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  • 1. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Grahn, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Erixon, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Kärsten, Carl
    Torsvall, Jonas
    Chans sätta Stockholm på kartan2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Bergström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    KI Arkitektur och kunskapsmiljö: Tävlingen/Etableringen/Förnyelsen2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities, like many other institutions in today’s society, are to such an extent connected to their buildings that activity and built structures can be difficult to separate from each other. What we can begin to see is how people have always used building to establish and maintain both societal functions and more everyday customs and practices. Activities that manage to establish themselves in built form become a natural and supportive part of our material reality, whereas activities that do not may have problems surviving. In our times, characterized by continuous change, established solutions can also be in the way of new development and hinder us from seeing how the built environment could be designed in a different way.

    Seen from this perspective, KI – Karolinska Institutet – constitutes an interesting example between consciously shaped environment and highly qualified academic activity. Karolinska Institutet is since long one of Swedens most creative knowledge environments. The institute’s buildings have come to over a long period of time and is characterized by high ambitions, where different ideas of the conditions of knowledge production have governed both the overall plan and the design of individual buildings. By clarifying these ideas, and simultaneously investigating how the built result works, we hope to contribute not only to the understanding of the development of Karolinska Institutet, but to e more general knowledge of the relation between architecture and knowledge environment as well.

     

  • 3.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Royal Swedish Academy of the Sciences.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Ekosystemtjänster i Stockholmsregionen2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4. Erixon Aalto, Hanna
    et al.
    Marcus, Lars
    Torsvall, Jonas
    Towards A Social-Ecological Urbanism: Co-producing knowledge through design in the Albano Resilient Campus project in StockholmManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    If we are to promote urban sustainability and resilience, social-ecological knowledge must be better integrated in urban planning and design projects. Due to gaps in the two cultures of thinking associated with the disciplines of ecology and design, such integration has, however, proven challenging. In mainstream practice, ecologists often act as sub-consultants; they are seldom engaged in the creative and conceptual phases of the process. Conversely, research aiming to bridgethe gap between design and ecology has tended to be dominated by arelatively static and linear outlook on what the design process is, and what it could be. Further, few concrete examples of the co-production of ecological and design knowledge exist. In this paper, we give an account of a transdisciplinary design proposal for Albano Resilient Campus in Stockholm, discussing how design – seen as a process and an assemblage of artifacts – can act as a framework for co-producing knowledge and operationalizing concepts of resilience and ecosystem services. Througha design-based and action-oriented approach, we discuss how such a collaborative design process may integrate ecological knowledge into urban design through three concrete practices: a) iterative prototyping and generative matrix models; b) designerly mediators or “touchstones”; and c) legible, open-ended, comprehensive narratives. In the conclusion, we sketch the contours of a social-ecological urbanism, speculatingon possible broader and changed roles for ecologists, designers, and associated actors within this framework.

  • 5.
    Haas, Tigran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Söderlind, Anders Jerker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Urban Design in Times of Change: Performance Based Design at UPD KTH2008In: 3rd Congress of Council for European Urbanism, Climate Change and Urban Design, Oslo, Norway September 2008, Oslo: Council for European Urbanism , 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Karlström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    Marcus, Lars
    Place Syntax: geographic accessibility with visibility in GIS2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Karlström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Place, space syntax and attraction-accessibility2009In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Space Syntax Symposium, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Koch, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Configuring Academia: Academic entities and spatial identities2012In: Proceedings: Eighth International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Margareta Greene, José Reyes & Andrea Castro, 2012, p. 8147:1-8147:21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academia has a long tradition of structuring itself around academic subjects, often epitomized through architectural manifestations such as individual buildings and whole campi. These materializations serve as sites of research and education, but also serve to describe the university as whole as well as its institutional parts, their definitions and their interrelations. This description goes deeper than simple definition of specific buildings for specific activities or subjects, but rather describes the idea of academic structures and relations between different people in the campi. This paper makes a comparative study of one of the more successful research universities in Stockholm, studying the use of spatial configuration and programming when the main campus was established in the first decade after the second world war, and how it was used in the following large-scale expansion beginning in the 1960s. It shows how, for both pragmatic and ideological reasons, radical shifts in the relation between buildings and academic subjects, as well as academic individuals and the units central to these descriptions, have taken place in the years in-between, and scrutinizes some of the effects coming with such a change.

