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  • 1. Bagawath-Singh, Sunitha
    et al.
    Staaf, Elina
    Stoppelenburg, Arie Jan
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Kambayashi, Taku
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Cytokines Induce Faster Membrane Diffusion of MHC Class I and the Ly49A Receptor in a Subpopulation of Natural Killer Cells2016In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytokines have the potential to drastically augment immune cell activity. Apart from altering the expression of a multitude of proteins, cytokines also affect immune cell dynamics. However, how cytokines affect the molecular dynamics within the cell membrane of immune cells has not been addressed previously. Molecular movement is a vital component of all biological processes, and the rate of motion is, thus, an inherent determining factor for the pace of such processes. Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes, which belong to the innate immune system. By fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we investigated the influence of cytokine stimulation on the membrane density and molecular dynamics of the inhibitory receptor Ly49A and its ligand, the major histocompatibility complex class I allele H-2D(d), in freshly isolated murine NK cells. H-2D(d) was densely expressed and diffused slowly in resting NK cells. Ly49A was expressed at a lower density and diffused faster. The diffusion rate in resting cells was not altered by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton. A short-term stimulation with interleukin-2 or interferon- alpha + beta did not change the surface density of moving H-2D(d) or Ly49A, despite a slight upregulation at the cellular level of H-2D(d) by interferon-alpha + beta, and of Ly49A by IL-2. However, the molecular diffusion rates of both H-2D(d) and Ly49A increased significantly. A multivariate analysis revealed that the increased diffusion was especially marked in a subpopulation of NK cells, where the diffusion rate was increased around fourfold compared to resting NK cells. After IL-2 stimulation, this subpopulation of NK cells also displayed lower density of Ly49A and higher brightness per entity, indicating that Ly49A may homo-cluster to a larger extent in these cells. A faster diffusion of inhibitory receptors could enable a faster accumulation of these molecules at the immune synapse with a target cell, eventually leading to a more efficient NK cell response. It has previously been assumed that cytokines regulate immune cells primarily via alterations of protein expression levels or posttranslational modifications. These findings suggest that cytokines may also modulate immune cell efficiency by increasing the molecular dynamics early on in the response.

  • 2.
    Chmyrov, Volodymyr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Hevekerl, Heike
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Trans-Cis isomerization of lipophilic dyes probing membrane microviscosity in biological membranes and in live cells2015In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 87, no 11, p. 5690-5697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane environment and fluidity can modulate the dynamics and interactions of membrane proteins and can thereby strongly influence the function of cells and organisms in general. In this work, we demonstrate that trans-cis isomerization of lipophilic dyes is a useful parameter to monitor packaging and fluidity of biomembranes. Fluorescence fluctuations, generated by trans-cis isomerization of the thiocarbocyanine dye Merocyanine 540 (MC540), were first analyzed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in different alcohol solutions. Similar isomerization kinetics of MC540 in lipid vesicles could then also be monitored, and the influence of lipid polarity, membrane curvature, and cholesterol content was investigated. While no influence of membrane curvature and lipid polarity could be observed, a clear decrease in the isomerization rates could be observed with increasing cholesterol contents in the vesicle membranes. Finally, procedures to spatially map photoinduced and thermal isomerization rates on live cells by transient state (TRAST) imaging were established. On the basis of these procedures, MC540 isomerization was studied on live MCF7 cells, and TRAST images of the cells at different temperatures were found to reliably detect differences in the isomerization parameters. Our studies indicate that trans-cis isomerization is a useful parameter for probing membrane dynamics and that the TRAST imaging technique can provide spatial maps of photoinduced isomerization as well as both photoinduced and thermal back-isomerization, resolving differences in local membrane microviscosity in live cells.

