al.
    Edlington, T.
    Angelone, M.
    Bertalot, L.
    Bolshakova, I.
    Bonheure, G.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Coccorese, V.
    Holyaka, R.
    Kiptily, V.
    Lengar, I.
    Morgan, P.
    Pillon, M.
    Popovichev, S.
    Prior, P.
    Prokopowicz, R.
    Quercia, A.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Santala, M.
    Shevelev, A.
    Syme, B.
    Vagliasindi, G.
    Villari, R.
    Zoita, V. L.
    Measuring the radiation field and radiation hard detectors at JET: Recent developments2008In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 593, no 3, 492-504 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since in ITER the radiation field will be much more demanding than that of present day devices, research programmes at JET are aimed at developing radiation hard diagnostics and related components. Initially, significant efforts are devoted to determining the radiation field of both the plasma and in the immediate environment with better accuracy. New developments in MCNP calculations and dedicated measurements provide useful information about the radiation field in the Torus Hall, even during non-operational periods. The effect of using Beryllium in the near future for JET first wall, is being assessed. New materials for activation samples are under consideration and will be tested to improve the calibration accuracy of JET neutron diagnostics. The long-term goal of this work is to obtain spectrometric information from an appropriate combination of different materials. Several studies are under way to modify the radiation field at the detectors by using LiH or pure water as neutron filters, to alleviate the problem of the background in gamma-ray measurements. A suite of radiation hard detectors for neutrons, magnetic field and charged particles are being developed. Super-heated fluid neutron detectors, used for yield and imaging, are being upgraded, in order to provide a broadband spectrometric capability. Chemical vapour deposited diamond diodes are being qualified as counters and as spectrometers. Prototypes of Hall probes made of InSb have been installed on the machine and have provided some preliminary results. Si-on-insulator detectors are under development for use in neutral particle analysers and are currently being bench-tested. Some attention is being devoted to optical components, fibres and mirrors, and to investigating radiation hard electronics using reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays.

  • 19. Murari, A.
    et al.
    Edlington, T.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    De la Luna, E.
    Andrew, P.
    Arnoux, G.
    Cecil, F. E.
    Cupido, L.
    Darrow, D.
    Kiptily, V.
    Fessey, J.
    Gauthier, E.
    Hacquin, S.
    Hill, K.
    Huber, A.
    Loarer, T.
    McCormicki, K.
    Reichi, M.
    JET new diagnostic capability on the route to ITER2007In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 82, no 14-maj, 1161-1166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The JET scientific programme is directed towards the development of ITER relevant scenarios. In support of this, significant effort has been made to develop diagnostics to better characterise the power deposition on the plasma facing components, to investigate in more detail the radiation losses particularly in the divertor region and to better detect Magneto Hydrodynamic Modes (MHD) instabilities and their effects on fast ion confinement. A new wide-angle infrared camera provides for the first time the opportunity to perform infrared thermography in the JET main chamber, even during fast events like ELMs and disruptions. A completely new bolometric system, with better spatial resolution particularly in the divertor, is now used to investigate the total radiation losses and their influence on the ELM behaviour. A new set of microwave waveguides has improved by 20 dB the signal to noise ratio of the JET X-mode reflectometers, that are now routinely used to detect MHD instabilities and in particular to localise the location of Alfven Eigenmodes. This improved diagnostic capability to monitor MHD instabilities is complemented by two new diagnostics to detect lost fast particles. Both the new scintillator probe and a poloidal array of Faraday cups have already shown clear correlations between MHD activity and ion losses at the edge.

  • 20. Ongena, J
    et al.
    Corre, Yann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy
    Zastrow, K D
    et al.,
    Towards the realization on JET of an integrated H-mode scenario for ITER2004In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 44, no 1, 124-133 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ELMy H-mode experiments at JET in 2000/mid-2002 have focused on discharges with normalized parameters for plasma density, energy confinement and beta similar to those of the ITER Q(DT) = 10 reference regime (n/n(GW) similar to 0.85, H(98(y,2)) similar to 1, beta(N) similar to 1.8). ELMy H-mode plasmas have been realized reaching or even exceeding those parameters in steady-state conditions (up to similar to5 s or 12tau(epsilon)) in a reproducible way and only limited by the duration of the additional heating phase. These results have been obtained (a) in highly triangular plasmas, by increasing the average triangularity delta towards the ITER reference value (delta similar to 0.5), and (b) in plasmas at low triangularity (delta similar to 0.2) by seeding of Ar and placing the X-point of the plasma on the top of the septum. Pellet injection from the high field side is a third method yielding high density and high confinement, albeit not yet under steady-state conditions. In highly triangular plasmas the influence of input power, plasma triangularity and impurity seeding with noble gases has been studied. Density profile peaking at high densities has been obtained in (a) impurity seeded low triangularity discharges, (b) ELMy H-modes with low levels of input power and (c) discharges fuelled with pellet injection from the high field side. New ELM behaviour has been observed in high triangularity discharges at high density, opening a possible route to ELM heat load mitigation, which can be further amplified by Ar impurity seeding. Current extrapolations of the ELM heat load to ITER show possibly a window for Type I ELM operation. Confinement scaling studies indicate an increase in confinement with triangularity and density peaking, and a decrease in confinement with the Greenwald number. In addition, experiments in H isotope and He indicate tau(E) proportional to M(0.19)Z(-0.59). The threshold power for the L-H transition in He plasmas shows the same parametric dependence as in D plasmas, but with a 50% higher absolute value.

