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  • 1.
    Gómez, Maria F
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Electricity access for human development in the Brazilian Amazon2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity access is widely recognized as a driver of development. The Brazilian government has incorporated this principle into its national rural electrification program, Luz Para Todos (LPT – Light for all), which has already benefited more than 14 million people in the country since its inception in 2003. But a different electrification model is required if remote areas in the Amazon region are to fully benefit from the program.

    In general, LPT has been implemented through a grid-based technology. However, the program has been less successful in providing electricity access in the Amazon region. In this region, about 24% of the rural population has no access to electricity. Key challenges are related to the exhaustion of the grid-extension model in isolated areas.  Extending the grid in these areas is neither realistic because of the local topography and natural conditions, nor cost-effective because expensive investments would be required to benefit a small number of citizens with low income and consumption rates.

    This study suggests an adapted LPT model for delivering electricity access in isolated areas of the Amazon region. In particular, the study offers a policy maker perspective and details the specific needs of isolated communities. It was developed in the form of a case study and included a variety of data sources, gathering techniques and analysis approaches, including an extensive literature review, the collection of in-situ evidence through direct observations and semi- structured interviews.

    Conclusions draw attention to the need for more local and site-specific solutions. Three issues will be decisive in achieving universal, reliable and affordable access to electricity in the Amazon region. Firstly, harmonization with the regional context is essential as the Amazon is a vast and unique environment. Secondly, there is need for adapting the existing institutional structures to appreciate the conditions and specific needs of rural populations in the Amazon region. Thirdly, securing financial resource allocation and distribution will be decisive in a LPT model aimed at universal electrification in the Amazon.

  • 2.
    Gómez, Maria F
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Social technology: impacting development through electricity access in the Amazon Region2013Ingår i: IAMOT 2013 Proceedings, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The actual Brazilian rural electrification program has benefited more than 14 million people since its inception in 2003. However, 900 thousand people are still without electricity services in the isolated areas of the Amazon region. In general, the program has used a grid-based technology to provide electricity to new users in Brazil. In the Amazon, challenges are related to the provision of services in isolated areas where grid extension is not viable. Reaching this population in their local environment and promoting their development is important. Aware of the importance of electricity services to the country’s development, the Brazilian government has recognized the need for implementing different energy technologies to generate power in isolated areas. However, there is an institutional gap that needs to be addressed.

    This paper explores the Social Technology concept and analyzes how it can support the current Brazilian rural electrification initiative. This concept provides a different view on how the relationships between institutions and technology could evolve in the Amazon region. In this direction, we elaborate on twelve implications of Social Technology implementation and analyze how they can contribute to deliver electricity services and guarantee valuable social impacts for the region. Can Social Technology principles help to identify concrete tasks to overcome the actual institutional shortcoming to achieve universal access in the Amazon? How to effectively incorporate them into the current Brazilian rural electrification initiative, considering local realities of isolated communities?

    The fact that achieving universal energy access has a significant impact on human development provides a starting point for our analysis. In the first section, we introduce challenges that the Brazilian government are facing in connection to universal access achievements in isolated areas, in the second section, we present the Social Technology concept and discuss its implications using the case of the isolated areas in Brazil to exemplify them. In the third section we analyze interconnections between structural components of Social Technology and the Brazilian rural electrification program and identify key actions to enhance rural electrification in isolated areas. Finally, we conclude with the identification of two concrete actions to achieve universal access in isolated areas and boost national development targets. First, local knowledge needs to be recognized, systematized and included in planning, implementation and monitoring of rural electrification projects. Second, effective communication channels need to be considered in the process. Participatory activities are crucial and transversal to possible solutions and provide the basis for a new and comprehensive institutional framework. We highlight the role of the government at central and local levels for the purpose of setting up the appropriate environment for these changes to happen.

