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  • 1. Albert de la Bruheze, A. A.
    et al.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    European bicycling: The politics of low and high culture: Taming and framing cycling in twentieth-century Europe2012In: Journal of Transport History, ISSN 0022-5266, E-ISSN 1759-3999, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 64-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Blomkvist, Pär
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Co-evolution of Technology and Institutions: Government Regulation and Technological Creativity in the Swedish Moped History 1952–702014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first of July 1952, the moped was legislatively excluded from existing restrictions for heavier two-wheeled motorized vehicles. A driver/owner of a “bicycle with auxiliary engine” – this was the original denomination of the vehicle – thus needed no registration, driver’s license or insurance, nor pay any vehicle tax. The legislators did, however, postulate some technical requirements. Besides regulation of the engine, the vehicle should be “bicycle-like” and have pedals. It should thus be driven primarily by means of human, not mechanical, power (i.e., it was not supposed to be a lighter version of a motorcycle). In terms of social and economic goals, the state assumed workers to be the primary users, and a utilitarian use rather than one connected to pleasure and spare time. Very quickly, however, the moped lost all resemblance with the ordinary bicycle (except for the pedals). In a new legislation in 1961, the state yielded to the technical development. The moped no longer needed to resemble a bicycle or have pedals. Meanwhile, the moped also became more of a toy for boys – a vehicle for freedom – rather than the useful tool the state had wished for. In fact, we argue that the demands from user groups not foreseen played a crucial role in changing the legal technical requirements of the moped.This paper deals with the co-evolution, technically and institutionally, of the moped during the period 1952–75. Using a method inspired by evolutionary theory, the moped models released in Sweden in these years are grouped in “families” with distinctive technical features and accompanying presumed uses. We analyze this development using concepts from the theoretical fields of innovation studies and the history of technology

  • 3.
    Blomkvist, Pär
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Från nyttofordon till frihetsmaskin: Teknisk och institutionell samevolution kring mopeden i Sverige 1952–752009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Blomkvist, Pär & Martin Emanuel, From Utility to Freedom: The Co-evolution of Technology and Institutions in the History of the Swedish Moped 1952–75, Division of Industrial Dynamics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Stockholm 2009)

    The first of July 1952, the moped was legislatively excluded from existing restrictions for heavier two-wheeled motorized vehicles. A driver/owner of a “bicycle with auxiliary engine” – this was the original denomination of the vehicle – thus needed no registration, driver’s license or insurance, nor pay any vehicle tax. The legislators did, however, postulate some technical requirements. Besides regulation of the engine, the vehicle should be “bicycle-like” and have pedals. It should thus be driven primarily by means of human, not mechanical, power (i.e., it was not supposed to be a lighter version of a motorcycle). In terms of social and economical goals, the state assumed workers to be the primary users, and a utilitarian use rather than one connected to pleasure and spare time.

    Very quickly, however, the moped lost all resemblance with the ordinary bicycle (except for the pedals). In a new legislation in 1961, the state yielded to the technical development. The moped no longer needed to resemble a bicycle or have pedals. Meanwhile, the moped also became more of a toy for boys – a vehicle for freedom – rather than the useful tool the state had wished for. In fact, we argue that the demands from user groups not foreseen played a crucial role in changing the legal technical requirements of the moped.

    This report treats the co-evolution, technically and institutionally, of the moped during the period 1952–75. Using a method inspired by evolutionary theory, the moped models released in Sweden in these years are grouped in “families” with distinctive technical features and accompanying presumed uses. For understanding how demands of different user groups can alter the “dominant design” of a technology (Abernathy & Utterback, 1978), the concept pair of technical and functional demand specifications are developed. While dominant design may capture conservative features in technological development, our concepts seem to better capture the dynamics in technical and institutional change – the co-evolution of technology and institutions.