  • 21. Ongena, J.
    et al.
    Suttrop, W.
    Becoulet, M.
    Cordey, G.
    Dumortier, P.
    Eich, T.
    Ingesson, L. C.
    Jachmich, S.
    Lang, P.
    Loarte, A.
    Lomas, P.
    Maddison, G. P.
    Messiaen, A.
    Nave, M. F. F.
    Rapp, J.
    Saibene, G.
    Sartori, R.
    Sauter, O.
    Strachan, J. D.
    Unterberg, B.
    Valovic, M.
    Alper, B.
    Andrew, P.
    Baranov, Y.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Bucalossi, J.
    Brix, M.
    Budny, R.
    Charlet, M.
    Coffey, I.
    De Baar, M.
    De Vries, P.
    Gowers, C.
    Hawkes, N.
    von Hellermann, M.
    Hillis, D. L.
    Hogan, J.
    Jackson, G. L.
    Joffrin, E.
    Jupen, C.
    Kallenbach, A.
    Koslowski, H. R.
    Lawson, K. D.
    Mantsinen, M.
    Matthews, G.
    Monier-Garbet, P.
    McDonald, D.
    Milani, F.
    Murakami, M.
    Murari, A.
    Neu, R.
    Parail, V.
    Podda, S.
    Puiatti, M. E.
    Righi, E.
    Sartori, F.
    Sarazin, Y.
    Staebler, A.
    Stamp, M.
    Telesca, G.
    Valisa, M.
    Weyssow, B.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Efda-Jet workprogramme contributor,
    Recent progress on JET towards the ITER reference mode of operation at high density2001In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 43, A11-A30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent progress towards obtaining high density and high confinement in JET as required for the ITER reference scenario at Q = 10 is summarized. Plasmas with simultaneous confinement H-98(y.2) = 1 and densities up to n/n(Gw) similar to 1 are now routinely obtained. This has been possible (i) by using plasmas at high (delta similar to 0.5) and medium (delta similar to 0.3-0.4) triangularity with sufficient heating power to maintain Type I ELMs, (ii) with impurity seeded plasmas at high (delta similar to 0.5) and low (delta less than or equal to 0.2) triangularity, (iii) with an optimized pellet injection sequence, maintaining the energy confinement and raising the density, and (iv) by carefully tuning the gas puff rate leading to plasmas with peaked density profiles and good confinement at long time scales. These high performance discharges exhibit Type I ELMs, with a new and more favourable behaviour observed at high densities, requiring further studies. Techniques for a possible mitigation of these ELMs are discussed, and first promising results are obtained with impurity seeding in discharges at high triangularity. Scaling studies using the new data of this year show a strong dependence of confinement on upper triangularity, density and proximity to the Greenwald limit. Observed MHD instabilities and methods to avoid these in high density and high confinement plasmas are discussed.

  • 22. Romanelli, F.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Chernyshova, M.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Drake, James Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Emmoth, Birger
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Laxåback, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Overview of the JET results with the ITER-like wall2013In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 53, no 10, 104002- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the completion in May 2011 of the shutdown for the installation of the beryllium wall and the tungsten divertor, the first set of JET campaigns have addressed the investigation of the retention properties and the development of operational scenarios with the new plasma-facing materials. The large reduction in the carbon content (more than a factor ten) led to a much lower Z(eff) (1.2-1.4) during L- and H-mode plasmas, and radiation during the burn-through phase of the plasma initiation with the consequence that breakdown failures are almost absent. Gas balance experiments have shown that the fuel retention rate with the new wall is substantially reduced with respect to the C wall. The re-establishment of the baseline H-mode and hybrid scenarios compatible with the new wall has required an optimization of the control of metallic impurity sources and heat loads. Stable type-I ELMy H-mode regimes with H-98,H-y2 close to 1 and beta(N) similar to 1.6 have been achieved using gas injection. ELM frequency is a key factor for the control of the metallic impurity accumulation. Pedestal temperatures tend to be lower with the new wall, leading to reduced confinement, but nitrogen seeding restores high pedestal temperatures and confinement. Compared with the carbon wall, major disruptions with the new wall show a lower radiated power and a slower current quench. The higher heat loads on Be wall plasma-facing components due to lower radiation made the routine use of massive gas injection for disruption mitigation essential.

