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  • 1.
    Hansson, B. A. M.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hemberg, O.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Berglund, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Choi, H. J.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Jacobsson, Björn
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Janin, E.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Mosesson, Sofia
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Rymell, L.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Thoresen, J.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Wilner, M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Characterization of a liquid-xenon-jet laser-plasma extreme-ultraviolet source2004In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 75, no 6, p. 2122-2129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A liquid-xenon-jet laser-plasma source for extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and soft-x-ray generation has been characterized. Being a source candidate for EUV lithography (EUVL), we especially focus on parameters important for the integration of the source in EUVL systems. The deep-ultraviolet (DUV) out-of-band radiation (lambda=120-400 nm) was quantified, to within a factor of two, using a flying-circus tool together with a transmission-grating spectrograph resulting in a total DUV conversion efficiency (CE) of similar to0.33%/2pisr. The size and the shape of the xenon plasma was investigated using an in-band-only EUV microscope, based on a spherical Mo/Si multilayer mirror and a charge-coupled device detector. Scalability of the source size from 20-270 mum full width at half maximum was shown. The maximum repetition-rate sustainable by the liquid-xenon-jet target was simulated by a double-pulse experiment indicating feasibility of >17 kHz operation. The xenon-ion energy distribution from the plasma was determined in a time-of-flight experiment with a Faraday-cup detector showing the presence of multi-kilo-electron-volt ions. Sputtering of silicon witness plates exposed to the plasma was observed, while a xenon background of >1 mbar was shown to eliminate the sputtering. It is concluded that the source has potential to meet the requirements of future EUVL systems.

  • 2.
    Hansson, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Berglund, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Stabilization of liquified-inert-gas jets for laser-plasma generation2004In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 95, no 8, p. 4432-4437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the hydrodynamic properties of liquified-inert-gas jets in a vacuum with a special emphasis on their stability. Such jets have applications as targets for laser-plasma generation of soft-x-ray and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. An important example is the liquid-xenon-jet laser-plasma source, one of the source candidates for EUV lithography. A simple hydrodynamic model in not sufficient to explain experimental observations of jet stability. Evaporation-induced cooling explains observed in-flight freezing of the jet and may be a key factor influencing jet stability. It is shown how the jet stability, and, thus, the stability of the laser-plasma x-ray and EUV emission, are improved by applying localized heating to the tip of the jet-generating nozzle.

  • 3.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Compact Liquid-Jet X-Ray Sources2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the development, characterization andoptimization of compact, high-brightness, liquid-jet-targetx-ray sources. Two different source types have been developedfor different wavelength regions and applications.

    A laser-plasma source for generating soft x-ray andextreme-ultraviolet radiation has been further developed forsoft x-ray microscopy and extreme-ultraviolet lithography. Thiswork focused on improved target stability, increased conversionefficiency and decreased debris production. For x-raymicroscopy applications using carbon-containingliquid-jetdroplet targets, the droplet stability has beeninvestigated and a method for source stabilization introduced.This source has also been optimized in terms of flux per debriswith respect to target material and size. Forextreme-ultraviolet lithography applications, aliquid-xenon-jet-target laser-plasma source system has beengreatly improved, especially in terms of stability andconversion efficiency. This source has also been characterizedin terms of, e.g., source size, angular distribution, andrepetition-rate capability. For extremeultraviolet lithography,the possible use of tin as a target material has also beenstudied and conversion efficiency and debris measurementsperformed.

    A new anode concept for electron-impact hard x-ray sourcesbased on high-speed liquidmetal jets has been introduced.Initial calculations show that this new target concept couldpotentially allow more than a hundred-fold increase in sourcebrightness compared to existing state-of-the-art technology. Alow-power, proof-of-principle, experiment has been performed,verifying the basic source concept. Scaling tohigh-poweroperation is discussed and appears plausible. A main obstaclefor high-power operation, the generation of a microscopichigh-speed jet in vacuum, is investigated usingdynamic-similarity experiments and shown to be feasible.Finally, initial medium-power experiments, approaching currentstate-of-the-art sources in terms of brightness, have beenperformed.

    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 4.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hertz, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode Electron-Impact X-Ray Source2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, p. 1483-1485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A liquid-metal-jet anode for improved brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray source was investigated. The generated x-ray flux and brightness was quantitatively measured in the 7-50 keV spectral region and found to agree with the theory. Applications such as mammography, angiography, and diffraction would benefit from a compact high-brightness source.