     

  • 4.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    ABC 80 i pedagogikens tjänst: Exempel på tidig användning av mikrodatorer i den svenska skolan: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Cloetta Center i Linköping den 23 september 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The witness seminar ”ABC 80 i pedagogikens tjänst: Exempel på tidig användning av mikrodatorer i den svenska skolan” [ABC 80 in Education: An Example of Early Use of Micro Computers in the Swedish School] was held at Cloetta Center in Linköping on 23 September 2008 and was led by Magnus Johansson. The seminar focused on technical and educational aspects of the Swedish micro computer ABC 80, manufactured by the Luxor company starting in 1978. Geographically, it focused on the region of Östra Götaland. The seminar treated the origins and development of the ABC 80, marketing efforts addressing Swedish schools, various prerequisites for introducing and using these and other micro computers in secondary and higher secondary schools, as well as the actual use of computers in different school subjects. The seminar revealed the domination of teachers in Mathematics and Science regarding the use of computers for educational purposes. Roughly focusing the period 1978–85, the use of computers in education mainly included programming, calculation and for controlling and measuring in laboratory work. It was rather a fascination of the new technology than ideas about how it might influence education that impelled the teachers to use computers in their teaching. The participants also stressed the importance of ABC 80 and other micro computers for computer use in schools, due to increased affordability and flexibility in comparison with minicomputers.

  • 5. Emanuel, Martin
    Bengt Halse En intervju av Martin Emanuel 5 oktober 20172017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Bengt Halse’s experiences from working with satellite technology at Ericsson, with a focus on microwave technology, antennas and signal processing, most notably in European projects such as ELDO F9, OTS, MAROTS, as well as the Swedish Tele-X project. As part of the story, Halse identifies some of the key project leaders and supporters at the higher level within the company of this relatively small segment. As a key aspect of the “return” of space-oriented projects, he points to their character as high tech, international, but still relatively small projects, which made them well-suited as a “school” in project management. Halse also elaborates on Ericsson’s relationship to other relevant actors with respect to space activities. On the international arena, ESA stands out as the most important funder, and Halse discusses the position of Ericsson within Star (one of three European space industry consortia) and the space industry landscape more generally. The company’s space related technology development was essentially carried out within the Military Industrial (MI) division in Mölndal. Still, according to Halse, Sweden stands out as a country where space technology was not carried out in any close collaboration with the Swedish Defence. In fact, in spite of the high potential to use satellite technology for signal intelligence purposes—and Ericsson’s capacity in the field—the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (Försvaret Materielverk) appears to have been reluctant to engage in such developments. Also with respect to the Swedish space landscape, Halse highlights the frictions between Ericsson and the Swedish Space Corporation (Rymdbolaget), due to their different agendas and necessary considerations, which were however differently navigated depending on personal dynamics. Finally, Halse brings some insider reflection on the merger between Ericsson’s and Saab’s space technology divisions into Saab Ericsson Space, which he considers as essentially a natural and friction-free process.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-03 10:43
  • 6.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Bicycle Renaissance Cut Short: Bicycle Planning and Appraisal of the Bicycle in Stockholm, 1970–19852012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Like in most other European cities, Stockholm experienced a bicycle “renaissance” in the 1970s, after more than two decades of rapidly declining levels of bicycling. However, the renaissance had already abated by the early 1980s, and the present upward trend only began after 1990. This article is the result of on-going inquiries into the longer trends and contingencies in bicycle traffic and planning in Stockholm, focusing on the period 1970–85 and, thus, capturing two turning points in terms of bicycle traffic levels and public and political appraisal of the bicycle. Particularly, the fluctuations of bicycle traffic are considered in relation to urban planning, infrastructure provision, and the changing assessments of the bicycle in light of the 1960s’ predominantly urban environmental debates and the 1970s’ (“green”) environmental debates at the local level in Stockholm. While defined increasingly as a “humane” and environmentally-sensible alternative to the automobile, reassessments of the bicycle in terms of safety and speed proved more important to the (socially) constructed material conditions for using the bicycle. Although bicycle traffic had broad public and political support in the 1970s, design choices made during this decade, based on thrift and the persistence of the car as norm, led to conflicts among different road users—not least between bicyclists and pedestrians—and thus more hesitance towards stimulating bicycle traffic. In the 1980s, bicycle traffic received less policy attention and less funding for infrastructure. The huge labor dispute in Sweden in the spring of 1980 stands out as an important singular event. The resulting standstill of the Stockholm subway and generally deficient public transport (the staff went on strike) made many people turn to and reassess the bicycle as a transport option. However, due to the sudden growth of inexperienced bicyclists, the problems of bicycle traffic attracted much attention—which was similar to what had happened during the Second World War. In sum, bicycling stood out as an asset in environmental terms, but the early “greening” of the bicycle was not enough to overcome the long-standing notion of the bicycle as a safety problem.