  • 23. Santala, M. I. K.
    et al.
    Mantsinen, M. J.
    Bertalot, L.
    Conroy, S.
    Kiptily, V.
    Popovichev, S.
    Salmi, A.
    Testa, D.
    Baranov, Yu
    Beaumont, P.
    Belo, P.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Cecconello, M.
    deBaar, M.
    deVries, P.
    Gowers, C.
    Noterdaeme, J. M.
    Schlatter, C.
    Sharapov, S.
    Proton-triton nuclear reaction in ICRF heated plasmas in JET2006In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 48, no 8, 1233-1253 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast protons can react with tritons in an endothermic nuclear reaction which can act as a source of neutrons in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We have performed an experiment to systematically study this reaction in low tritium concentration (approximate to 1%) plasmas in the Joint European Torus. A linear dependence is found between excess neutron rate and tritium concentration when the DT fusion rate is low. We discuss the properties of the neutron emission, including anisotropy, from the proton-triton reaction in a fusion reactor environment and derive simple models for the calculation of the neutron yield from this reaction in terms of tritium density, fast ion temperature and fast ion energy content.

  • 24. Stork, D.
    et al.
    Baranov, Y.
    Belo, P.
    Bertalot, L.
    Borba, D.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H. H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Challis, C. D.
    Ciric, D.
    Conroy, S.
    de Baar, M.
    de Vries, P.
    Dumortier, P.
    Garzotti, L.
    Hawkes, N. C.
    Hender, T. C.
    Joffrin, E.
    Jones, T. T. C.
    Kiptily, V.
    Lamalle, P.
    Mailloux, J.
    Mantsinen, M.
    McDonald, D. C.
    Nave, M. F. F.
    Neu, R.
    O'Mullane, M.
    Ongena, J.
    Pearce, R. J.
    Popovichev, S.
    Sharapov, S. E.
    Stamp, M.
    Stober, J.
    Surrey, E.
    Valovic, M.
    Voitsekhovitch, I.
    Weisen, H.
    Whiteford, A. D.
    Worth, L.
    Yavorskij, V.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Overview of transport, fast particle and heating and current drive physics using tritium in JET plasmas2005In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 45, no 10, S181-S194 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results are presented from the JET Trace Tritium Experimental (TTE) campaign using minority tritium (T) plasmas (n(T)/n(D) < 3%). Thermal tritium particle transport coefficients (D-T, nu(T)) are found to exceed neo-classical values in all regimes, except in ELMy H-modes at high densities and in the region of internal transport barriers (ITBs) in reversed shear plasmas. In ELMy H-mode dimensionless parameter scans, at q(95) 2.8 and triangularity delta = 0.2, the T particle transport scales in a gyro-Bohm manner in the inner plasma (r/a < 0.4), whilst the outer plasma particle transport scaling is more Bohm-like. Dimensionless parameter scans show contrasting behaviour for the trace particle confinement (increases with collisionality, nu* and beta) and bulk energy confinement (decreases with nu* and is independent of beta). In an extended ELMy H-mode data set, with rho*, nu*, and q varied but with neo-classical tearing modes (NTMs) either absent or limited to weak, benign core modes (4/3 or above), the multiparameter fit to the normalized diffusion coefficient in the outer plasma (0.65 < r/a < 0.8) gives D-T/B-phi similar to rho*(2.46) nu*(-0.23) beta(-1.01) q(2.03). In hybrid scenarios (q(min) similar to 1, low positive shear, no sawteeth), the T particle confinement is found to scale with increasing triangularity and plasma current. Comparing regimes (ELMy H-mode, ITB plasma and hybrid scenarios) in the outer plasma region, a correlation of high values of D-T with high values Of nu(T) is seen. The normalized diffusion coefficients for the hybrid and ITB scenarios do not fit the scaling derived for ELMy H-modes. The normalized tritium diffusion scales with normalized poloidal Larmor radius (rho(theta)* = q rho*) in a manner close to gyro-Bohm (similar to rho(sigma)*(3)), with an added inverse P dependence. The effects of ELMs, sawteeth and NTMs on the T particle transport are described. Fast-ion confinement in current-hole (CH) plasmas was tested in TTE by tritium neutral beam injection into JET CH plasmas. gamma-rays from the reactions of fusion alpha and beryllium impurities (Be-9(alpha, n gamma)C-12) characterized the fast fusion-alpha population evolution. The gamma-decay times are consistent with classical alpha plus parent fast triton slowing down times (tau(Ts) + tau(alpha s)) for high plasma currents (I-p > 2 MA) and monotonic q-profiles. In CH discharges the gamma-ray emission decay times are much lower than classical (tau(Ts) + tau(alpha s)), indicating alpha confinement degradation, due to the orbit losses and particle orbit drift predicted by a 3-D Fokker-Planck numerical code and modelled using TRANSP.