  • 9.
    Koch, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Marcus, LarsKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.Steen, JesperKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Proceedings of the 7th International Space Syntax Symposium2009Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [Foreword to the printed proceedings]

    The Space Syntax symposia are by now recognised as an established tradition in international architectural research, a tradition that combines high scientific rigour with high relevance for architectural practice. It will be the primary aim of the organisers of the Stockholm symposium to carry on this tradition.

    Still, each symposium has its own flavour due to continuous changes in the global society, but also due to the local context of each symposium. We believe that contemporary Stockholm presents a situation in architecture and urban design of great international relevance. Stockholm is often described as a successful city in these fields, but it is a success to a high degree relying on a top-down approach to architectural and urban development. From a local horizon it is becoming obvious how Stockholm needs to learn from the kind of bottom-up urban processes often prevalent in cities less often described as successful.

    To a large degree it is the study of such self-organising and emergent processes in buildings and cities that is at the heart of Space Syntax research. Since this implies an exploration of the field of the possible in architectural and urban design, one here also finds the reason for the high relevance of Space Syntax for architectural practice. We hope that this tension between top-down and bottom-up approaches in architecture and urban design will be a lasting memory of the Stockholm symposium.

  • 10.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 1 Perspektiv och utgångspunkter2015Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 2 Metoder: sociala stadsbyggnadsanalyser2015Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 3 Sociala stadsbyggnadsanalyser i Göteborg2015Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 4 Stadsrumsanalys som designstöd2015Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 5 Summerande reflektioner2015Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Streets for co-presence?: Mapping potentials2015In: Proceedings of the 10th International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Kayvan Karimi, Laura Vaughan, Kerstin Sailer, Garyfalia Palaiologou, Tom Bolton, London: Space Syntax Laboratory, The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London , 2015, p. 108:1-108:17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In  times  of  increasing  residential  segregation  in  cities  the  potential  for  interplay  between  local  inhabitants and non-­‐locals in urban public space becomes increasingly important. By sharing space we gain information and knowledge from our fellow citizens (Granovetter, 1983), and are enabled to participate in processes that negotiate social structures, attitudes, norms and acceptable behaviours (Giddens, 1984; Zukin, 2005). From this point of departure streets as well as local squares and centres appear to have a key role providing an arena for interplay between different social groups and an arena for exchanging information and are seen as crucial for providing access to opportunities and various urban resources (Young, 1996). Many neighbourhoods, however, have proved to fail in this respect and in areas that today face problems related to social exclusion in Sweden the streets are often characterized by co-­‐absence rather than co-­‐presence and there is an evident ruptured interface between  locals  and  non-­‐locals  (Legeby,  2013).  We  argue  that  patterns  of  co-­‐presence  to  a  large  extent are influenced by urban form and by the morphological properties that also is related to what kind of non-­‐residential activities are likely to emerge locally. This paper aims to highlight the critical role of public space and demonstrate how configurational properties may be analysed and described so that it becomes clear if and where urban design interventions can be used in order to create more favourable conditions and improve access to both various urban resources and to an urban life with a mix  of  locals  and  non-­‐locals.  In  a  project  conducted  in  collaboration  with  the  city  of  Gothenburg  seven neighbourhoods are analysed according to the potential for co-­‐presence in public urban space, and according to access to urban resources; two aspects identified as highly relevant from an urban segregation  perspective.  This  paper  uses  a  three  pronged  approach  that  combines  configurational  analysis, accessibility analysis and observations, and various diagrammatical representations of the results  are  presented.  The  findings  establish  that  several  of  the  neighbourhoods  prove  to  hold  unfavourable conditions as a result of their spatial configuration. Nevertheless, the study illustrates a way forward whereby public planning can be supported by socio-­‐spatial analysis and more accurately operate by using urban design to reach more equal living conditions and overcome social exclusion.

  • 16.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Does the urban structure of Swedish cities inhibit the sharing of public space?2011In: Built Environment, ISSN 0263-7960, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 155-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that a strong focus on residential segregation limits the understanding of the role of the built environment. The city is used as more than just a place of residence; urban life is far from restricted to where we live. The potential for interplay that develops as people share public space is argued to be just as important for integration processes as the residential mix. In addition, this article examines shortcomings related to the definition of residential segregation because of limitations within the scientific analysis of urban space: the evident difficulties in delimiting relevant geographical units and deli­miting relevant social groups. The study is based on empirical analysis of Södertälje, Sweden. Södertälje topped international news when its mayor informed the US Congress that the city had managed to receive more refugees from the war in Iraq than the US and Canada combined. However, to what extent are these new immigrants given access to Swedish society through everyday practices? The results highlight how segregation in public space – including impaired accessibility to a range of resources such as places of work and contact with other people – is a very strong feature of excluded areas and is strongly disadvantageous for newcomers. These results challenge some of the beliefs in the current public debate as well as some of the principles used by Swedish authorities to ameliorate segregation.