  • 3.
    Chmyrov, Volodymyr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Hevekerl, Heike
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Trans-cis isomerization of lipophilic dyes provides a measure of membrane microviscosity in biological membranes and in live cellsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4. Geissbuehler, M.
    et al.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Formey, A.
    Märki, I.
    Leutenegger, M.
    Hinz, B.
    Johnsson, K.
    Van De Ville, D.
    Lasser, T.
    Triplet imaging of oxygen consumption during the contraction of a single smooth muscle cell (A7r5)2012In: Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXXIII / [ed] Wolf, M; Bucher, HU; Rudin, M; VanHuffel, S; Wolf, U; Bruley, DF; Harrison, DK, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2012, Vol. 737, p. 263-268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triplet imaging is a novel optical technique that allows investigating oxygen metabolism at the single cell and the sub-cellular level. The method combines high temporal and spatial resolutions which are required for the monitoring of fast kinetics of oxygen concentration in living cells. Calibration and validation are demonstrated with a titration experiment using l-ascorbic acid with the enzyme ascorbase oxidase. The method was applied to a biological cell system, employing as reporter a cytosolic fusion protein of β-galactosidase with a SNAP-tag labeled with tetramethylrhodamine. Oxygen consumption in single smooth muscle cells A7r5 during an [Arg8]-vasopressin- induced contraction is measured. The triplet lifetime images over time can be related to an intracellular oxygen consumption corresponding to a mono-exponentially decaying intracellular oxygen concentration. This is in good agreement with previously reported measurements of oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle fibers.

  • 5. Geissbuehler, Matthias
    et al.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Formey, Aurlie
    Maerki, Iwan
    Leutenegger, Marcel
    Hinz, Boris
    Johnsson, Kai
    Van De Ville, Dimitri
    Lasser, Theo
    Triplet Imaging of Oxygen Consumption during the Contraction of a Single Smooth Muscle Cell (A7r5)2010In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 98, no 2, p. 339-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of tissue and cell oxygenation is important for understanding cell metabolism. We have addressed this problem with a novel optical technique, called triplet imaging, that exploits oxygen-induced triplet lifetime changes and is compatible with a variety of fluorophores. A modulated excitation of varying pulse widths allows the extraction of the lifetime of the essentially dark triplet state using a high-fluorescence signal intensity. This enables the monitoring of fast kinetics of oxygen concentration in living cells combined with high temporal and spatial resolution. First, the oxygen-dependent triplet-state quenching of tetramethylrhodamine is validated and then calibrated in an L-ascorbic acid titration experiment demonstrating the linear relation between triplet lifetime and oxygen concentration according to the Stern-Volmer equation. Second, the method is applied to a biological cell system, employing as reporter a cytosolic fusion protein of beta-galactosidase with SNAP-tag labeled with tetramethylrhodamine. Oxygen consumption in single smooth muscle cells A7r5 during an [Arg(8)]-vasopressin-induced contraction is measured. The results indicate a consumption leading to an intracellular oxygen concentration that decays monoexponentially with time. The proposed method has the potential to become a new tool for investigating oxygen metabolism at the single cell and the subcellular level.

  • 6.
    Hevekerl, Heike
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Chmyrov, Andriy
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Forster Resonance Energy Transfer beyond 10 nm: Exploiting the Triplet State Kinetics of Organic Fluorophores2011In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 115, no 45, p. 13360-13370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter- or intramolecular distances of biomolecules can be studied by Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET). For most FRET methods, the observable range of distances is limited to 1-10 nm, and the labeling efficiency has to be controlled carefully to obtain accurate distance determinations, especially for intensity-based methods. In this study, we exploit the triplet state of the acceptor fluorophore as a FRET readout using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and transient state monitoring. The influence of donor fluorescence leaking into the acceptor channel is minimized by a novel suppression algorithm for spectral bleed-through, thereby tolerating a high excess (up to 100-fold) of donor-only labeled samples. The suppression algorithm and the high sensitivity of the triplet state to small changes in the fluorophore excitation rate make it possible to extend the observable range of FRET efficiencies by up to 50% in the presence of large donor-only populations. Given this increased range of FRET efficiencies, its compatibility with organic fluorophores, and the low requirements on the labeling efficiency and instrumentation, we foresee that this approach will be attractive for in vitro and in vivo FRET-based spectroscopy and imaging.