  • 7.
    Emanuel, Martin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Conny Kullman: An interview with Martin Emanuel 15 November 2017 and 25 January 20182018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Conny Kullman’s experiences from space-related work, first at Saab Space in Gothenburg and later from his career within Intelsat. Kullman describes the Gothenburg department of Saab Space—where he worked as a system design engineer, designing and testing on board computer models for the Ariane launcher and a number of European satellites—as relatively independent from the Linköping main office. Coming to Intelsat as a systems engineer in 1986, during the 1990s Kullman advanced within the organization and held management positions with responsibility for Systems Operation, Systems Planning, as Chief Information Officer, and as Vice President for all operation as well as Engineering. In 1998 he became CEO of Intelsat and embarked on a three-tiered program: to privatize Intelsat, to make an IPO, and to have Intelsat develop a ground infrastructure for satellite communication. In the interview, Kullman elaborates on the organizational structure of Intelsat, an “intergovernmental cooperative” as he calls it, and how this structure, having been a strength in the early days, in his view became a major weakness. As fibre optics began to provide a cheap alternative to satellite telecommunication, and with the development of competing satellite communication systems, the treaty-based regulations as well as the interests of the largest Signatories (owners) of Intelsat, not least American Comsat and British Telecom, impeded sound operation from a business point of view. The interview treats in detail Kullman’s role in and insights from the privatization process, the transition in ownership in 2005, when Intelsat was bought by private equity firms, as well as Intelsat’s acquisition of Loral (2003) and PanAmSat (2006).

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-04 07:54
  • 8. Emanuel, Martin
    Conny Kullman, interview from 2017/20182018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Conny Kullman’s experiences from space-related work, first at Saab Space in Gothenburg and later from his career within Intelsat. Kullman describes the Gothenburg department of Saab Space—where he worked as a system design engineer, designing and testing on board computer models for the Ariane launcher and a number of European satellites—as relatively independent from the Linköping main office. Coming to Intelsat as a systems engineer in 1986, during the 1990s Kullman advanced within the organization and held management positions with responsibility for Systems Operation, Systems Planning, as Chief Information Officer, and as Vice President for all operation as well as Engineering. In 1998 he became CEO of Intelsat and embarked on a three-tiered program: to privatize Intelsat, to make an IPO, and to have Intelsat develop a ground infrastructure for satellite communication. In the interview, Kullman elaborates on the organizational structure of Intelsat, an “intergovernmental cooperative” as he calls it, and how this structure, having been a strength in the early days, in his view became a major weakness. As fibre optics began to provide a cheap alternative to satellite telecommunication, and with the development of competing satellite communication systems, the treaty-based regulations as well as the interests of the largest Signatories (owners) of Intelsat, not least American Comsat and British Telecom, impeded sound operation from a business point of view. The interview treats in detail Kullman’s role in and insights from the privatization process, the transition in ownership in 2005, when Intelsat was bought by private equity firms, as well as Intelsat’s acquisition of Loral (2003) and PanAmSat (2006).

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-03 15:52
  • 9.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Constructing the cyclist: Ideology and representations in urban traffic planning in Stockholm, 1930-702012In: Journal of Transport History, ISSN 0022-5266, E-ISSN 1759-3999, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 67-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Datorn i skolan: Skolöverstyrelsens och andra aktörers insatser, 1970- och 80-tal: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 30 oktober 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”Datorn i Skolan: Skolöverstyrelsens och andra aktörers insatser, 1970- och 80-tal” (The Computer in School: The National Board of Education and Other Actors’ Efforts during the 1970s and 1980s) was held at The National Museum of Science and Technology (Tekniska museet) in Stockholm on 30 October 2008 and was led by Thomas Kaiserfeld and Martin Emanuel. The seminar focused on the larger national projects dedicated to computers in Swedish compulsory schools. Most of them were conducted by the National Board of Education, such as the DISand PRODIS-projects (Datorn I Skolan, Computer in School; PROgramvaror och Datorutrustning I Skolan, Software and Hardware in School) in the 1970s and early 1980s, and the so-called three-year campaigns and the DOS-project (Datorn Och Skolan, Computer and School) later during the 1980s. While the 1970s was mainly a period of experimental and policy-related work, the 3-year campaigns meant financial support for schools’ purchase of hardware, and the later DOS-project aimed at software development. A few projects run by other actors in the field were also treated, such as the PRINCESS-project, a research and development project at today’s Department of Computer and Systems Sciences in Stockholm. This project turned towards computer-support in education, and the technology procurement project for developing a Swedish school computer, named TUDIS and it was managed by the National Swedish Board for Technical Development (Styrelsen för teknisk utveckling). In 1984 this led to a consortium led by Esselte Studium developing the Compis computer. Assembling representatives from all these project and actors, the seminar also treated issues of coordination and conflict, success and failure regarding the efforts on computers in education.