  • 17.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Tahvilzadeh, Nazem
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Storstäder i Samverkan: Stadsbyggandets sociala dimension2015Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    A Reference Manifesto: Proposing a field of knowledge in Architecturecalled Spatial MorphologyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The alarmists spreading the threat of the Millenium bug have finally been the ones proven right. More than a decade into the new Millenium we find ourselves in an age of crises dificult to even conceive ten years ago. Tremendous human inflicted disturbances of the biosphere are now accepted as facts and will force us to adapt to continuously changing conditions of existence. Economic crises of a magnitude considered to belong to the past suddenly question the very fundaments of our economic systems and social upheavals in places we thought the most unlikely are currently balancing a thin line between hope and despair.

             We might ponder to what degree such an age of crises presents threats or opportunities but what is a fact is that since the beginning of these crises heads have been turning in the direction of the field of knowledge represented by schools of architecture. The future development of our physical infrastructure, not least in the form of cities and buildings, is expected to play a fundamental role in the tipping of these crises in the right direction. But just as the times we are living in has caught society in general by surprise, this newborn interest in architecture, landscape architecture, urban design and urban planning has caught these fields by a similar surprise, facing them with knowledge challenges they simply were not prepared for.

             It is argued here that these challenges calls for nothing less than a knowledge revolution of the field and presents its different practices with the long over due impetus to take the critical step from experience based crafts to theory based professions, which in extension also implies a need for architecture as a field of knowledge to finally transform itself into a fully developed academic field. Theory has always been inherent to architecture, it can even be argued that theory is what makes architecture different from building in general, but as long as this remains theory of a tacit rather than discursive kind, which still is the rule in the field, it will never be able to face up to the challenges advancing in its direction. What has happened is simply that the field no longer can be solely occupied by its inner circle - it has become the concern of society in general.

  • 19.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Acceptera tiden1996In: Magasin för modern arkitektur, ISSN 1102-5419, no 15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Accessible plots: A configurational approach to urban diversity2006In: International symposium of urban morphology 2006 / [ed] Abarkan, A., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Albano and the academic broadband north of central Stockholm: Evaluation and design support for strategic development of Stockholms major academic area2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Architecture.
    Architectural knowledge and urban form2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 23.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Balancing quantitative analysis and social concern2012In: Journal of Space Syntax, ISSN 2044-7507, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 5-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rereading Julienne Hanson’s ‘Urban transformations: A history of design ideas’, published in Urban Design International in 2000, one is immediately reminded of Hanson’s versatile research work that apart from extensive studies on urban issues, also includes major contributions to the research on buildings, architectural history and design methodology, which all are distinctly present in ‘Urban transformations’. As a matter of fact, this article can to equal degrees be characterised as a piece of original architectural history, a contribution to analytical methodology, a broad and thorough empirical study of the social implications of housing estates in the UK, or as a critical reflection in design methodology. This is a pattern recognisable in many articles by Hanson, why one is also reminded of the unfortunate fact that there are several such broad and well-investigated themes of hers that so far have not been realised in full-length books.