  • 3.
    Gómez, Maria F
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Universal Electricity Access in Remote Areas: Building a pathway toward universalization in the Brazilian Amazon2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Beslutsfattare över hela världen står inför viktiga utmaningar för att tillhandahålla tillförlitliga elektricitets-tjänster i avlägsna områden. Brasilien är inget undantag. Det brasilianska initiativet för landsbygdselektrifiering Luz Para Todos – LPT (Ljus för alla) har fått internationell uppmärksamhet för dess ambitiösa mål och de resultat som uppnåtts på relativt kort tid.

    Initiativet har visat sig effektivt under dess första fas, som utvecklades genom utvidgning av elnätet. Det kvarstår dock viktiga utmaningar för att LPT ska bli operativt i avlägsna områden.

    Denna forsknings främsta syfte är att föreslå en väg framåt för att underlätta att allmän tillgång till elektricitet i avlägsna områden av det brasilianska Amazonas uppnås. Analysen utvecklades genom s k Mixed Methods Research – MMR (blandade forskningsmetoder) vilket inkluderar verktyg som Causal Loops Diagrams (Consideo Modeller ®) och energimodelleringsprogramvaran för hybrida förnyelsebara energisystem (HOMER ®).

    Denna avhandling behandlar tre huvudfrågor. Den första frågan gäller styrkor och svagheter hos det nationella landsbygdselektrifieringsinitiativet. Den andra frågan undersöker institutionella, teknologiska och finansieringsstrukturer som specifikt stödjer det brasilianska elektrifieringsinitiativet i avlägsna områden. Den tredje frågan handlar om att identifiera punkter inom dessa strukturer där en hävstångseffekt kan uppnås.

    I studien konstateras att det befintliga LPT systemet inte är tillräckligt för att uppnå allmän tillgång till elektricitet i avlägsna områden av det brasilianska Amazonas. Viktiga utmaningar kvarstår för att leverera tjänsten till invånarna i dessa områden. Det finns ett behov av att i) anpassa de befintliga institutionella strukturerna, ii) harmonisera teknologierna till den regionala kontexten och iii) effektivisera användningen av statliga medel. På samma sätt indikerar de identifierade hävstångspunkterna att: i) regler som styr förhållandet mellan nya agenter och samhällen, ii) implementering av småskaliga kraftgenereringsteknologier och iii) optimerade subsidier är nödvändiga för att uppnå allmän tillgång till elektricitet i avlägsna områden.

    Forskningen föreslår en ny väg framåt för att aktivera de identifierade hävstångspunkterna inom LPTs institutionella, teknologiska och finansieringsstrukturer. Vägen framåt kräver beslutsfattande grundat på god information för att implementera och operera de icke-elnätsanslutna systemen som kan bidra till att nå fram den sista kilometern. I detta sammanhang, förväntas studiens resultat att bidra med insikter för beslutsfattare, teknikleverantörer, projektutvecklare, forskare, och samhället i övrigt i strävan att öka tillgången till elektricitet i avlägsna områden.

  • 4.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Sanches-Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Technology for social inclusion: the case of electricity access in the Brazilian Amazon2013Ingår i: Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, ISSN 1848-9257, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 237-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the Social Technology concept and analyses how it can support the current Brazilian rural electrification initiative. It addresses the question: ‘can Social Technology principles serve to identify concrete tasks to overcome the challenges of universal access in the Amazon? If so, how can they be effectively incorporated into the current Brazilian rural electrification initiative?’ We conclude with the identification of two concrete actions to achieve universal access in isolated areas. First, the recognition, compilation and systematization of local knowledge are important tasks ahead. Second, effective communication channels and methods are needed to spread local knowledge and support the design, implementation, and operation of innovative solutions. Participatory activities are crucial to enable these concrete actions. We highlight the role of the government at central and local levels for the purpose of setting up the appropriate environment for these changes to happen.

