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  • 1.
    Bitaraf Haghighi, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Nikkam, Nader
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Behi, Mohammadreza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Mirmohammadi, Seyed Aliakbar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Poth, H.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Shelf stability of nanofluids and its effect on thermal conductivity and viscosity2013In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 105301-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study proposes a method and apparatus to estimate shelf stability of nanofluids. Nanofluids are fabricated by dispersion of solid nanoparticles in base fluids, and shelf stability is a key issue for many practical applications of these fluids. In this study, shelf stability is evaluated by measuring the weight of settled solid particles on a suspended tray in a colloid versus time and correlated with the performance change of some nanofluid systems. The effects of solid particle concentration and bath sonication time were investigated for selected nanofluids. The results show the applicability of this simple method and the apparatus to evaluate nanofluid shelf stability. Furthermore, it shows that Stokes' law is not valid for determining the settling time of the tested nanoparticles probably due to their complicated shape and presence of surface modifiers. The effect of shelf stability on thermal conductivity and viscosity was illustrated for some nanofluids. Experimental results show that water-based Al2O3 nanofluids have quite good shelf stability and can be good candidates for industrial applications.

  • 2.
    Bitaraf Haghighi, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Nikkam, Nader
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Anwar, Zahid
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Lumbreras, Itziar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Behi, Mohammadreza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Mirmohammadi, Seyed A.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Poth, Heiko
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Cooling performance of nanofluids in a small diameter tube2013In: Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, ISSN 0894-1777, E-ISSN 1879-2286, Vol. 49, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports convective single-phase heat transfer performance in laminar flow for some selected nanofluids (NFs) in an open small diameter test section. A 0.50 mm inner diameter, 30 cm long stainless steel test section was used for screening single phase laminar convective heat transfer with water and five different water based NFs. Tested NFs were; Al2O3 (two types), TiO2 (two types) and CeO2 (one type), all 9 wt.% particle concentration. The effective thermal conductivity of the NFs were measured with Transient Plane Source (TPS) method and viscosity were measured with a rotating coaxial cylindrical viscometer. The obtained experimental results for thermal conductivity were in good agreement with the predicted values from Maxwell equation. The local Shah correlation, which is conventionally used for predicting convective heat transfer in laminar flow in Newtonian fluids with constant heat flux boundary condition, was shown to be valid for NFs. Moreover, the Darcy correlation was used to predict the friction factor for the NFs as well as for water. Enhancement in heat transfer for NFs was observed, when compared at equal Reynolds number, as a result of higher velocity or mass flow rate of the NFs at any given Reynolds number due to higher viscosity for NFs. However, when compared at equal pumping power no or only minor enhancement was observed.

  • 3.
    Bitaraf Haghighi, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Nikkam, Nader
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Ghadamgahi, Mersedeh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Björn E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Measurement of temperature–dependent viscosity of nanofluids and its effect on pumping power in cooling systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanofluids are engineered colloids of nanoparticlesdispersed homogenously in a base fluid, which theirthermophysical properties are changed by adding solidnanoparticles. Among the characteristic parameters,viscosity is one of the most important, as it directly affectsthe pumping power in cooling systems. In this study, theviscosity of water based Al2O3, ZrO2, and TiO2 (with 9wt%for all) nanofluids was measured and its impact on pressuredrop in a simple tubular pipe was estimated for bothlaminar and turbulent flow by classical correlations. Theeffect of temperature on the viscosity of these nanofluidswas also studied in the temperature range of 5˚C - 30˚C. Toassess the applicability of the classical correlations, pressuredrops across an open 30cm long, 0.50mm diameterstainless steel test section was measured for water andnanofluids by a differential pressure transducer. Theaverage viscosity increments compared to water in thetemperature range of 5˚C - 30˚C are 105%, 98% and 31% forAl2O3, ZrO2, and TiO2 nanofluids respectively. Moreover, theresults show that the viscosity of nanofluids decreases withthe increase of temperature; however the relative viscosity,which is defined as the viscosity ratio between a nanofluidand its base fluid is constant in 5˚C - 30˚C temperaturerange.