  • 11.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    En bild behöver ibland tusen ord: Anmälan av Ann-Sofi Forsmark, Stockholmsfotografer: En fotografihistoria från Stockholms stadsmuseum, Stockholmia Förlag, Stockhom, 20122013In: Respons, ISSN 2001-2292, no 1Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Europe as perceived from the bicycle saddle in the interwar period2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Folkbildning kring datorn 1978–85: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 9 oktober 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The witness seminar ”Folkbildning kring datorn 1978–85” (Adult education and computers 1978–85) was held at Tekniska museet (The National Museum of Science and Technology) in Stockholm on 9 October 2008 and was led by Ulla Riis assisted by Martin Emanuel. The seminar focused on different efforts to increase computer literacy as well as awareness of the role of computers and information technology in society and on human life, in particular by means of study circles given by adult education associations. From the perspective of these associations, the content of the circles, the recruitment of trainers and participants and the accessibility to computers was dealt with. The different initiatives to stimulate such study circles and stipulate their content and target groups from above, e.g. by the Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research (Forskningsrådsnämnden) and the Swedish National Board of Education (Skolöverstyrelsen), were however treated in greater detail. Particular attention was given to the initiative “Broader Computer Education and Training” (Bred datautbilding) led by the Swedish Commission for Informatics Policy (Datadelegationen) starting in 1982. The “broadness” was supposedly twofold. Firstly, the education and training should reach many people. Secondly, it should have a broad content, mediating knowledge about computers, i.e. the technology, as well as its use and its consequences. The roots of and motives behind these initiatives were discussed at depth. Key ingredients in this respect was to counteract increasing gaps in knowledge levels on what was considered a future key technology, and the concerns and strategies of the different parties on the labor market in relation to new information technology.