  • 5.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Delivering off-grid electricity systems in the Brazilian Amazon2011Ingår i: 6th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy Water And Environment Systems, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Delivering off-grid electricity systems in the Brazilian Amazon2012Ingår i: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 155-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Brazil, more than 14 million people have benefited from the rural electrification program Luz Para Todos (LPT – Light for all), mainly through grid-extension. A new off-grid model is now required if remote areas in the Amazon region are to fully benefit from the program. In this paper, we explore the institutional and financial schemes that support LPT and their suitability for delivering off-grid solutions in the Amazon region. Our conclusions draw attention to the need for more local and site specific solutions, and new regulatory frameworks to allow the participation of new actors. We argue that the uniqueness of the Amazon region justifies renewable technologies focused on local needs and potential, adaptation of the LPT institutional framework and rethinking of funding channels. An off-grid approach will enhance the inclusion of remote areas in universal access goals while adjustments will help guarantee the sustainability of the electrification program.

  • 7.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Electricity access and human development in isolated communities of the Amazon region2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons2010Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, nr 10, s. 6251-6260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  • 9.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    The Brazilian electrification program LPT (Light for All) – what lessons have been learnt?2010Ingår i: Renewable Energy for Development, ISSN 1101-8267, Vol. 23, nr 1-2, s. 1-2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government aims to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development. Between 2003 and 2009, 11 million people have benefited from the electrification program Light for All (LPT). The success of policies for electricity access cannot be measured only in terms of the number of connections. Instead, the impact of electrification on development must be determined as a way to justify resource allocation and confirm welfare improvement. Although two million people have been connected through grid extension, one million inhabitants still lack electricity access in the Amazon. The results of LPT can be considered a great achievement for a nation that has recently been considered as a developing country. However, one million people still lack electricity in the Amazon. Other challenges ahead include concerns on the economic and social sustainability of the electrification system being put in place.

  • 10.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    The institutional dimension for off-grid rural electrification in the Amazon region2011Ingår i: World Renewable Energy Congress – Sweden, 8–13 May, 2011, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Moshfegh, Bahram, Linköping University Electronic Press, Linköpings universitet , 2011, s. 3444-3451Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government aims at providing complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to achieve development and reduce poverty. More than 2 million people living in the Amazon have benefited from the rural electrification program Luz Para Todos (LPT – Light for all), mainly through a grid-extension approach. Yet, there is general agreement on the need for an off-grid scheme in order to supply isolated areas. How can the actual institutional framework support the process of supplying electricity to these communities so that the trend of improving electricity access and quality of life continues? We aim at exploring the existing institutional dimension connected to LPT and identifying potential forms of organization for decentralized solutions in the Amazon region. Our analysis is based on current energy policy in Brazil, existing institutional framework, achievements of LPT and potentialities of the isolated areas in terms of resources. Our conclusions draw attention to potential approaches for the next step within LPT context. We argue that the off-grid approach must be based on the uniqueness of the isolated areas in the Amazon. We emphasize the relevance of renewable energy sources in the process of supplying electricity and securing inclusion of isolated areas in universal access.

  • 11.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    The last mile in the Brazilian Amazon - A potential pathway for universal electricity access2015Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 82, s. 23-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian rural electrification initiative Luz Para Todos - LPT (Light for All) has attracted attention internationally due to its ambitious targets and significant achievements in the last decade. The initiative has proved effective in its first phase, which has been developed through the extension of the grid. Yet, there are still important challenges to provide the service to inhabitants of remote areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We identify these challenges within institutional, technology, and funding structures operating within LPT. In line with these challenges, we propose a pathway to facilitate the achievement of universal electricity access in remote areas of the region. The proposed pathway is based on three key leverage points: (i) rules guiding the relationship among new agents and communities; (ii) the implementation of small-scale power generation technologies based on local resources; and (iii) optimized subsidies. It has the potential to allow (i) a better dimensioning of off-grid solutions considering local resources and realities, (ii) the creation of adapted institutions capable of implementing and operating the required systems and, (iii) an effective operation of off-grid solutions.

