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  • 1.
    Kellner, Hans Erik Olof
    et al.
    KTH. Dalarna Univ, S-79188 Falun, Sweden..
    Karasev, Andrey Vladimirovich
    KTH.
    Sundqvist, Olle
    Sandvik Mat Technol AB, S-81181 Sandviken, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH.
    TiN Particles and Clusters during Ladle Treatments of Ni-based Alloy 825 using Different Stirring Modes2018In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 292-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, titanium is often used in steelmaking not only for deoxidation but also for micro-alloying and alloying for a wide range of steel grades. Therefore, many studies are focused on investigations on the formation and behavior of Ti-containing non-metallic inclusions (such as oxides, nitrides and carbides) during production of different Ti-containing steels and their effect on final steel properties. This study has examined the behavior of TiN clusters and particles in the melt during the ladle treatment of Alloy 825 containing up to 1.2 wt% of Ti. The industrial trials were performed at the end of the ladle treatment by using argon gas in combination with electromagnetic stirring using an upwards or a downwards stirring direction. Metal samples were taken before and after ladle treatment to enable three-dimensional investigations of non-metallic inclusions and clusters. The composition, size and number of particles and clusters were determined after electrolytic extraction of the metal samples by using SEM in combination with EDS. It was found that agglomerations of TiN clusters and particles in the melt are faster during an upwards stirring in comparison to a downwards stirring. However, the removal of clusters from the melt is more effective when using a downwards stirring direction compared to when using an upwards stirring in combination with gas stirring. It was also found that the Turbulent collision is the dominant factor for the agglomeration of TiN particles in the melt.

  • 2.
    Ramirez Lopez, Pavel Ernesto
    et al.
    Swerea MEFOS, Proc Met Dept, Casting & Flow Simulat Grp, Aronstorpsvagen 1, SE-97437 Lulea, Sweden..
    Jalali, Pooria Nazem
    Swerea MEFOS, Proc Met Dept, Casting & Flow Simulat Grp, Aronstorpsvagen 1, SE-97437 Lulea, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Brinellvagen 23, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjöstrom, Ulf
    Swerea MEFOS, Proc Met Dept, Casting & Flow Simulat Grp, Aronstorpsvagen 1, SE-97437 Lulea, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Mills, Kenneth C.
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Mat, London SW7 2AZ, England..
    Sohn, Il
    Yonsei Univ, Mat Sci & Engn Dept, Seoul 120749, South Korea..
    Key Lubrication Concepts to Understand the Role of Flow, Heat Transfer and Solidification for Modelling Defect Formation during Continuous Casting2018In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 201-210Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface defects are recurrent problems during Continuous Casting of steel due to the introduction of new grades that are often difficult to cast, as well as the everlasting pursuit for higher quality and improved yield. Accordingly, numerical modelling has become a ubiquitous tool to analyse the formation mechanisms of such defects. However, industrial application of simulations is often hampered by oversimplifications and omissions of important process details such as variations in material properties, specific casting practices or shortcomings regarding fundamental metallurgical concepts. The present manuscript seeks to create awareness on these issues by visiting key notions such as slag infiltration, interfacial resistance and Lubrication Index. This is done from a conceptual point of view based on industrial observations and numerical modelling experiences. The latter allows a re-formulation of outdated concepts and misconceptions regarding the influence of fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification on lubrication and defect formation. Additionally, the manuscript addresses common challenges and constraints that occur during industrial implementation of numerical models such as the lack of high -temperature material data for slags. Finally, the manuscript provides examples of improvements on product quality and process stability that can be achieved through a holistic approach which combines modelling with laboratory tests, experiences from operators and direct plant measurements.

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