  • 25. Testa, D.
    et al.
    Fasoli, A.
    Borba, D.
    de Baar, M.
    Bigi, M.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    de Vries, P.
    Alfven mode stability and wave-particle interaction in the JET tokamak: prospects for scenario development and control schemes in burning plasma experiments2004In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 46, no 7, S59-S79 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the effect of different ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating schemes, of error field modes, of the plasma shape and edge magnetic shear, and of the ion delB drift direction on the stability of Alfven eigenmodes (AEs). The use of multi-frequency or 2nd harmonic minority ICRF heating at high plasma density gives rise to a lower fast ion pressure gradient in the plasma core and to a reduced mode activity in the Alfven frequency range. Externally excited low-amplitude error fields lead to a much larger AE instability threshold, which we attribute to a moderate radial redistribution of the fast ions. The edge plasma shape has a clear stabilizing effect on high-n, radially localized AEs. The damping rate of n = 1 toroidal AEs is a factor 3 higher when the ion VB drift is directed towards the divertor. These results represent a useful step towards the extrapolation of current scenarios to the inclusion of fusion-born alpha particles in ITER, with possible application for feedback control schemes for the various ITER operating regimes.

  • 26. Valovic, M.
    et al.
    Budny, R.
    Garzotti, L.
    Garbet, X.
    Korotkov, A. A.
    Rapp, J.
    Neu, R.
    Sauter, O.
    deVries, P.
    Alper, B.
    Beurskens, M.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    McDonald, D.
    Leggate, H.
    Giroud, C.
    Parail, V.
    Voitsekhovitch, I.
    Density peaking in low collisionality ELMy H-mode in JET2004In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 46, no 12, 1877-1889 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low collisionality, low particle source. ELMy H-modes (type-III) with sawteeth are produced in JET in order to address the question of density profile evolution in the reference q(95) = 3 ITER scenario. The paper focuses on particle transport in the core zone around the mid-radius. The pedestal region including ELMs and the region affected by sawteeth are not considered. By replacing a significant part of the neutral beam heating by RF power the beam particle flux at mid-radius has been reduced to Gamma(Beam)/n(e) = 0.07 m s(-1). The additional flux due to wall neutrals is estimated as Gamma(Wall)/n(e) = 0.12 m s(-1). Density profiles are found to be modestly peaked under these conditions with a relative density difference of Deltan/(n) = 0.23 across the zone not affected by sawteeth and ELMs. In a region around the mid-radius the ratio of effective particle diffusivity to electron thermal diffusivity is found to be D-e,D-eff/chi(e) approximate to 0.2, which might indicate an anomalous pinch provided the particle diffusivity D-e is sufficiently lame. The measured values of D-e,D-eff/chi(e) are at the lower end of the range used in ITER models.

  • 27. Zastrow, K. D.
    et al.
    Adams, J. M.
    Baranov, Y.
    Belo, P.
    Bertalot, L.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Challis, C. D.
    Conroy, S.
    de Baar, M.
    de Vries, P.
    Dumortier, P.
    Ferreira, J.
    Garzotti, L.
    Hender, T. C.
    Joffrin, E.
    Kiptily, V.
    Mailloux, J.
    McDdonald, D. C.
    Neu, R.
    O'Mullane, M.
    Nave, M. F. F.
    Ongena, J.
    Popovichev, S.
    Stamp, M.
    Stober, J.
    Stork, D.
    Voitsekhovitch, I.
    Valovic, M.
    Weisen, H.
    Whiteford, A. D.
    Zabolotsky, A.
    Tritium transport experiments on the JET tokamak2004In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 46, B255-B265 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview is given of the experimental method, the analysis technique and the results for trace tritium experiments conducted on the JET tokamak in 2003. Observations associated with events such as sawtooth collapses, neo-classical tearing modes and edge localized modes are described. Tritium transport is seen to approach neo-classical levels in the plasma core at high density and low q(95), and in the transport barrier region of internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. Tritium transport remains well above neo-classical levels in all other cases. The correlation of the measured tritium diffusion coefficient and convection velocity for normalized minor radii r/a = [0.65, 0.80] with the controllable parameters q95 and plasma density are found to be consistent for all operational regimes (ELMy H-mode discharges with or without ion cyclotron frequency resonance heating, hybrid scenario and ITB discharges). Scaling with local physics parameters is best described by gyro-Bohm scaling with an additional inverse beta dependence.

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