  • 12.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    What is the role of renewable energy in the sustainable development of remote areas of the Amazon Region?2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Téllez, A.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Exploring the effect of subsidies on small-scale renewable energy solutions in the Brazilian Amazon2015Ingår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 83, s. 1200-1214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government aims at universal electricity access. The national rural electrification initiative has provided electricity services to more than 14 million people since 2003, mainly through grid extension. However, the initiative has not been able to reach remote areas in the Amazon, thus requiring a review of conditions for small scale off-grid power generation projects. As a result, new rules established under the national rural electrification program address the design and implementation of off-grid power generation projects with an installed capacity up to 100kW. The objective of this paper is to explore the effects of the new set of rules on the levelized cost of electricity for different power generation solutions in the Amazon. Our study shows that the new rules may be beneficial to isolated communities, as they reduce the levelized cost of electricity, favor renewable energy technologies and may contribute to reduce CO2 emissions. In addition, the new rules may help engage new actors to provide rural electrification of the Amazon region. To fully take advantage of the current scheme, action at local level is required to define the most appropriate model for small-scale power generation projects and establish synergies between concessionaires and local energy providers.

  • 14.
    Moreira da Silva, Ricardo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Mendes Primo, Marcos André
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco.
    Gómez, Maria Fernanda
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Searching For Sustainable Energy: A New Analytical Model2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Nerini, Francesco Fuso
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystemanalys.
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystemanalys.
    Bazilian, Morgan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystemanalys.
    Gomez, Maria F.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Rural electrification options in the Brazilian Amazon A multi-criteria analysis2014Ingår i: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 36-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, approximately 1.2 billion people still lack access to electricity. Recognized by the Brazilian Government as a citizen's right, access to electricity was extended to almost 15 million people since 2003 as a result of the "Luz Para Todos" (Light for all - LPT) program. However, considerable parts of the Amazon region still lack access to electricity services, largely due to the long distances that need to be covered and to challenging topography. This paper explores electrification using selected renewable sources, both for new installations and for hybridization of existing diesel generators. We present results from a multi-criteria analysis that explores trade-offs associated with electrification options. Techno-economic, environmental, social and institutional criteria and attributes are explored. We find that renewable and hybrid systems present a number of advantages for application in isolated areas of the region.

  • 16.
    Salomon, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Erlich, Catharina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Pelletization: an alternative for polygeneration in the palm oil industry2013Ingår i: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 213-229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural residues continue to attract interest for energy recovery purposes as a renewable, CO2 neutral and increasingly cost-competitive alternative to traditional fossil fuels. Furthermore, some of these residues, like palm oil residues, represent a disposal problem for the processing industries, or they are not used efficiently. Several palm oil mills (POM) lack efficient energy systems and thus there is a considerable potential for improvement. These factors represent a strong driving force for the development of innovative polygeneration plants with combined electricity, heat and refined fuel production based on conversion of solid residues. This paper aims at analyzing the use of agro-industrial residues as fuel. For that, we propose different technology configurations based on the case of a small-scale palm oil mill in Colombia processing 30 tons of fresh fruit bunch per hour. The technology configurations include steam cycles using backpressure turbines, condensing-extraction turbines and also gasification-gas engine cycles in hybrid configurations. The possibilities to produce pellets from the residues from palm oil were also analyzed. The steam cycle base operational parameters were 20 bar and 350 °C. However, more advanced steam conditions (40 bar) were also considered and evaluated. All the analyses performed included a maximum of 60 % of the empty fruit bunch (EFB) produced in the POM for energy purposes due to its value as natural fertilizer in the palm oil plantations. The results show that the POM under study and other POMs that use electricity from the national grid have the capacity of being self-sufficient to cover of all their energy needs using the solid residues available. This means that POMs that currently only generate the required heat for the process can generate the electricity required and in some cases even an excess of energy that could be sold to other users with an adequate use of the residues available. Furthermore, based on the modeling done in Aspen Utilities Planner® it is shown that it is possible to cover the demand of the POM, the required energy demand for EFB preparation included possible pelletization of these residues and even generate an excess of electricity. In several of the configurations, excess electricity generation could be achieved in the range of 0.5–8 MW.