  • 24.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Bo tryggt 01: Handbok för brottsförebyggande och trygghetsskapande i bostäder och bostadsområden2001Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Debatten om staden behöver distinktion2012In: Arkitekten, ISSN 0903-2347, no 2, p. 55-60Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Det nya Stockholm skapas i det tysta2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Architecture and Townplanning.
    Ett liv i parodi1992In: Magasin för modern arkitektur, ISSN 1102-5419, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Formalism hotar Sveriges viktigaste stadsutvecklingsprojekt2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Architecture and Townplanning.
    Från mönsteranläggning till stadens piano nobile1993In: Arkitektur, ISSN 0004-2021, no 6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Architecture and Townplanning.
    Från sanning till stil1995In: Arkitektur, ISSN 0004-2021, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Från strategisk planering till strategisk design2003In: Tidskriften Plan, ISSN 0032-0560, Vol. 63, no 5-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Architecture and Townplanning.
    I stadens sken1992In: Magasin för modern arkitektur, ISSN 1102-5419, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    I stadens spår2005In: Arkitektur, ISSN 0004-2021, no 8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Architecture and Townplanning.
    I stadens våld1991In: Nordisk arkitekturforskning, ISSN 1102-5824, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Kort om arkitektur: Att lämna Fagersta – Bosse Bergmans samlade texter2011In: Arkitektur, ISSN 0004-2021, no 3, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommentar till Bosse Bergmans bok "En gång talade man om staden" (2010). "Att ge ut lejonparten av hans arbeten under 40 år, dock inte böcker och längre forskningsrapporter, i en samlad volym /860 sidor/ är inte bara en kulturgärning utan en samhällsgärning. ... unikt inlägg i debatten om svensk stadsutveckling."

  • 36.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Nyheter från ingenstans2008In: Arkitektur: byggnad, interiör, plan, landskap, ISSN 0004-2021, no 8, p. 58-63Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Möjligheten att förutse hur byggnader och städer används och fungerar. Forskning baserad på space syntax-metoden; breddning av denna forskningsinriktning till rumsmorfologi (spatial morphology) av forskargruppen Spatial Analyys och Design (SAD) vid KTH:s arkitekturskola. Exemplifierar med forskningsresultat vad gäller Slussen, Sergels Torg, Södermalm och Centralhallen på Stockholms centralstation.

  • 37.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    nytt ljus på Peter Celsing Tvetydiga situationer och ofullbordade ögonblick (Inte ett sant ord): Tvetydiga situationer och ofullbordade ögonblick (Inte ett sant ord)2005In: Arkitektur, ISSN 0004-2021, no 5, p. 54-63Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Om att tänka rätt2007In: Arkitektur, ISSN 0004-2021, no 3, p. 60-60Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    "... måste vi bättre förstå hur arkitektonisk form samspelar med människor och deras verksamheter så att vi verkligen kan hålla vad vi lovar."

  • 39.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Osäker mark omger Segels Torg1999Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Physical planning for economical growth: A study of urban areas1999In: Proceedings, Second international space syntax symposium / [ed] de Holanda, F., 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of smaller and the establishment of new enterprises are pointed out as key questions to develop new jobs. Enterprises rely on the built environment in two ways: it contains the potential market for buying and selling, which put public, or continuous, space in focus; it contains other businesses with potential as suppliers, co-operators and customers, which put private, or discontinuous, space in focus. In analysing private space we have by an understanding of the city through a paradigm of acts come to see the plot or the property as the important spatial unit. To describe the frequency of plots in an area we use the measurement capacity. By combining the variables integration and capacity it is possible to discern four urban types: — urban, pseudo-urban, sub-urban and non-urban — with different spatial properties appropriate to different kinds of businesses. In a study in Stockholm our preliminary conclusions say that there is a correlation between capacity and the amount of workplaces and that the four urban types appear to be a useful model for further studies of the relation between space and economic life.

  • 41.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Planning is political but not politics: the need to identify and develop theory on planning media2011In: Is planning past politics: Political displacements and democratic deficits in contemporary / [ed] Metzger, J.,Allmendinger, P., Osterlynck, S., KTH , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As in politics, we find in planning an inherent confusion of means and ends. As an ideologically based endeavour, politics clearly has goals for society but comprises, just as importantly, also means to achieve these goals. Planning is a critical method for achieving political goals, which of course makes urban planning, and adherent practices, such as urban governance and urban design, inherently political instruments. As such planning is clearly part of the means of politics. But does that make planning politics? Even though it is often said that planning also generates goals for politics, these goals can hardly be accepted as politics unless politically sanctioned. And even if such sanctioning in planning practice often is circumvented, this must surely be seen as a flaw in planning rather than a formative characteristic. Based on this rather conventional argument this paper therefore takes the stance that planning clearly is political but can not, or rather should not, be understood as politics.

    More importantly, the paper argues that a major reason that this conventional wisdom has been so debated in recent decades, is due to inherent theoretical problems in planning itself, especially when it comes to defining its ends and means - the failure to accept that planning is not everything, if you like. The paper argues that to remedy this it can, in contrast to the focus on the process of planning that has been prevalent for a long time in planning discourse, be fruitful to focus the products of planning, such as policy documents, legal frameworks and built neighbourhoods, not least when it comes to identifying its means, but in extension maybe also its ends.