  • 14. Emanuel, Martin
    Gert Larsson och Tommy Ivarsson: En intervju av Martin Emanuel4 april 20172017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview primarily treats Gert Larsson’s experiences as head of central planning at Saab Missile and Electronics division and a key person with respect to Saab’s early space activities, and later as Vice President of the company. The interview also treats Tommy Ivarsson’s experiences from his time as a young engineer at ESRO and later a high rank manager at Saab. Key issues discussed are the motives for Saab to engage in space technology; the establishment of and division of tasks within the international consortium MESH for bidding on European space-related projects; and the competition and complementary nature of the Linköping and Gothenburg branches of Saab in relation to space projects. The late Tore Gullstrand is pointed out as pivotal for Saab’s engagement in space technology. The French government and the French company of MESH, Matra, are pointed out as unique, in a European perspective, in their space efforts and competence. The system’s perspective on space technology of the Linköping branch is contrasted to the cutting edge electrical expertise within the Gothenburg branch. Larsson and Ivarsson also discuss Swedish industry and innovation policy, their changes over time, and their implications for space activities. While proponents of space activities within and outside the company often allude to the build-up and transfer of know-how to other sectors, the interviewees find that little direct technology transfer actually took place as a result of Saab’s engagement in state-funded space projects—although indirect transfer, through the movement of experienced personnel across organizational boundaries, indeed happened.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-03 11:14
  • 15.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Ideology and hierarchy in traffic planning: Concepts from gender systems theory applied on traffic planning in post-war Stockholm2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16. Emanuel, Martin
    Ivan Öfverholm: En intervju av Martin Emanuel6 februari 20182018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Ivan Öfverholm’s experiences from Swedish industrial enterprises, in particular his role as CEO of Saab Space AB and Saab Ericsson Space AB 1984–99. Having worked as an engineer with computer-related projects with ASEA, LM Ericsson and Scandia Metrics, in 1984 he became CEO for the newly created company Saab Space. In the interview, Öfverholm elaborates on his views on and his role in the structuring of the company’s divisions in Gothenburg and Linköping and their respective focus on national (Linköping) and international (Gothenburg) projects. He also comments on the company’s relationship to the Swedish National Space Board and the Swedish Space Corporation, as well as to the other two Swedish industries producing for space-related activities: LM Ericsson and Volvo. According to Öfverholm, the merge between Saab Space and Ericsson’s space division into Saab Ericsson Space AB in 1992 was driven by his worries that Ericsson would—given their competence in computer technology—in the longer run out-compete Saab for deliveries of onboard computers. Furthermore, the rationale of later acquisitions, e.g. of the Austrian space companies that were merged into Austrian Aerospace GmbH, was discussed. With respect to collaboration between industry and the state bureaucracy, Öfverholm points to how those ties were stronger in many other countries than in Sweden, which occasionally made the company turn to their European colleagues to help with influencing Swedish space policy to their favour. In the interview, Öfverholm also shares his views on European space cooperation based on his experiences as board member of Arianespace and chair of Eurospace. Finally, the interview treats his involvement, after he had left Saab Ericsson Space, in creating the South-African company African Telecommunication Satellites.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-04 07:57
  • 17.
    Emanuel, Martin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Lennart Lübeck: En intervju av Lennart Björn 10 december 2013 och 7 januari 20142018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Lennart Lübeck’s experiences from space-related work within multiple organizations, most notably during the early Swedish sounding rockets experiment in Nausta and Kronogård; within the so-called Space Technology Group (Rymdtekniska gruppen) of the Swedish Research Councils 1963–69 and as CEO (1986–98) and chairman (1998–2006) of the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC, Rymdbolaget). Even as he held positions within the Ministry of Industry (1969–78), as state secretary in the Ministry of Transport and Communications (1978–79), and as CEO for the Swedish Industrial Development Fund (1979–86), Lübeck continuously had contact with and took an interest in space-related issues—during his time in the latter position he was also board member of SSC. From the viewpoint of this unique carrier, Lübeck depicts key events and projects as well as the inner workings of parts of the state administration, in the event touching upon a great cast of characters involved in or influencing Swedish space-related policy and activities over the years, ranging from scientist to top-rank politicians and bureaucrats. The interview focuses on two issues in particular. Firstly, the character of SSC, and the tactics and strategies of the corporation vis-à-vis other actors in the Swedish space landscape. Lübeck describes SSC as a successful innovation hub but with a culture more resembling a public authority, which meant that they lacked—with some notable exceptions—the capacity to really commercialize and reach volume production. Without a viable domestic market for satellites, in 2011, the satellite-building section of SSC was sold to the German company OHB. Secondly, Lübeck traces how Swedish state policy with respect to space has changed over time. While there has hardly ever been any inherent interest in space or space-related research among policy makers, Lübeck asserts, space-related policy has rather been about achieving other political goals: industrial policy, regional policy, and European policy. In a situation of declining policy interest in Swedish space activities, the latter—that is, to show presence and solidarity in the European arena—has been the most prolific part of the three-tiered policy.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-04 08:34
  • 18.
    Emanuel, Martin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Lennart Nordh: En intervju av Martin Emanuel 22 oktober 20172017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Lennart Nordh’s experiences as an astronomer at Stockholm University and the Stockholm Observatory in Saltsjöbaden, and as secretary of the Swedish National Space Board’s (SNSB) scientific committee, responsible for the distribution of funds for Swedish space-related research and development. As part of his role at SNSB, Nordh was also the Swedish delegate in ESA:s scientific committee, which he chaired for three years towards the end of his career. The interview treats, among other things, the entry, development, and special requirements of astronomy as a space-borne scientific field in a landscape that was initially dominated by space physics and aeronomy. Given Nordh’s involvement in infrared (IR) astronomy in particular, focus is on IR-related projects, from balloon and sounding rocket-based projects via the Swedish national satellite project Odin to grand international missions such as ISO, Herschel and James Webb Space Telescope, although he also discusses other Swedish astronomy groups’ particularities and access to experimental know-how and technical facilities. Finally, based on his experiences within the Swedish and European scientific committees, Nordh elaborates on the inner workings and considerations regarding funding of space research, including national strategies and the juste retour-principle that guides ESA-funding.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-04 08:32
  • 19.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    New Delhi: Motorburen modernitet2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Nytta eller nöje? Strategier i Cykelfrämjandets historia / Debatt: Mer kraft på trafikpolitik?2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    On a detour: Changing conditions for bicycle traffic in Stockholm 1930–19702010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Emanuel, Martin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Per Nobinder: En intervju av Martin Emanuel 12 april 20172017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Per Nobinder’s experiences as industry policy officer at Rymdtekniska gruppen, Rymdbolaget, and later Rymdstyrelsen, which altogether lend him a key role in the distribution of Swedish funds – via European space organizations or not – to space technology projects. The interview elucidates the structure and practice of Sweden’s policy making related to European space activities within ESRO and later ESA. Not least it discusses the trade-offs between technical, political and economic considerations in the distribution of European funds, stressing the Juste Retour as the ultimate principal for the outcome. Among Swedish industry actors competing for Swedish and European funds, Saab was the largest, Ericsson substantially smaller, while Volvo had unique technical competence in a European perspective – in a way that Saab did not. Partly as a result of this, Nobinder describes the cooperation with Volvo as smoother than that with Saab. Attempts to press the Swedish industry actors to co-fund Swedish state funds for space technology projects were, however, ultimately unsuccessful. The interview also highlights the relationships, power struggles and tensions between the private industry actors and state-owned Rymdbolaget, on the one hand, and between Rymdbolaget and the authority Rymdstyrelsen on the other. Not least through its dynamic director, Rymdbolaget tried to, and often succeeded, to shape Swedish policies related to space activities.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-04 08:33
  • 23.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Planning the Urban Bicyclist in Stockholm, 1930–19702011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    På cykel mot en bättre värld2010In: Stadsbyggnad, ISSN 0038-8963, no 2, p. 36-38Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Essä utifrån J. Harry Wray, Pedal Power: The Quite Rise of the Bicycle in American Public Life, Boulder, Colorado: Paradigm Publishers, 2008, samt Jeff Mapes, Pedaling Revolution: How Cyclists Are Changing American Cities, Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University Press, 2009.