  • 4.
    Bitaraf Haghighi, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Utomo, Adi T.
    Ghanbarpour, Morteza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Zavareh, Ashkan I. T.
    Nowak, Emilia
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Pacek, Andrzej
    Palm, Björn E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Combined effect of physical properties and convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids on their cooling efficiency2015In: International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, ISSN 0735-1933, E-ISSN 1879-0178, Vol. 68, p. 32-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advantages of using Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2 and CeO2 nanofluids as coolants have been investigated by analysing the combined effect of nanoparticles on thermophysical properties and heat transfer coefficient. The thermal conductivity and viscosity of these nanofluids were measured at two leading European universities to ensure the accuracy of the results. The thermal conductivity of nanofluids agreed with the prediction of the Maxwell model within +/- 10% even at elevated temperature of 50 oC indicating that the Brownian motion of nanoparticles does not affect thermal conductivity of nanofluids. The viscosity of nanofluids is well correlated by modified Krieger-Dougherty model providing that the effect of nanoparticles aggregation is taken into account. It was found that at the same Reynolds number the advantage of using a nanofluid increases with increasing nanofluid viscosity which is counterintuitive. At the same pumping power nanofluids do not offer any advantage in terms of cooling efficiency over base fluids since the increase in viscosity outweighs the enhancement of thermal conductivity.

  • 5.
    Bitaraf Haghighi, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Utomo, Adi T.
    Ghanbarpour, Morteza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Zavareh, Ashkan I. T.
    Poth, Heiko
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Pacek, Andrzej
    Palm, Bjoern E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Experimental study on convective heat transfer of nanofluids in turbulent flow: Methods of comparison of their performance2014In: Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, ISSN 0894-1777, E-ISSN 1879-2286, Vol. 57, p. 378-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent convective heat transfer coefficients of 9 wt% Al2O3/water and TiO2/water nanofluids inside a circular tube were investigated independently at the Royal Institute of Technology, KTH (Sweden) and at University of Birmingham (UK). The experimental data from both laboratories agreed very well and clearly show that Nusselt numbers are well correlated by the equations developed for single phase fluids with the thermophysical properties of nanofluid. The heat transfer coefficients of nanofluids can be compared with those of the base fluids at the same Reynolds number or at the same pumping power. As the same Reynolds number requires higher flow rate of nanofluids therefore such comparison shows up to 15% increase in heat transfer coefficient. However, at equal pumping power, the heat transfer coefficient of Al2O3 nanofluid was practically the same as that of water while that of TiO2 was about 10% lower. Comparing performance at equal Reynolds number is clearly misleading since the heat transfer coefficient can always be increased by increased pumping power, accordingly, the comparison between the fluids should be done at equal pumping power.

  • 6.
    Bitaraf Hgahighi, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Single Phase Convective Heat Transfer with Nanofluids: An Experimental Approach2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanofluids (NFs) are engineered colloids of nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed homogenously within base fluids (BFs). Due to the presence of NPs, the thermophysical and transport properties of BFs are subject to change. Existing technologies for cooling electronics seem to be insufficient and NFs, as reported in several studies, might offer a better alternative to liquid cooling. The main purpose of this study, by choosing a critical approach to existing knowledge in the literature, is to investigate experimentally the potential for replacing BFs with NFs in single–phase flow. Several NFs (mainly water based metal oxide NFs) were synthesised, and different experiments (including thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, and shelf stability) were performed.

    The thermal conductivity and the viscosity of several NFs were measured at both near room and elevated temperatures; the results are reported and compared with some correlations. It is shown that the Maxwell model for thermal conductivity and the modified Krieger–Dougherty model for viscosity can be used to predict these properties of NFs within ±10% error, even at elevated temperatures.