    Of critical importance here is the fact that planning can never intervene directly in the urban processes it aims to structure and shape, but uses different intermediary systems, such as discursive, institutional and spatial systems, resulting exactly in such things as policy documents, legal frameworks and built neighbourhoods. Such systems do change over time but they still represent the most tangible products of planning, which often also show a remarkable durability. Rather than dismissing these as mere tools for the grander goals of politics itself, it is argued that they should be taken most seriously and maybe even be accepted as the ends of planning. This would indeed not imply a dislocation of planning from politics, only a more definite delimitation between the two that clearly leaves the political goals in the realm of politics. What is more, it also points to the first direction in planning in need of theoretical development, according to this paper, the relation between the intermediary systems used in planning and the urban processes addressed by political goals, or put differently, theory on planning as intermediary product.

  • 42.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Architecture and Townplanning.
    Platser är i vägen2000In: Area, no 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Plot Syntax: A configurational approach to urban diversity2005In: Proceedings, Fifth international space syntax symposium / [ed] van Nes, A., Delft: Techne Press, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than forty years ago Jane Jacobs wrote the most influential book on urban development in the post war era.[1]Immensely clear-sighted and poignant in its criticism it was not, although often intuitively correct, as strong in theoretical depth in its suggestions for remedies. It can be said that one of her four main suggestions, the idea of short blocks and its importance for through movement and inhabited streets, has within space syntax research been lifted from the intuitive level of Jacobs to an analytical theory under the name of  “The theory of natural movement” (Hillier et al, 1993).

    Another main suggestion of Jacobs was the idea of buildings of varying age and their importance for the diversity of uses within cities. In this paper a series of earlier papers are summarised and further developed, trying to also lift this suggestion to the level of an analytical theory, possibly called “The theory of natural diversity”. Marcus et. al. (1999) presented the theoretical foundation for such a theory where the importance to focus the spatial level of plot-structures in cities was argued. The plot-structure is in a direct way a representation of the distribution of landowners and thereby fundamental actors in the city, which act according to different strategies. Many actors can then lead to many strategies that in effect can lead to a higher diversity, it was argued. Marcus (2001) presented empirical support for such a theory, showing convincing correlation between the density of plots and the number of people renting space for economical activity and in extension the number of present lines of businesses.

    In these empirical tests plot-density was measured as a density of plots either for an urban block or street. Thereby it was fundamentally a geographic description, aggregating values on a geographic unit that is there were no analyses of the distribution of space itself, the latter being the fundamental aim within space syntax (Koch 2005) A new GIS-based application, called the Place Syntax Tool, has opened the door to a morphological approach to the same issue, where the axial map developed within space syntax is instrumental (Ståhle et al, 2005). In effect what is measured is for example configurational densities that is densities that through the axial map take into account densities of other geographical units in the system.

    In this paper it is used to measure and correlate plot- and diversity-densities, where the results supports the general theory suggested above not only for economical parameters but also social, such as age groups.

    Jacobs, J., 1961, The death and life of great American cities.

    Koch, D., 2004, Spatial systems as producers of meaning: the idea of knowledge in three public libraries, Trita-ARK; 2004.2, KTH, Stockholm.

    Ståhle, A., 2005, Mer park i tätare stad, Trita-ARK; Trita-ARK; 2005:2, KTH, Stockholm

  • 44.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Principles of social-ecological urbanism2013Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Representativitet framför performativitet2008In: Arkitektur: byggnad, interiör, plan, landskap, ISSN 0004-2021, no 1, p. 44-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Architecture and Townplanning.
    Rum att bygga1997In: Arkitektur, ISSN 0004-2021, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Architecture and Townplanning.
    Sabaudia och det modernas skugga1995In: Arkitektur, ISSN 0004-2021, no 8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Social housing and segregation in Sweden: from residential segregation to social integration in public space2007In: Progress in Planning, ISSN 0305-9006, E-ISSN 1873-4510, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 251-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Segregation in the larger cities clearly appears as one of the major social problems of contemporary Swedish society. According to public research it is a problem that concerns its very foundations. Still, many of the actions taken in recent years are criticised for being ineffective. There is reason to believe that a fundamental reason for this is lack of knowledge possible to apply in practical planning. A dimension of the issue that is especially problematic in this regard is the spatial dimension of social segregation. Segregation is obviously an inherently spatial concept. Even so, the issue is often analysed and discussed using quite simple spatial models and weak theories on the relation between spatial and social phenomena. In this paper the aim is therefore to discuss some of the common spatial assumptions that from the point of view of spatial analysis can be devious. Partly it concerns the concept of “areas”, within which urban geography is recognised as a profoundly problematic spatial concept and form of representation. Partly it concerns the assumption that social segregation should be defined from the point of view of “residential constitution” of such areas, where there is reason to ask whether not segregation in public space is a far more urgent issue. Some preliminary analyses will be presented that suggest that such a point of departure can prove fruitful.