  • 25.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Släpp cyklarna loss, det är vår!2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Struggle for space: A sociotechnical perspective on bicycle traffic in Stockholm, 1940-602006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Struggle for space: A sociotechnical perspective on bicycle traffic in Stockholm, 1940-602006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Trafikslag på undantag: Cykeltrafiken i Stockholm 1930-19802012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The modal share of bicycle traffic in Stockholm increased from 20 per cent to over 30 per cent during the 1930s, and reached staggering levels during World War Two – peaking at over 70 per cent. Soon after the war, however, the share declined rapidly. In 1950, 1960 and 1970, bicycle traffic accounted for about 30 per cent, then 3 per cent and then less than 1 per cent, respectively, of the total amount of traffic. How should these rapid changes be understood? Why did bicycle use increase before World War Two, even though the bicycle was hardly a carrier of modernity, and then decline so rapidly during the post-war period?

    This thesis analyses the changing conditions for bicycling in Stockholm in the period 1930–1980. Comparisons with Copenhagen lend contrast and depth to the Stockholm case. The thesis stresses the importance of ideology and power in the management and planning of urban traffic. The purpose is to examine which actors had an influence on urban traffic and how, on the basis of their conceptions of the bicycle, bicyclists and bicycle traffic, those actors shaped the conditions for bicycling. Although the yearning for automobility and “modern” transit alternatives should not be disregarded as important to the rapid decline of bicycling in post-war Stockholm, it is argued that bicycle traffic was marginalised by traffic engineers and urban planners during the modernisation of the city.

    Given the rapid growth of bicycle traffic before, during and just after the Second World War, bicyclists were taken into consideration by the police, municipal engineers and the bicycle lobby, primarily through short-term measures. In the post-war period, in a context of a booming economy and the increasingly important position of planning, urban and traffic planners seized the initiative in urban traffic matters. Working within a longer time frame and with more extensive encroachments on the built environment to cope with the “demands” of urban traffic, the bicycle was completely absent in their future visions. Their interpretations of the bicycle as an unsafe, local and primarily recreational mode of transportation were materialised in the urban infrastructure, which led to worse conditions for bicyclists and reinforced the conversion to other modes of transport. By promoting certain uses and deterring others – such as carving out a small sphere for bicycle traffic in the suburbs, while making longer journeys to and from the inner city difficult by bicycle – planning and infrastructure provision shaped future traffic and travel practices.

    From the late 1960s these interpretations were increasingly complemented by more positive ones of the bicycle as a fast, flexible and clean means of transportation. The bicycle lobby and later local politicians pushed for an increased consideration of bicyclists, eventually leading up to the first bicycle plan for Stockholm in 1978. The early bicycle “renaissance” of the 1970s was curbed in the 1980s, however, due to economic recovery as well as design choices feeding the interpretation of bicyclists as a safety problem.