    A screening setup, including a test section with d = 0.5 mm and L = 30 cm, was designed for measuring the heat transfer performance of NFs in laminar flow. In addition a closed–loop setup with a 3.7 mm inner diameter and 1.5 m length test section was also designed to measure the heat transfer coefficients in both laminar and turbulent flow with higher accuracy. Based on the results, classical correlations for predicting Nusselt number and friction factor in a straight tube are still valid for NFs within ± (10 – 20)% error provided that the correct thermophysical properties are used for NFs.

    Different methods of comparing cooling performance of NFs to BFs are then investigated. Comparison at equal Reynolds number, the most popular method in the literature, is demonstrated both experimentally and analytically to be misleading. However, if the most correct criterion (at equal pumping power) is chosen, a small advantage for some NFs over their BFs should be expected only under laminar flow. The investigation concludes with the proposition of a unique method and apparatus to estimate the shelf stability of NFs.

  • 7.
    Ghanbarpour, Morteza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Bitaraf Haghigi, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Thermal properties and rheological behavior of water based Al2O3 nanofluid as a heat transfer fluid2014In: Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, ISSN 0894-1777, E-ISSN 1879-2286, Vol. 53, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental investigation and theoretical study of thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al2O3/water nanofluids are presented in this article. Various suspensions containing Al2O3 nanoparticles were tested in concentration ranging from 3% to 50% in mass and temperature ranging from 293K to 323K. The results reveal that both the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids increase with temperature and particle concentration accordingly while the increase in viscosity is much higher than the increase in thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity and viscosity enhancement are in the range of 1.1-87% and 18.1-300%, respectively. Moreover, the results indicate that the thermal conductivity increases nonlinearly with concentration, but, linearly with the increase in temperature. In addition, the experimental results are compared with some existing correlations from literature and some modifications are suggested. Finally, the average heat transfer coefficient at different basis of comparisons including equal Reynolds number, fluid velocity and pumping power is studied based on the experimental thermal conductivity and viscosity in fully developed laminar and turbulent flow regimes. It is found that equal Reynolds number as a basis of comparison is highly misleading and equal pumping power can be used to study the advantage of using nanofluid instead of the base fluid.

  • 8.
    Haghighi, Ehsan Bitaraf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Anwar, Zahid
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Lumbreras, Itziar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Mirmohammadi, Seyed Aliakbar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Behi, Mohammadreza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Screening Single Phase Laminar Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in a Micro-tube2012In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 395, article id 012036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano scale solid particles dispersed in base fluids are a new class of engineered colloidal solutions called nanofluids. Several studies reported enhancement of heat transfer by using nanofluids. This article reports convective single-phase heat transfer coefficients in an open 30 cm long, 0.50 mm internal diameter stainless steel test section. The setup is used for screening single phase laminar convective heat transfer with water and three different nanofluids: water based Al2O3, ZrO2, and TiO2 (all with 9 wt% of particles). A syringe pump with adjustable pumping speed is used to inject fluids into the test section. Thirteen T-type thermocouples are attached on the outer surface of the test section to record the local wall temperatures. Furthermore, two T-type thermocouples are used to measure inlet and outlet fluid temperatures. A DC power supply is used to heat up the test section and a differential pressure transducer is used to measure the pressure drop across the tube. Furthermore, the effective thermal conductivities of these nanofluids are measured using the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method at a temperature range of 20 - 50 degrees C. The experimental average values of heat transfer coefficients for nanofluids are compared with water. Enhancement in heat transfer of nanofluids is observed only when compared at constant Reynolds number (Due to higher viscosity for nanofluids, higher velocity or mass flow rate is required for nanofluids to reach the same Reynolds number). The other methods of comparison: equal mass flow rate, volume flow rate, pressure drop and pumping power did not show any augmentation of the heat transfer coefficient for the tested nanofluids compared to water.