  • 49.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Spatial Capital: A Proposal for an Extension of Space Syntax into a More General Urban Morphology2010In: Journal of Space Syntax, ISSN 2044-7507, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 30-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although space syntax is often presented as a configurational theory of architecture, this tends to hide the more fundamental claim that it is also an analytical theory, a theory based on analytical science rather than on the normative or ideological claims normally found in architectural theory. This article proposes an extension of such an analytical theory in the context of urbanism by using space syntax areas in urban morphology that earlier have not been directly part of space syntax analysis. If one allows for some simplification, one can say that the main variable of urban form analysed in space syntax is accessibility. This article introduces two other variables: density and diversity. Density, the dominating variable in geographic analysis of urban space, is fundamental for the development of knowledge about urban space and in the practice of urban planning. Diversity, at least since Jane Jacob’s writing of The Death and Life of Great American Cities, has been another focus for urban analysis and urban planners, yet one that has proven to be more difficult to address.

             A study of an urban area in Stockholm identified three convincing correlations: 1.) a correlation between integration and movement; 2.) a correlation between accessible building density and population; and 3.) a correlation between accessible plots and diversity indices such as number of age groups and lines of businesses. Whereas the first correlation is not very surprising in the context of space syntax research and the second correlation is interesting mostly because of its original measuring technique, the third correlation must be considered surprising and an original finding.

    The present study proposes that the three ways to measure the three variables accessibility, density and diversity could be combined into a more general analytical theory of urban form, directly stemming from space syntax analysis, significantly widening the scope of space syntax into a more general urban morphology. In addition, it is proposed that these measurements capture something that can be called spatial capital, that also can engage adjacent scientific disciplines.

  • 50.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Spatial capital and how to measure it: An outline of an analytical theory of the social performativity of urban form2007In: Proceedings, Sixth international space syntax symposium / [ed] Kubat, A., Özhan, E., Guney, Y., Eyuboglu, E, Istanbul: Istanbul Technical University, 2007, p. 5.1-5.11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Space syntax is often presented as a configurational theory of architecture. This tends to hide the more fundamental claim that it also is an analytical theory, that is, that it is not an ideologically founded or normative theory, as so much of architectural theory, but a scientifically founded theory.

    What it is proposed in this paper is an outline of exactly such an analytical theory in urbanism, that tries to incorporate into space syntax areas in urban morphology that earlier has not been directly part of space syntax analysis. If one allows for some simplification, one can say that the main variable of urban form that is analysed within space syntax is accessibility. In this paper the introduction of two other variables are suggested. On the one hand density, which is the dominating variable in geographic analysis of urban space, and therefore very influential both when it comes to the development of knowledge on urban space and when it comes to the practice of urban planning. On the other hand diversity, which, at least since Jane Jacob’s writing of  ‘The death and life of great American cities’, has been one of the most asked for qualities in cities, but one at the same time most difficult to plan.

    In a study of an urban area in Stockholmmost convincing correlations have been found. First, between integration and movement, second, between accessible building density and population, and third, between accessible plots and diversity indices such as amount of age groups and amount of lines of businesses. Whereas the first is not very surprising in the context of space syntax research, and the second interesting on the most part due to its original measuring technique, the third must be considered highly surprising and an original finding.

    It is proposed that these modes of measurement of the variables movement, density and diversity could be combined into a more general analytical theory of urban form, directly stemming from space syntax analysis but in important respects widening the scope of space syntax into a more general urban morphology. It is furthermore proposed that these measurements capture something that can be called spatial capital, whose use-value and exchange-value represent new and promising fields of research that also can engage adjacent scientific disciplines

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