  • 5.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    The liquid-metal-jet anode x-ray source2004In: Proceedings of The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2004, p. 421-431Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Basic thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly described.

  • 6.
    Hemberg, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    A Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode X-Ray Tube2004In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 1682-1688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly

  • 7.
    Hertz, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Förfarande och apparat för alstring av röntgenstrålning samt användning därav2000Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Hertz, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Metod och apparat för alstring av röntgenstrålning: Method And Apparatus For Generating X-Ray Radiation2000Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In a method and an apparatus for generating X-ray or EUV radiation, an electron beam is brought to interact with a propagating target jet, typically in a vacuum chamber. The target jet is formed by urging a liquid substance under pressure through an outlet opening. Hard X-ray radiation may be generated by converting the electron-beam energy to Bremsstrahlung and characteristic line emission, essentially without heating the jet to a plasma-forming temperature. Soft X-ray or EUV radiation may be generated by the electron beam heating the jet to a plasma-forming temperature.

  • 9.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Bertilson, Michael C.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Chubarova, Elena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hofsten, Olov Von
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lindblom, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lundström, Ulf
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Reinspach, Julia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Skoglund, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Takman, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Laboratory X-ray micro- and nano-imaging2009In: Frontiers in Optics (FiO) 2009, Optical Society of America, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We summarize recent progress in laboratory x-ray imaging systems based on compact high-brightness liquid-jet sources, including <25 nm soft x-ray zone-plate microscopy and <10 μm (lens-free) hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging.

  • 10.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Bertilson, Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Chubarova, Elena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Ewald, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Gleber, S-C
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Henriksson, M.
    von Hofsten, Olov
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lindblom, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Mudry, Emeric
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Reinspach, Julia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Schlie, Moritz Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Skoglund, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Takman, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Thieme, J.
    Sedlmair, J.
    Tjörnhammar, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vita, M.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Laboratory x-ray micro imaging: Sources, optics, systems and applications2009In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We summarize the recent progress in laboratory-scale soft and hard x-ray micro imaging in Stockholm. Our soft x-ray work is based on liquid-jet laser-plasma sources which are combined with diffractive and multilayer optics to form laboratory x-ray microscopes. In the hard x-ray regime the imaging is based on a liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source which provides the necessary coherence to allow phase-contrast imaging with high fidelity.

  • 11.
    Jansson, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hansson, B. A. M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    De Groot, Jaco
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hertz, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation2004In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 84, no 13, p. 2556-2258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the applicability of liquid-metal jets in vacuum as regenerative targets for laser-plasma generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation. This extends the operation of liquid jet laser-plasma,sources to high-temperature, high-Z, high-density, low-vapor-pressure materials with new spectral signatures. The system is demonstrated using tin (Sn) as the target due to its strong emission around lambdaapproximate to13 nm, which makes the material suitable for EUV lithography. We show a conversion efficiency of 2.5% into (2% BW x 2pi x sr) and report quantitative measurements of the ionic/atomic as well as particulate debris emission.

  • 12.
    Otendal, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hemberg, Oskar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Microscopic High-Speed Liquid-Metal Jets in Vacuum2005In: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 39, p. 799-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly

  • 13.
    Otendal, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Status of the liquid-metal-jet-anode electron-impact x-ray source2004In: X-RAY SOURCES AND OPTICS / [ed] MacDonald, CA; Macrander, AT; Ishikawa, T; Morawe, C; Wood, JL, BELLINGHAM: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2004, Vol. 5537, p. 57-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated a new electron-impact hard-x-ray source based on a liquid-metal-jet anode in a proof-of-principle experiment. Initial calculations show that this new anode concept potentially allows a >100x increase in source brightness compared to today's compact hard-x-ray sources. In this paper we report on the scale up of the system to medium electron-beam power resulting in a brightness comparable to current state-of-the-art sources. The upgraded system combines a similar to20-mum diameter liquid-tin jet operating at similar to60 m/s with a 50 kV, 600 W electron beam focused to similar to150 mum FWHM. We describe the properties of the current system, experimental results, as well as a brief discussion of key issues for future high-power scaling.

1 - 13 of 13
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