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  • 1. Cunico, F. J.
    et al.
    Marquez, Juan Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system.
    Hilke, H.
    Skrifvars, M.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system.
    Studying the performance of conductive polymer films as textile electrodes for electrical bioimpedance measurements2013Ingår i: XV International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance (ICEBI) & XIV Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), 2013, Vol. 434, nr 1, s. 012027-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the goal of finding novel biocompatible materials suitable to replace silver in the manufacturing of textile electrodes for medical applications of electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy, three different polymeric materials have been investigated. Films have been prepared from different polymeric materials and custom bracelets have been confectioned with them. Tetrapolar total right side electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy (EBIS) measurements have been performed with polymer and with standard gel electrodes. The performance of the polymer films was compared against the performance of the gel electrodes. The results indicated that only the polypropylene 1380 could produce EBIS measurements but remarkably tainted with high frequency artefacts. The influence of the electrode mismatch, stray capacitances and large electrode polarization impedance are unclear and they need to be clarified with further studies. If sensorized garments could be made with such biocompatible polymeric materials the burden of considering textrodes class III devices could be avoided.

  • 2. Li, Si
    et al.
    Zhuang, Cheng
    Hao, Manzhao
    He, Xin
    Marquez, Juan C.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system. Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Niu, Chuanxin M.
    Lan, Ning
    Coordinated alpha and gamma control of muscles and spindles in movement and posture2015Ingår i: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5188, E-ISSN 1662-5188, Vol. 9, artikel-id 122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mounting evidence suggests that both a and gamma motoneurons are active during movement and posture, but how does the central motor system coordinate the alpha-gamma controls in these tasks remains sketchy due to lack of in vivo data. Here a computational model of alpha-gamma control of muscles and spindles was used to investigate a -gamma integration and coordination for movement and posture. The model comprised physiologically realistic spinal circuitry, muscles, proprioceptors, and skeletal biomechanics. In the model, we divided the cortical descending commands into static and dynamic sets, where static commands (alpha(s) and gamma(s)) were for posture maintenance and dynamic commands (alpha(d) and gamma(d)) were responsible for movement. We matched our model to human reaching movement data by straightforward adjustments of descending commands derived from either minimal-jerk trajectories or human EMGs. The matched movement showed smooth reach-to-hold trajectories qualitatively close to human behaviors, and the reproduced EMGs showed the classic tri-phasic patterns. In particular, the function of gamma(d) was to gate the alpha(d) command at the propriospinal neurons (PN) such that antagonistic muscles can accelerate or decelerate the limb with proper timing. Independent control of joint position and stiffness could be achieved by adjusting static commands. Deefferentation in the model indicated that accurate static commands of as and gamma(s) are essential to achieve stable terminal posture precisely, and that the gamma(d) command is as important as the alpha(d) command in controlling antagonistic muscles for desired movements. Deafferentation in the model showed that losing proprioceptive afferents mainly affected the terminal position of movement, similar to the abnormal behaviors observed in human and animals. Our results illustrated that tuning the simple forms of alpha-gamma commands can reproduce a range of human reach-to-hold movements, and it is necessary to coordinate the set of alpha-gamma descending commands for accurate and stable control of movement and posture.

  • 3.
    Marquez, Juan Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Ferreira, Javier
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Buendia, Ruben
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Textile electrode straps for wrist-to-ankle bioimpedance measurements for Body Composition Analysis: Initial validation & experimental results2010Ingår i: 2010 ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY SOCIETY (EMBC), IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society , 2010, s. 6385-6388Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) is one of the non-invasive monitoring technologies that could benefit from the emerging textile based measurement systems. If reliable and reproducible EBI measurements could be done with textile electrodes, that would facilitate the utilization of EBI-based personalized healthcare monitoring applications. In this work the performance of a custom-made dry-textile electrode prototype is tested. Four-electrodes ankle-to-wrist EBI measurements have been taken on healthy subjects with the Impedimed spectrometer SFB7 in the frequency range 5 kHz to 1 MHz. The EBI spectroscopy measurements taken with dry electrodes were analyzed via the Cole and Body Composition Analysis (BCA) parameters, which were compared with EBI measurements obtained with standard electrolytic electrodes. The analysis of the obtained results indicate that even when dry textile electrodes may be used for EBI spectroscopy measurements, the measurements present remarkable differences that influence in the Cole parameter estimation process and in the final production of the BCA parameters. These initial results indicate that more research work must be done to in order to obtain a textile-based electrode that ensures reliable and reproducible EBI spectroscopy measurements.