  • 7.
    Mücksch, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Sisamakis, Evangelos
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Transient State Imaging by Single Plane Illumination Microscopy of MCF-7 cellsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Mücksch, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Sisamakis, Evangelos
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Transient state imaging of live cells using single plane illumination and arbitrary duty cycle excitation pulse trains2015In: Journal of Biophotonics, ISSN 1864-063X, E-ISSN 1864-0648, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 392-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the applicability of Single Plane Illumination Microscopy to Transient State Imaging (TRAST), offering sensitive microenvironmental information together with optical sectioning and reduced overall excitation light exposure of the specimen. The concept is verified by showing that transition rates can be determined accurately for free dye in solution and that fluorophore transition rates can be resolved pixel-wise in live cells. Furthermore, we derive a new theoretical framework for analyzing TRAST data acquired with arbitrary duty cycle pulse trains. By this analysis it is possible to reduce the overall measurement time and thereby enhance the frame rates in TRAST imaging.

  • 9.
    Sisamakis, Evangelos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie
    Heinirich Heine University.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Seidel, Claus A.M.
    Heinirich Heine University.
    Kühnemuth, Ralf
    Heinirich Heine University.
    Assessment of the sensitivity of a confocal laser scanning microscope by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and TRAST imagingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Transient State Fluorescence Microscopy - method development and biological applications: Exploiting the dark states of fluorophores to measure oxygen concentrations, redox state, Förster resonance energy transfer and membrane viscosity2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to their long lifetime, triplet, redox and other transient states of fluorophores are highly sensitive to the micro-environment. Imaging their spatial distribution in biological samples can therefore help answer interesting questions about the metabolism, molecular interactions and dynamics in living cells. However, as these states are at best weakly luminescent, they have up to now only been used to a limited extent in life sciences. In Transient State (TRAST) imaging, the characteristic build up of transient states is instead monitored via fluorescence, as the excitation is modulated. When the illumination pulse width is step-wise increased, transient states are progressively populated. The resulting depletion of the singlet excited state can be monitored via time-averaged fluorescence. This fluorescence decay is characteristic for the transient state kinetics of the fluorophore in a given environment. Traditional fluorescence parameters can only be influenced within the lifetime of the fluorophore. In contrast, TRAST imaging can monitor photo-induced states with 103− 106 times longer lifetimes and is therefore far more sensitive to sparse quencher molecules, such as dissolved oxygen. Transient state kinetics can also be studied using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS). In contrast to FCS, transient state imaging circumvents the need of time resolution in the fluorescence detection, thereby allowing simultaneous readout over a large number of pixels using a camera. It can also be applied over a broader range of concentrations and does not require a strong fluorescence brightness of the sample molecules. In this thesis, TRAST imaging has been applied in a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope to monitor the redox reactions of fluorescent dyes in solution. Moreover, TRAST imaging was established for measuring lipid microfluidity in biomembranes, and for a new concept to measure molecular distances in combination with Förster Resonance Energy Transfer. The sensitivity of the fluorophore triplet state to oxygen has been exploited in a wide-field microscope to monitor oxygen consumption during the contraction of smooth muscle cells and the modulation of the oxygen consumption of cancer cells by metabolite availability. High triplet yield fluorophores such as Eosin Y are introduced in order to reduce irradiance intensity requirements as reported in earlier TRAST papers. Irradiance requirements and axial resolution have further been reduced using a single plane illumination microscope.