  • 9.
    Haghighi, Ehsan Bitaraf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Nikkam, Nader
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Accurate basis of comparison for convective heat transfer in nanofluids2014In: International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, ISSN 0735-1933, E-ISSN 1879-0178, Vol. 52, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal conductivity and viscosity of alumina (Al2O3), zirconia (ZrO2), and titania (TiO2) nanofluids (NFs) were measured at 20°C. All the NF systems were water based and contained 9wt.% solid particles. Additionally, the heat transfer coefficients for these NFs were measured in a straight tube of 1.5m length and 3.7mm inner diameter. Based on the results, it can be stated that classical correlations, such as Shah and Gnielinski, for laminar and turbulent flow respectively, can be employed to predict convective heat transfer coefficients in NFs, if the accurate thermophysical properties are used in the calculations. Convective heat transfer coefficients for NFs were also compared with those of the base fluids using two different bases for the comparison, with contradictory results: while compared at equal Reynolds number, the heat transfer coefficients increased by 8-51%, whereas compared at equal pumping power the heat transfer coefficients decreased by 17-63%. As NFs have higher viscosity than the base fluids, equal Reynolds number requires higher volumetric flow, hence higher pumping power for the NFs. It is therefore strongly suggested that heat transfer results should be compared at equal pumping power and not at equal Reynolds number.

  • 10.
    Haghighi, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Utomo, A. T.
    Pacek, A. W.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Experimental study of convective heat transfer in nanofluids2015In: Heat Transfer Enhancement with Nanofluids, CRC Press , 2015, p. 181-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The term nanofluid describing diluted suspensions of metal or metal oxide nanoparticles in water was first introduced by Choi and Eastman in 1995 during the International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exhibition (ASME) congress [1]. They claimed, based on rather limited number of experimental data, that diluted suspensions of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles in water have unusually high thermal conductivity, much higher than expected based on the commonly used effective medium theory [2]. This chapter and the concept of “exceptional” nanofluids went rather unnoticed, and between 1995 and 2001, there were only a few papers published on nanofluids. In 2001, a US patent was granted [3], supported by two graphs with no error bars, claiming that thermal conductivity of fluids can be substantially increased by the addition of small amounts of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles. Since then the research on nanofluids has steeply accelerated with more than 2500 papers published between 2001 and 2014. It needs to be stressed here that despite this exponential growth in the number of publications, only part of heat transfer research community accepted the claims about exceptional properties of nanofluids. One of the authors attended a conference on heat transfer in nanofluids [4], where nearly 50% of the participants were highly skeptical about exceptional thermal properties of the nanofluids. The acceleration in research and very strong interest in nanofluids were not surprising. If the claims made in the US patent were correct and stable suspensions of nanoparticles with high thermal conductivity and relatively low viscosity could be produced at reasonable cost, this would be a serious breakthrough in a wide range of processes, in which the heat transfer is frequently a limiting step such as engine cooling, cooling of electronic devices, and nuclear systems cooling, to name a few [5]. 

  • 11.
    Jarahnejad, Mariam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Haghighi, Ehsan B.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Nikkam, Nader
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Experimental investigation on viscosity of water-based Al2O3 and TiO2 nanofluids2015In: Rheologica Acta, ISSN 0035-4511, E-ISSN 1435-1528, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 411-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the influence of temperature, concentration, and size of nanoparticles, and addition of surfactants on dynamic viscosity of water-based nanofluids containing alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) nanoparticles. Two viscometers, a capillary and a falling ball, were used for the measurements in the temperature range of 20-50 A degrees C and the particle concentration of 3-14.3 wt.%. The results indicate that the viscosity of nanofluids is reduced by increasing the temperature, similar to their base fluids. Moreover, surfactants, which are used to improve the shelf stability of nanofluids, most likely increase their viscosity. The correlations derived from the linear fluid theory such as Einstein and Batchelor, especially for solid concentration above 1.5 wt.% are not accurate to predict viscosity of nanofluids, while the modified Krieger-Dougherty equation estimates viscosity of nanofluids with acceptable accuracy in a specific range of solid particle size to aggregate size.