  • 29.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Trusting signals, controlling flows: Traffic operation in the 20th century2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Trusting signals, controlling flows: Traffic operation in the 20th century2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Understanding conditions for bicycle traffic through historical inquiry: The case of Stockholm2010In: IUT Journal (Institute of Urban Transport of India), no Dec, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of bicycle traffic in Stockholm follows the general pattern of west European cities: high levels before the Second World War, overwhelming levels during the war, and then a rapid decline during the post-war period. More recently a "renaissance" of the bicycle can be discerned. This article treats the conditions for bicycle traffic in Stockholm during the period 1930–1970. Though the demand for automobility and "modern" transit alternatives should not be disregarded as important "pull" factors in explaining the rapid decline of bicycling in the postwar period, the article highlights two kinds of "push" factors: urban development patterns and conceptions of the bicycle among professional groups in urban transport. The final section of the article is devoted to the recent upward bicycle trend in Stockholm and the simultaneous decline in bicycling in many cities in developing countries, using Delhi as an example of the latter. Given the flexibility and contextual character of notions such as "rational"/"irrational" and "modern"/"non-modern", as seen in the case of Stockholm, it is argued that the decline of bicycling in developing countries should be understood as a socially constructed rather than a "natural", inevitable process.

  • 32.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Våra drömmars stad – så kunde Stockholm ha sett ut: Anmälan av Gunnar Sandin, Vägen till Citybanan: Spårfrågan mellan Norr och Söderunder 150 år, Stockholmia Förlag, Stockholm, 20122012In: Respons, ISSN 2001-2292, no 2Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Emanuel, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Cykel bättre än spårbil på campus!2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34. Emanuel, Martin (Editor)
    IRF och den svenska rymdforskningen: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium på Institutet förrymdfysik i Kiruna den 16 november 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The  witness  seminar  “IRF  och  den  svenska  rymdforskning-en” (IRF and Swedish space research) was held at IRF (Insti-tutet  för  rymdfysik,  The  Swedish  Institute  of  Space  Physics)  in  Kiruna  on November 16, 2017,  and  was  led  by  Martin Emanuel  and  Johan  Kärnfelt.  The  seminar  covered  three  themes: key events in the history of the institute; the funding structures  of  Swedish  space-related  research;  and  issues  con-cerning  instrumentation  of  space  physics  experiments.  Vari-ous key events were proposed, ranging from contingencies in the establishment of the institute in 1957 to the institute’s en-gagement  in  ESRO’s  very  first  scientific  satellites,  the  Swe-dish-Soviet research collaborations initiated in the 1970s, and the  Swedish  scientific  satellite  Viking  launched  in  1986.  The  1960s  was  a  difficult  decade  for  Swedish  space-related  re-search,  with  most  national  funding  channelled  through  the  European   Space   Research   Organisation   (ESRO).   Since   ESRO  prioritized  satellite  programmes,  the  institute—as  the  only  Swedish  group  with  experience  of  satellites—fared  well  compared  to  other  research  groups.  The  institute  came  to  dominate  Swedish  space  physics.  In  the  period  1970–1994, the  first  director  of  the  institute  also  chaired  the  scientific committee  of  the  Swedish  research  councils  (Forskningsrådens rymdnämnd)  until  1972,  and  then  of  the  Swedish  National  Space Board (Statens delegation för rymdverksamhet). The issue of potential bias and conflict of interest was discussed. Whereas some  panellists  stressed  the  fair,  smooth  and  non-conflicting nature of the situation, others argued that certain groups felt discriminated.   The   participants   often   mentioned   the   im-portance of having in-house engineering skills at the institute: it  was  cheaper,  made  possible  the  long-term  build-up  of  competence, and allowed for the immediate collaboration be-tween the scientists and the engineers in the design of exper-iments. In contrast, many other groups relied on the technical expertise  of  the  Swedish  Space  Corporation  (SSC; Rymdbo-laget). The relationship between the institute and SSC appears to  have  been  one  of  both  cooperation  and  competition.  Breakthroughs  in  microelectronics  in  particular  had  a  large  impact  on  the  instrumentation  of  scientific  experiments.  In-deed, Soviet interest in Western microelectronics was pointed out by several participants as an important motivation for the Soviets to partake in space research collaboration with the in-stitute; for the institute, the collaboration meant opportunities to launch experiments with Soviet rockets.