  • 17.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Gómez Galindo, María Fernanda
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Optimal Upgrade of a District Heating Plant into a Polygeneration Plant Using Biomass as Feedstock2013Ingår i: Power Division (Publication) POWER American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at evaluating the possible upgrading of an existing district heating plant for production of electricity and pellets. The evaluation is carried out by optimizing the alternatives from the economic, thermodynamic and environmental point of view. In order to examine how the design can be optimized, a detailed model of the process has been elaborated using ASPEN Utilities and Matlab optimization toolbox. The parameters of the polygeneration plant have then been varied in order to examine how optimal economic benefit can be extracted from the biomass streams whilst still meeting the fundamental process demands of the industries and heat demand of the community. A multi-objective optimization has been used to investigate the Pareto-optimal trade-offs that exist between low electricity costs and investment cost. The resulting polygeneration plant designs conclude that it is feasible toproduce 18 and 25 MW of power while at the same time supplying the process steam required by the nearby industries and district heating for the community. The results also shown that it is feasible to operate the plant more hours per year by producing pellets and it could be possible to generate additional district heating (up to 25 ton/h of hot water) to cover the demands of a growing community.

  • 18.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Gómez Galindo, María Fernanda
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Technical polygeneration potential in palm oil mills in Colombia: A case study2013Ingår i: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, Vol. 3, s. 40-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural residues offer the possibility of reducing fossil fuel consumption, increasing energy security, and lowering  greenhouse gas emissions. However, certain residues, like palm oil residues, either represent a disposal problem for the processing industries or they are not used and thus, there is a considerable potential for improvement. These factors represent a strong driving force for the development of innovative polygeneration plants based on solid residues. This paper considers an energy analysis of a Palm Oil Mill (POM) in Colombia processing 30 ton of Fresh Fruit Bunch per hour (FFB/h).  Different heat and power generation options were considered with solid residues as feedstock. These configurations included steam cycles using backpressure or condensing-extraction turbines.  The possibilities to produce pellets from the residues and biodiesel from palm oil were also analyzed.  The steam cycle base operational parameters were 20 bar and 350 °C. More advanced steam conditions (40 bar) were also considered. The results show that it is possible to cover the demand of the POM and the required energy demand for residues preparation including possible pelletization and also biodiesel production. It is possible to obtain an excess of electricity between 0.4 and 3 MW if only residues are used.

  • 19.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Gómez Galindo, María Fernanda
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Spelling, James
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Optimization of a Sawmill-Based Polygeneration Plant2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2013, ASME Press, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass-based fuels have attracted worldwide interest due to their plentiful supply and their environmentally friendly characteristics. In many cases they are still considered waste but for most industries in Sweden, biomass has changed from being simply a disposal problem to become an important part of the energy supply, thanks to the long-term efforts made by the government, researchers and industry, where energy policies have played an important role. However, the amount of power that could be generated from biomass resources is much greater than that which is currently used. To effectively capture this resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants and their effective integration into already existing industrial processes.The implementation of an integrated polygeneration scheme requires the simultaneous consideration of technical, economic and environmental factors to find optimum solutions. With this in mind, a unified modeling approach that takes into account thermodynamic as well as economic and environmental aspects was used. The analysis was done using ASPEN Utilitiesand the MATLAB optimization toolbox. A specific case of a sawmill in Sweden, with an annual capacity of 130’000 m3 of sawn wood, has been analyzed and different options for generating electricity and process heat (for the sawmill and fora district heating network) as well as densified biofuels was analyzed. Optimization was then applied for different configurations and operational parameters. The results show that the sawmill has the capability to not only supply its own energy needs, but also to export from 0.4 to 1MW of electricity to the grid, contribute 5 to 6 MWth of district heating and 20 000 ton/y of biomass pellets. The production of pellets helps to maintain the electricity production throughout the year when the district heating demand is lower. However, the levelized electricity cost is higher than the usual electricity price in the Nordic electricity market and may have difficulty to competing with low-cost electricity sources, such as nuclear energy and hydropower. Inspite of this, polygeneration remains attractive for covering the energy demands of the sawmill and pelletization plant.

