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  • 1.
    Hansson, B. A. M.
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Hemberg, O.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Berglund, Magnus
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Choi, H. J.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Jacobsson, Björn
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Janin, E.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Mosesson, Sofia
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Rymell, L.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Thoresen, J.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Wilner, M.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Characterization of a liquid-xenon-jet laser-plasma extreme-ultraviolet source2004Inngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 75, nr 6, s. 2122-2129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A liquid-xenon-jet laser-plasma source for extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and soft-x-ray generation has been characterized. Being a source candidate for EUV lithography (EUVL), we especially focus on parameters important for the integration of the source in EUVL systems. The deep-ultraviolet (DUV) out-of-band radiation (lambda=120-400 nm) was quantified, to within a factor of two, using a flying-circus tool together with a transmission-grating spectrograph resulting in a total DUV conversion efficiency (CE) of similar to0.33%/2pisr. The size and the shape of the xenon plasma was investigated using an in-band-only EUV microscope, based on a spherical Mo/Si multilayer mirror and a charge-coupled device detector. Scalability of the source size from 20-270 mum full width at half maximum was shown. The maximum repetition-rate sustainable by the liquid-xenon-jet target was simulated by a double-pulse experiment indicating feasibility of >17 kHz operation. The xenon-ion energy distribution from the plasma was determined in a time-of-flight experiment with a Faraday-cup detector showing the presence of multi-kilo-electron-volt ions. Sputtering of silicon witness plates exposed to the plasma was observed, while a xenon background of >1 mbar was shown to eliminate the sputtering. It is concluded that the source has potential to meet the requirements of future EUVL systems.

  • 2.
    Hansson, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Berglund, Magnus
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Stabilization of liquified-inert-gas jets for laser-plasma generation2004Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 95, nr 8, s. 4432-4437Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the hydrodynamic properties of liquified-inert-gas jets in a vacuum with a special emphasis on their stability. Such jets have applications as targets for laser-plasma generation of soft-x-ray and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. An important example is the liquid-xenon-jet laser-plasma source, one of the source candidates for EUV lithography. A simple hydrodynamic model in not sufficient to explain experimental observations of jet stability. Evaporation-induced cooling explains observed in-flight freezing of the jet and may be a key factor influencing jet stability. It is shown how the jet stability, and, thus, the stability of the laser-plasma x-ray and EUV emission, are improved by applying localized heating to the tip of the jet-generating nozzle.

  • 3.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Compact Liquid-Jet X-Ray Sources2004Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the development, characterization andoptimization of compact, high-brightness, liquid-jet-targetx-ray sources. Two different source types have been developedfor different wavelength regions and applications.

    A laser-plasma source for generating soft x-ray andextreme-ultraviolet radiation has been further developed forsoft x-ray microscopy and extreme-ultraviolet lithography. Thiswork focused on improved target stability, increased conversionefficiency and decreased debris production. For x-raymicroscopy applications using carbon-containingliquid-jetdroplet targets, the droplet stability has beeninvestigated and a method for source stabilization introduced.This source has also been optimized in terms of flux per debriswith respect to target material and size. Forextreme-ultraviolet lithography applications, aliquid-xenon-jet-target laser-plasma source system has beengreatly improved, especially in terms of stability andconversion efficiency. This source has also been characterizedin terms of, e.g., source size, angular distribution, andrepetition-rate capability. For extremeultraviolet lithography,the possible use of tin as a target material has also beenstudied and conversion efficiency and debris measurementsperformed.

    A new anode concept for electron-impact hard x-ray sourcesbased on high-speed liquidmetal jets has been introduced.Initial calculations show that this new target concept couldpotentially allow more than a hundred-fold increase in sourcebrightness compared to existing state-of-the-art technology. Alow-power, proof-of-principle, experiment has been performed,verifying the basic source concept. Scaling tohigh-poweroperation is discussed and appears plausible. A main obstaclefor high-power operation, the generation of a microscopichigh-speed jet in vacuum, is investigated usingdynamic-similarity experiments and shown to be feasible.Finally, initial medium-power experiments, approaching currentstate-of-the-art sources in terms of brightness, have beenperformed.

  • 4.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fysik.
    Hertz, Hans
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fysik.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fysik.
    Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode Electron-Impact X-Ray Source2003Inngår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, s. 1483-1485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A liquid-metal-jet anode for improved brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray source was investigated. The generated x-ray flux and brightness was quantitatively measured in the 7-50 keV spectral region and found to agree with the theory. Applications such as mammography, angiography, and diffraction would benefit from a compact high-brightness source.