  • 11.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Blom, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Geissbuehler, Matthias
    Lasser, Theo
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Transient State Monitoring by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy2010In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 114, no 11, p. 4035-4046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triplet, photo-oxidized and other photoinduced, long-lived states Of fluorophores are sensitive to the local environment and thus attractive for microenvironmental imaging purposes. In this work, we introduce an approach where these states are monitored in a total internal reflection (TIR) fluorescence microscope, via the characteristic variations of the time-averaged fluorescence occuring ill response to different excitation modulation schemes. The surface-confined TIR excitation field generates a signal from the fluorescent molecules Close to the glass surface. Thereby, a high selectivity and low background noise is obtained, and in combination with IOW duty Cycles Of excitation, the overall photodegradation of the fluorescent molecules of the sample call be kept low, To verify the approach. the kinetics of the triplet and radical states of the dye Rhodamine 110 were imaged and analyzed in aqueous solutions at different concentrations of dissolved oxygen and of the reducing agent ascorbic acid. The experimental results Were compared to data from corresponding fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measurements and simulations based oil finite element analysis. The approach was found to accurately determine relative populations and dynamics of triplet and photooxidized states, Overcoming passage time limitations seen ill FCS measurements. The method circumvents the need for time resolution ill the fluorescence detection, allowing simultaneous readout over the whole SLII-face area subject to excitation. It call be applied over a broad range of concentrations and does not require I strong fluorescence brightness of the sample molecules. Given the sensitivity of the triplet and photooxidized states to oxygen concentrations and not the least to local redox environments, we expect the approach to become an attractive tool for imaging cell metabolism.

  • 12.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Xu, Lei
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Gad, Annica
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology.
    Johansson, Sofia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Transient state microscopy probes patterns of altered oxygen consumption in cancer cells2014In: The FEBS Journal, ISSN 1742-464X, E-ISSN 1742-4658, Vol. 281, no 5, p. 1317-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altered cellular metabolism plays an important role in many diseases, not least in many forms of cancer, where cellular metabolic pathways requiring lower oxygen consumption are often favored (the so-called Warburg effect). In this work, we have applied fluorescence-based transient state imaging and have exploited the environment sensitivity of long-lived dark states of fluorophores, in particular triplet state decay rates, to image the oxygen consumption of living cells. Our measurements can resolve differences in oxygen concentrations between different regions of individual cells, between different cell types, and also based on what metabolic pathways the cells use. In MCF-7 breast cancer cells, higher oxygen consumption can be detected when they rely on glutamine instead of glucose as their main metabolite, predominantly undergoing oxidative phosphorylation rather than glycolysis. By use of the high triplet yield dye Eosin Y the irradiance requirements during the measurements can be kept low. This reduces the instrumentation requirements, and harmful biological effects from high excitation doses can be avoided. Taken together, our imaging approach is widely applicable and capable of detecting subtle changes in oxygen consumption in live cells, stemming from the Warburg effect or reflecting other differences in the cellular metabolism. This may lead to new diagnostic means as well as advance our understanding of the interplay between cellular metabolism and major disease categories, such as cancer.

  • 13.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Xu, Lei
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Gad, Annica K.B.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Transient state imaging probes patterns of altered oxygen consumption in cancer cellsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Altered cellular metabolism plays an important role in many diseases, not least in many forms of cancer, where cellular metabolic pathways requiring lower oxygen consumption are often favored (the so-called Warburg effect). In this work, we have applied fluorescence-based transient state imaging and have exploited the environment sensitivity of long-lived dark states of fluorophores, in particular triplet state decay rates, to image the oxygen consumption of living cells. Our measurements can resolve differences in oxygen concentrations between different regions of individual cells, between different cell types, and also based on what metabolic pathways the cells use. In MCF-7 breast cancer cells, higher oxygen consumption can be detected when they rely on glutamine instead of glucose as their main metabolite, predominantly undergoing oxidative phosphorylation rather than glycolysis. By use of the high triplet yield dye Eosin Y the irradiance requirements during the measurements can be kept low. This reduces the instrumentation requirements, and harmful biological effects from high excitation doses can be avoided. Taken together, our imaging approach is widely applicable and capable of detecting subtle changes in oxygen consumption in live cells, stemming from the Warburg effect or reflecting other differences in the cellular metabolism. This may lead to new diagnostic means as well as advance our understanding of the interplay between cellular metabolism and major disease categories, such as cancer.

1 - 13 of 13
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