  • 20.
    Salomón, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Gómez Galindo, María Fernanda
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Upgrading a biomass-based district heating plant in sweden: a technoeconomic optimization and sensitivity analysisIngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating systems have contributed with the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by also producing industrial steam, using waste heat from industrial process in the networks and integration of other industrial processes. This paper aims at evaluating the possible upgrading of an existing district heating plant for production of electricity and pellets. The evaluation is carried out by optimizing the alternatives from the economic, thermodynamic and environmental point of view. In order to examine how the design can be optimized, a detailed model of the process has been elaborated using ASPEN Utilities and Matlab optimization toolbox. The parameters of the polygeneration plant have then been varied in order to examine how optimal economic benefit can be extracted from the biomass streams whilst still meeting the fundamental process demands of the industries and heat demand of the community. A multi-objective optimization has been used to investigate the Pareto-optimal trade-offs that exist between low electricity costs and investment cost. The resulting polygeneration plant designs conclude that it is feasible to produce 18 and 25 MW of power while at the same time supplying the process steam required by the nearby industries and district heating for the community. The results also shown that it is feasible to operate the plant more hours per year by producing pellets and  it could be possible to generate additional district heating (up to 25 ton/h of hot water) to cover the demands of a growing community.

  • 21.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Towards a cleaner vehicle fleet: The dynamics of the Swedish biofuel system2013Ingår i: 4th International Workshop Advances in Cleaner Production: Integrating Cleaner Production into Sustainability Strategies / [ed] Giannetti, B. F.; Almeida, C. M. V. B.; Bonilla, S. H, São Paulo: UNIP , 2013, s. 1-11Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study’s overall objective is to present how the development of the Swedish biofuels system impacts the achievement of the European Union’s target of 10% of renewable fuels in transport by 2020 and the establishment of a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030 in the country. The methodological approach is based on a combination of forecasting and backcasting scenarios. This cross-analysis is used to relate one set of data with others in order to identify gaps between the potential energy use in the Swedish domestic transport sector with the country’s desired targets. Our analysis shows three gaps related to i) infrastructure and management capabilities for local biofuel production, ii) policy instruments to trigger systemic changes to reduce dependence of imports, and iii) investment decisions. In order to bridge those gaps, policymakers have to decide on how to steer the system’s development not only by combining different pathways between growth patterns of the Swedish biofuel system but also deciding either to apply supply or demand pressures onto the system as driving forces. Despite meeting the desired target of 10% of renewable fuels in transport by 2020, these choices have to be taken in a very short-run in order to shape the development of the Swedish biofuel system away of failing the target of establishing a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030.

  • 22.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Gómez, María Fernanda
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    The dynamics of the Swedish biofuel system toward a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels2014Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 96, s. 452-466, artikel-id 4126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to present an analytical framework monitoring the development of the Swedish biofuels system, to evaluate its impacts on the achievement of 10% of renewable fuels by 2020, and to identify development patterns in order to establish a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030. The methodological approach relies on systems thinking approach and uses causal loops diagram as a guide to our analysis. The results show that policymakers have to decide among different pathways of growth based on internal- and external-resources of the Swedish biofuel system as well as to apply either supply or demand pressures onto the system in order to accomplish a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030.

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