  • 12.
    Nikkam, Nader
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Bitaraf Haghigh, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Behi, Mohammadreza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Experimental study on preparation and base liquid effect on thermo-physical and heat transport characteristics of α-SiC nanofluids2014In: International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, ISSN 0735-1933, E-ISSN 1879-0178, Vol. 55, p. 38-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructured solid particles dispersed in a base liquid are a new class of nano-engineeredcolloidal solutions, defined with a coined name of nanofluids (NFs). These fluids have shownpotential to enhance heat transfer characteristics of conventional base liquids utilized in heattransfer application. We recently reported on the fabrication and thermo-physical propertyevaluation of SiC NFs systems, containing SiC particles with different crystal structure. In thisstudy, our aim is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of a particular α-SiC NF withrespect to the effect of α-SiC particle concentration and different base liquids on the thermophysicalproperties of NFs. For this purpose, a series of NFs with various α-SiC NPsconcentration of 3, 6 and 9wt% were prepared in different base liquids of distilled water (DW)and distilled water/ethylene glycol mixture (DW/EG). Their thermal conductivity (TC) andviscosity were evaluated at 20 oC. NF with DW/EG base liquid and 9wt% SiC NPs loadingexhibited the best combination of thermo-physical properties, which was therefore selected forheat transfer coefficient (HTC) evaluation. Finally, HTC tests were performed and compared indifferent criteria, including equal Reynolds number, equal mass flow rate and equal pumpingpower for a laminar flow regime. The results showed HTC enhancement of NF over the baseliquid for all evaluation criteria; 13% at equal Reynolds number, 8.5% at equal volume flow and5.5% at equal pumping power. Our findings are among the few studies in the literature where theheat transfer enhancement for the NFs over its base liquid is noticeable and based on a realistic situation.

  • 13.
    Nikkam, Nader
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Ghanbarpour, Morteza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Haghighi, Ehsan Bitaraf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Experimental investigation on thermo-physical properties of copper/diethylene glycol nanofluids fabricated via microwave-assisted route2014In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 65, no 1-2, p. 158-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the fabrication, thermal conductivity and rheological characteristics evaluation of nanofluids consisting of copper nanoparticles in diethylene glycol base liquid. The fabricated Cu nanofluids displayed enhanced thermal conductivity over the base liquid. Copper nanoparticles were directly formed in diethylene glycol using microwave-assisted heating, which provides uniform heating of reagents and solvent, accelerating the nucleation of metal clusters, resulting in monodispersed nanostructures. Copper nanoparticles displayed an average primary particle size of 75 ± 25 nm from SEM micrographs, yet aggregated to form large spherical particles of about 300 nm. The physicochemical properties including thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids were measured for the nanofluids with nanoparticle concentration between 0.4 wt% and 1.6 in the temperature range of 20-50 C. Proper theoretical correlations/models were applied to compare the experimental results with the estimated values for thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. For all cases, thermal conductivity enhancement was higher than the increase in viscosity showing the potential of nanofluids to be utilized as coolant in heat transfer applications. A thermal conductivity enhancement of ∼7.2% was obtained for nanofluids with 1.6 wt% nanoparticles while maximum increase in viscosity of ∼5.2% was observed for the same nanofluid.

