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  • 1.
    Amlinger, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Botling, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Operational deflection shapes of a PWM-fed traction motor2016In: Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Springer, 2016, p. 209-217Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational deflection shapes of an asynchronous traction motor for railway applications are investigated. The radiated noise from the tractionmotor on a train is, especially at low speeds, dominated by noise generated by electromagnetic forces. The tested motor is fed by a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) frequency converter for which the voltage is modulated as a series of pulses that are switched with a certain frequency. In this case, PWM force lines can be expected to influence the radiated noise. Therefore, detailed knowledge about the frequencies and deflection shapes of vibrations generated by PWM forces is of great importance for understanding and controlling the radiated noise and its spectral content. Vibration levels are measured on the stator shield and the operational deflection shapes are studied for several PWM switching frequencies and motor speeds. The deflection shapes with the largest vibration levels are determined. These are then compared to the expected excitation resulting from the pure PWM force lines. Changing the switching frequency, will shift the frequencies of the exciting forces. An appropriate selection of the PWM switching frequency is therefore important for the resulting acoustic radiation from the motor. © The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2016.

  • 2.
    Amlinger, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Impact of PWM switching frequency on the radiated acoustic noise from a traction motor2017In: 2017 20th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, ICEMS 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The radiated acoustic noise from a traction motor at low speeds is dominated by the noise of electromagnetic origin. For a motor operated from pulse width modulated (PWM) converters, the switching frequency of the converter will have a large impact on the noise. The total harmonic distortion of the motor phase currents and thus also the exciting forces, will decrease with increasing switching frequency. Furthermore, changing the switching frequency will shift the frequencies of the exciting forces, hence have an influence on the coincidence with structural resonances of the motor. Tests have been performed on a traction motor and a decrease in sound pressure level with increasing switching frequency has been quantified and analyzed.

  • 3.
    Amlinger, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Reduction of radiated acoustic noise of a traction motor at PWM converter operationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Carlsson, U.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    On the environmental performance of a high-speed train2014In: International Journal of Rail transportation, ISSN 2324-8378, E-ISSN 2324-8386, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental performance is one of the major considerations of future high-speed trains. Two main issues have been closely investigated in the Green Train programme, namely (1) energy use and (2) external noise. Analysis, development and testing in the Green Train programme have focused primarily on speeds up to 250 km/h, although the energy issues have also been studied at top speeds up to 320 km/h. The energy use is estimated for both long-distance trains with few stops and for fast regional services with relatively tight underway stops. These estimations result in an energy use of 46–62 Wh per passenger-km – or 30–40 Wh per seat-km – accounted as electricity taken from the public electric power grid. Improved aerodynamic performance, efficient space utilization, electric regenerative brakes, eco-driving advice and improved energy efficiency in the propulsion system make this possible. Trackside noise has also been analysed and tested in the programme. In order to maintain the same or lower noise level at 250 km/h as at lower speeds with current trains, a number of measures are proposed. These include bogie skirts, wheel absorbers and careful aerodynamic design of the front area and of all protruding objects. In sensitive residential areas, further improvement may be achieved with rail absorbers or low trackside screens.

  • 5.
    Botling, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Amlinger, Hanna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Vibro-acoustic modal model of a traction motor for railway applications2016In: Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Springer, 2016, p. 197-208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vibro-acoustic modal model of a traction motor for railway applications is presented based on an experimental modal analysis of the system. Noise requirements for railway traction motors are getting more and more demanding as part of the overall levels of new rolling stock. It is therefore of great interest to understand and predict the vibro-acoustic behaviour of electromagnetic noise generated by traction motors. The modal parameters are derived from an experimental modal analysis. The primary source for the radiated sound of the tested traction motor is the radial deflections of the stator shield. The modal parameters for the radial deflections are implemented in a reduced order modal model in a state space format using Matlab/Simulink. Only the structural modes that have a match in both the frequency and the spatial domain with the excited electromagnetic force will cause important vibro-acoustic response. This makes it possible to create an accurate and efficient reduced order modal model with only a fraction of the total number of structural modes. The simulation results from the modal model are compared to measurements of operational deflection shapes and acoustic measurements of the motor. © The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2016.

  • 6.
    Botling, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Combined Experimental and Analytical Vibro-Acoustic Model of an Electrical Motor2016In: Journal of Experimental MechanicsArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A vibro-acoustic modal model of a traction motor forrailway applications is presented based on an experimentalmodal analysis of the system. Noise requirements forrailway traction motors are getting more and moredemanding as part of the overall levels of new rolling stock.It is therefore of great interest to understand and predict thevibro-acoustic behaviour of electromagnetic noisegenerated by traction motors. The modal parameters arederived from an experimental modal analysis. The primarysource for the radiated sound of the tested traction motor isthe radial deflections of the stator shield. The modalparameters for the radial deflections are implemented in areduced order modal model in a state space format usingMatlab/Simulink. Only the structural modes that have amatch in both the frequency and the spatial domain withthe electromagnetic excitation force will cause animportant vibro-acoustic response. This makes it possibleto create an accurate and efficient reduced order modalmodel with only a fraction of the total number of structuralmodes. The simulation results from the modal model arecompared to measured levels of vibration and acousticmeasurements of the motor.

  • 7.
    Botling, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Modelling framework for electromagnetic noise generation from traction motors2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Botling, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Modelling framework for electromagnetic noise generation from traction motors2016In: Journal of Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary DesignArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electromagnetic noise from traction motors is often the single most dominating noise source from trains at low trainspeeds. This electromagnetic noise is tonal and annoying for both passengers on the train and people near the track andon the platform. A thorough understanding of the cause and the prediction of the electromagnetic noise is needed to beable to design low noise components. This paper describes a real time multi-physics modelling framework forprediction of the audible electromagnetic noise generated by traction motors fed by power converters. The cause of theelectromagnetic noise is influenced by several different domains. To be able to fully simulate the final acoustic sound,all these domains needs to be modelled and simulated together. Simulations of some relevant operational conditionsfor acoustic noise generation has been performed and discussed. Some of these results have been compared to realmeasurements from a converter fed traction motor.

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