  • 35. Emanuel, Martin (Editor)
    Gärdebo, Johan (Editor)
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Wormbs, Nina (Editor)
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Politiken kring svensk rymdverksamhet: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium på Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 17 januari 20182018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The  witness  seminar  “Politiken  kring  svensk  rymdverksam-het” (Politics relating to Swedish space activities) was held at Tekniska museet on January 17, 2018, and was led by Lennart Nordh,  assisted  by  Johan  Gärdebo.  The  seminar  focused  on  the relationship between Swedish space activities and various forms of politics, from the 1960s until the 2000s. The discus-sants  presented  various  definitions  of  politics,  recurrently  re-turning  to  the  question  whether  or  not  Sweden  ever  had  a  comprehensive space policy or not. According to the partici-pants,  Swedish  space  activities  have  been  linked  to  their  real  or  perceived  contributions  to  other  policy  areas—research, technology,  foreign  policy,  regional  policy,  and  European  in-tegration—but without a clear overriding political vision per-taining  to  space  specifically.  Initiatives  were  characterized  as  “management  by  opportunities,”  which  implies  making  full  use of opportunities arising in- or outside of the space activi-ties.  In  addition  to  this,  policy-makers,  whether  within  the  Swedish  National  Space  Board,  the  Swedish  Space  Corpora-tion, or the Swedish space industry, have called upon allies in other European governments, organizations and industries, as well  as  individuals  within  the  Swedish  establishment  to  exert  pressure  on  the  Swedish  Government  at  critical  moments.  On other occasions foreign pressure was exerted without any proposals  from  Swedish  actors.  It  was  noted  that  regional  support  for  Kiruna  has  been  important  since  Swedish  space  activities began in the 1960s, and the Esrange space range was established.  The  seminar  identified  several  examples  of  how  policy-makers  within  the  Swedish  space  sector  negotiated  with  governmental  officials  to  gain  support  for projects  and  to expand the scope of space activities into other policy areas. Telecommunication,  remote  sensing  and  meteorology  were  discussed as the main areas in which space technology found operational use—although research and geographic surveying was  also  mentioned.  Since  the  1990s,  the  main  changes  have  been  driven  by  the  Swedish  integration  into  the  European  Union,  the  reduced  Swedish  ownership  in  major  industrial companies, and the increased commercialization of space ac-tivities.  The  previously  dominant  state  funding  was  comple-mented by increasing private financing, and new start-ups be-gan   to   compete   with   previously   established   companies.   Meanwhile, the ability of Swedish state actors to influence the future of Swedish space enterprises has diminished.

  • 36. Emanuel, Martin (Editor)
    Gärdebo, Johan
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Saabs omborddatorer och TT&C för rymdverksamhet: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid RUAG Space i Göteborg den 2 maj 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar “Saabs omborddatorer och TT&C för rymdverksamhet” (Saab’s on board computers and TT&C for space activities) was held at RUAG Space in Gothenburg on May 2, 2017, and was led by Lennart Lübeck, assisted by Mar-tin Emanuel. The seminar focused on how Saab’s (or, more correctly, until 1983, Saab-Scania’s, and from then on Saab Space’s) Gothenburg office embarked on European space-related projects, in particular relating to communication sys-tems, Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C), as well as onboard computers (OBC) for spacecraft. After having failed to win bids on ESRO satellites in the 1960s, Saab joined the MESH consortium in 1967. In the seminar, MESH’s success-ful bid for OTS (Orbital Test Satellite) stands out as an im-portant turning point for the company’s future contracts with ESRO and later ESA. With respect to Saab’s development of onboard computers, it initially relied substantially on collabo-ration with the American company TRW. Building on the learning process from the ESRO-funded development pro-gram for an Engineering Model, Saab, and later RUAG Space, would deliver onboard computers for several genera-tions of the Ariane launching rockets, SPOT-satellites, and many more. Beginning with the Hipparcos satellite, TT&C and the onboard computer were merged into a data handling system. In the process, what had previously been two sepa-rate groups of the company merged into one. With respect to Saab’s motives to engage in space technology in the first place, the main motive appears to have been to maintain and promote the company’s technical expertise, more so than any hopes to be able to set up large-scale manufacturing. The seminar also treated the relationship between Saab’s two branches engaged in space-related activities. Although their organizational belonging shifted over the years, Linköping remained the location of management and formal interna-tional contacts—and also nationally-oriented projects—while the Gothenburg office was home to the projects for the in-ternational market. The OBC group in Gothenburg tried to maintain as much independence as possible vis-à-vis Linkö-ping, although it relied on upper management for negotiating and winning international contracts. Also important to secure European contracts for Saab was the support, at critical mo-ments, of the Swedish delegation to ESRO and ESA, as well as excellent Swedish contacts with CNES.

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