  • 14.
    Nikkam, Nader
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Bitaraf Haghighi, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Ghanbarpour, Morteza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Design and Fabrication of Efficient Nanofluids Based on SiC Nanoparticles for Heat Exchange Applications2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Nikkam, Nader
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Haghighi, Ehsan Bitaraf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Ghanbarpour, Morteza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Fabrication, Characterization and Thermo-physical Property Evaluation of SiCNanofluids for Heat Transfer Applications2014In: Nano-Micro Letters, ISSN 2150-5551, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 178-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanofluids (NFs) are nanotechnology-based colloidal suspensions fabricated by suspending nanoparticles (NPs) in a base liquid. These fluids have shown potential to improve the heat transfer properties of conventional heat transfer fluids. In this study we report in detail on the fabrication, characterization and thermo-physical property evaluation of SiC NFs, prepared using SiC NPs with different crystal structure, for heat transfer applications.  For this purpose, a series of SiC NFs containing SiC NPs with different crystal structure (α-SiC and β-SiC) were fabricated in a water (W)/ethylene glycol (EG) mixture (50/50 wt % ratio). Physicochemical properties of NPs/NFs were characterized by using various techniques such as powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Zeta Potential Analysis were performed. Thermo-physical properties including thermal conductivity (TC) and viscosity for NFs containing SiC particles (α- and β- phase) were measured. The results showed among all suspensions, NF fabricated with α-SiC particles have more favorable thermo-physical properties compared to the NFs fabricated with β-SiC; the observed difference was attributed to combination of several factors, including crystal structure (β- vs. α-), sample purity, and residual chemicals exhibited on SiC nanoparticles. A TC enhancement of ~20% while 14% increased viscosity were obtained for a NF containing 9wt% of particular type of α-SiC NPs indicating promising capability of these kind of NFs for further heat transfer characteristics investigations. 

  • 16.
    Nikkam, Nader
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Li, S
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Bitaraf Haghighi, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Palm, Björn E
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Novel Nanofluids Based on Mesoporous Silica for Enhanced Heat Transfer2011In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 13, no 11, p. 6201-6206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanofluids, which are liquids with engineered nanometer-sized particles suspensions, have drawn remarkable attraction from the researchers because of their enormous potential to enhance the efficiency in heat-transfer fluids. In the present study, water-based calcined mesoporous silica nanofluids were prepared and characterized. The commercial mesoporous silica (MPSiO2) nanoparticles were dispersed in deionized water by means of pH adjustment and ultrasonic agitation. MPSiO2 nanoparticles were observed to have an average particle size of 350 ± 100 nm by SEM analysis. The concentration of MPSiO2 was varied between 1 and 6 wt%. The physicochemical properties of nanofluids were characterized using various techniques, such as particle size analyzer, zeta-potential meter, TEM, and FT-IR. The thermal conductivity was measured by Transient Plane Source (TPS) method, and nanofluids showed a higher thermal conductivity than the base liquid for all the tested concentrations.

  • 17.
    Nikkam, Nader
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Bitaraf Haghighi, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Copper Nanofluids for Heat Transfer Applications2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Nikkam, Nader
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Haghighi, E.B.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Khodabandeh, R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Palm, B,
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Rheological Properties of Copper Nanofluids Synthesised by Using Microwave-Assisted Method2012In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Nanostructures (ICNS4), 2012, p. 1555-1557Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Li, Shanghua
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Nikkam, Nader
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Haghighi, Ehsan Bitaraf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Ceria Nanofluids for Efficient Heat Management2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Utomo, Adi T.
    et al.
    Haghighi, Ehsan B.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Zavareh, Ashkan I. T.
    Ghanbarpourgeravi, Morteza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Poth, Heiko
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Pacek, Andrzej W.
    The effect of nanoparticles on laminar heat transfer in a horizontal tube2014In: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, ISSN 0017-9310, E-ISSN 1879-2189, Vol. 69, p. 77-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat transfer coefficient in laminar flow of water-based alumina, titania and carbon nanotube nanofluids in a straight pipe with constant heat flux at the wall have been investigated independently by two universities. The nanoparticles affect the thermo-physical properties of the suspensions, however, nanopartides presence and movement due to Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis seemed to have insignificant effect on heat transfer coefficient. The Nusselt number of all investigated nanofluids followed standard heat transfer correlations developed for liquids within +/- 10% suggesting that all investigated nanofluids can be treated as homogenous fluids. Different methods of comparison between heat transfer coefficient in nanofluids and base fluid are also critically discussed.

1 - 20 of 20
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