  • 4.
    Marquez, Juan Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Skin-electrode contact area in electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy. Influence in total body composition assessment2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, IEEE Engineering In Medicine and Biology Society , 2011, Vol. 2011, s. 1867-1870Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (EBIS) has been widely used for assessment of total body composition and fluid distribution. (EBIS) measurements are commonly performed with electrolytic electrodes placed on the wrist and the ankle with a rather small skin-electrode contact area. The use of textile garments for EBI requires the integration of textrodes with a larger contact area surrounding the limbs in order to compensate the absence of electrolytic medium commonly present in traditional Ag/AgCl gel electrodes. Recently it has been shown that mismatch between the measurements electrodes might cause alterations on the EBIS measurements. When performing EBIS measurements with textrodes certain differences have been observed, especially at high frequencies, respect the same EBIS measurements using Ag/AgCl electrodes. In this work the influence of increasing the skin-electrode area on the estimation of body composition parameters has been studied performing experimental EBIS measurement. The results indicate that an increment on the area of the skin-electrode interface produced noticeable changes in the bioimpedance spectra as well as in the body composition parameters. Moreover, the area increment showed also an apparent reduction of electrode impedance mismatch effects. This influence must be taken into consideration when designing and testing textile-enable EBIS measurement systems.

  • 5.
    Marquez, Juan Carlos
    et al.
    Univerisity of Borås.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås.
    Välimäki, E.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    University of Borås.
    Textile electrodes in Electrical Bioimpedance measurements - a comparison with conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes2009Ingår i: EMBC: 2009 ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY SOCIETY, VOLS 1-20, IEEE , 2009, Vol. 2009, s. 4816-4819Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Work has been intensified around the integration of textile and measurement technology for physiological measurements in the last years. As a result nowadays it is possible to find available commercial products for cardiovascular personal healthcare monitoring. Most of the efforts have been focused in the acquisition of EKG for cardiovascular monitoring where textile electrodes have shown satisfactory performance. Electrical Bioimpedance is another type of physiological measurement that can be used for personal healthcare monitoring where the integration and the performance of the textile electrodes has not been investigated that thoroughly. In this work, the influence of the textile electrodes on the measurements and on the estimation of the Cole (R(0), R(infinity), f(C) and alpha) and body composition (TBW, ICW, ECW and FFM) parameters has been especially addressed. Complex Spectroscopy 4-electrode wrist-to-ankle electrical bioimpedance measurements taken with conventional Ag/AgCl and textile-electrodes on customized bracelets have been compared and analyzed in the frequency range 3 to 500 kHz. The obtained results suggest that the use of textile electrodes do not influence remarkably on the complex spectral measurements neither in the estimation of Cole nor body composition parameter. In any case any possible effect introduced by the use of textile is smaller than the effect of preparing the skin by the using abrasive conductive paste.