  • 5.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    The liquid-metal-jet anode x-ray source2004Inngår i: Proceedings of The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2004, s. 421-431Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Basic thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly described.

  • 6.
    Hemberg, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    A Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode X-Ray Tube2004Inngår i: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 43, nr 7, s. 1682-1688Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly

  • 7.
    Hertz, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Förfarande och apparat för alstring av röntgenstrålning samt användning därav2000Patent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 8.
    Hertz, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Metod och apparat för alstring av röntgenstrålning: Method And Apparatus For Generating X-Ray Radiation2000Patent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    In a method and an apparatus for generating X-ray or EUV radiation, an electron beam is brought to interact with a propagating target jet, typically in a vacuum chamber. The target jet is formed by urging a liquid substance under pressure through an outlet opening. Hard X-ray radiation may be generated by converting the electron-beam energy to Bremsstrahlung and characteristic line emission, essentially without heating the jet to a plasma-forming temperature. Soft X-ray or EUV radiation may be generated by the electron beam heating the jet to a plasma-forming temperature.

  • 9.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Bertilson, Michael C.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Chubarova, Elena
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Hofsten, Olov Von
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Lindblom, Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Lundström, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Reinspach, Julia
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Skoglund, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Takman, Per
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Laboratory X-ray micro- and nano-imaging2009Inngår i: Frontiers in Optics (FiO) 2009, Optical Society of America, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We summarize recent progress in laboratory x-ray imaging systems based on compact high-brightness liquid-jet sources, including <25 nm soft x-ray zone-plate microscopy and <10 μm (lens-free) hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging.

  • 10.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Bertilson, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Chubarova, Elena
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Ewald, Johannes
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Gleber, S-C
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Henriksson, M.
    von Hofsten, Olov
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Lindblom, Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Mudry, Emeric
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Reinspach, Julia
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Schlie, Moritz Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Skoglund, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Takman, Per
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Thieme, J.
    Sedlmair, J.
    Tjörnhammar, Richard
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Vita, M.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Laboratory x-ray micro imaging: Sources, optics, systems and applications2009Inngår i: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We summarize the recent progress in laboratory-scale soft and hard x-ray micro imaging in Stockholm. Our soft x-ray work is based on liquid-jet laser-plasma sources which are combined with diffractive and multilayer optics to form laboratory x-ray microscopes. In the hard x-ray regime the imaging is based on a liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source which provides the necessary coherence to allow phase-contrast imaging with high fidelity.

  • 11.
    Jansson, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Hansson, B. A. M.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    De Groot, Jaco
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Hertz, Hans
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation2004Inngår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 84, nr 13, s. 2556-2258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the applicability of liquid-metal jets in vacuum as regenerative targets for laser-plasma generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation. This extends the operation of liquid jet laser-plasma,sources to high-temperature, high-Z, high-density, low-vapor-pressure materials with new spectral signatures. The system is demonstrated using tin (Sn) as the target due to its strong emission around lambdaapproximate to13 nm, which makes the material suitable for EUV lithography. We show a conversion efficiency of 2.5% into (2% BW x 2pi x sr) and report quantitative measurements of the ionic/atomic as well as particulate debris emission.

  • 12.
    Otendal, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Hemberg, Oskar
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Microscopic High-Speed Liquid-Metal Jets in Vacuum2005Inngår i: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 39, s. 799-804Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly

  • 13.
    Otendal, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Status of the liquid-metal-jet-anode electron-impact x-ray source2004Inngår i: X-RAY SOURCES AND OPTICS / [ed] MacDonald, CA; Macrander, AT; Ishikawa, T; Morawe, C; Wood, JL, BELLINGHAM: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2004, Vol. 5537, s. 57-63Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated a new electron-impact hard-x-ray source based on a liquid-metal-jet anode in a proof-of-principle experiment. Initial calculations show that this new anode concept potentially allows a >100x increase in source brightness compared to today's compact hard-x-ray sources. In this paper we report on the scale up of the system to medium electron-beam power resulting in a brightness comparable to current state-of-the-art sources. The upgraded system combines a similar to20-mum diameter liquid-tin jet operating at similar to60 m/s with a 50 kV, 600 W electron beam focused to similar to150 mum FWHM. We describe the properties of the current system, experimental results, as well as a brief discussion of key issues for future high-power scaling.

1 - 13 of 13
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