  • 6. Marquez, Juan Carlos
    et al.
    Seoane, Fernando
    Välimäki, Elina
    University of Borås.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Comparison of dry-textile electrodes for electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile Electrodes have been widely studied for biopotentials recordings, specially for monitoring the cardiac activity. Commercially available applications, such as Adistar T-shirt and Textronics Cardioshirt, have proved a good performance for heart rate monitoring and are available worldwide. Textile technology can also be used for Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy measurements enabling home and personalized health monitoring applications however solid ground research about the measurement performance of the electrodes must be done prior to the development of any textile-enabled EBI application. In this work a comparison of the measurement performance of two different types of dry-textile electrodes and manufacturers has been performed against standardized RedDot 3M Ag/AgCl electrolytic electrodes. 4-Electrode, whole body, Ankle-to-Wrist EBI measurements have been taken with the Impedimed spectrometer SFB7 from healthy subjects in the frequency range of 3kHz to 500kHz. Measurements have been taken with dry electrodes at different times to study the influence of the interaction skin-electrode interface on the EBI measurements. The analysis of the obtained complex EBI spectra shows that the measurements performed with textile electrodes produce constant and reliable EBI spectra. Certain deviation can be observed at higher frequencies and the measurements obtained with Textronics and Ag/AgCl electrodes present a better resemblance. Textile technology, if successfully integrated it, may enable the performance of EBI measurements in new scenarios allowing the rising of novel wearable monitoring applications for home and personal care as well as car safety.

  • 7.
    Marquez Ruiz, Juan Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS) (Stängd 20130701).
    Sensor-Based Garments that Enable the Use of Bioimpedance Technology: Towards PersonalizedHealthcare Monitoring.2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional garments for physiological sensing purposes have been utilized in several disciplinesi.e. sports, firefighting, military and medical. In most of the cases textile electrodes (Textrodes)embedded in the garment are employed to monitor vital signs and other physiologicalmeasurements. Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) is a non-invasive and effective technology that canbe used for detection and supervision of different health conditions. In some specific applicationssuch as body composition assessment EBIS has shown encouraging results proving good degreeof effectiveness and reliability. In a similar way Impedance Cardiography (ICG) is anothermodality of EBI primarily concerned with the determination of Stroke Volume SV, indices ofcontractility, and other aspects of hemodynamics.EBI technology in the previously mentioned modalities can benefit from a integration with agarment; however, a successful implementation of EBI technology depends on the goodperformance of textile electrodes. The main weakness of Textrodes is a deficient skin-electrodeinterface which produces a high degree of sensitivity to signal disturbances. This sensitivity canbe reduced with a suitable selection of the electrode material and an intelligent and ergonomicgarment design that ensures an effective skin-electrode contact area.This research work studies the performance of textile electrodes and garments for EBIspectroscopy for Total Body Assessment and Transthoracic Electrical Bioimpedance (TEB) forcardio monitoring. Their performance is analyzed based on impedance spectra, estimation ofparameters, influence of electrode polarization impedance Zep and quality of the signals using asreference Ag/AgCl electrodes. The study includes the analysis of some characteristics of thetextile electrodes such as conductive material, skin-electrode contact area size and fabricconstruction.The results obtained in this research work present evidence that textile garments with a dry skinelectrodeinterface like the ones used in research produce reliable EBI measurements in bothmodalities: BIS for Total Body Assessment and TEB for Impedance Cardiography. Textiletechnology, if successfully integrated, may enable the utilization of EBI in both modalities andconsequently implementing wearable applications for home and personal health monitoring.

  • 8.
    Marquez Ruiz, Juan Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS) (Stängd 20130701). University of Borås, Sweden.
    Rempfler, Markus
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS) (Stängd 20130701). University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS) (Stängd 20130701). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Textrode-enabled transthoracic electrical bioimpedance measurements: towards wearable applications of impedance cardiography2013Ingår i: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance, ISSN 1891-5469, E-ISSN 1891-5469, Vol. 4, s. 45-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades the use of Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) in the medical field has been subject of extensive research, especially since it is an affordable, harmless and non-invasive technology.

    In some specific applications such as body composition assessment where EBI has proven a good degree of effectiveness and reliability, the use of textile electrodes and measurement garments have shown a good performance and reproducible results.

    Impedance Cardiography (ICG) is another modality of EBI that can benefit from the implementation and use of wearable sensors. ICG technique is based on continuous impedance measurements of a longitudinal segment across the thorax taken at a single frequency. The need for specific electrode placement on the thorax and neck can be easily ensured with the use of a garment with embedded textile electrodes, textrodes. The first step towards the implementation of ICG technology into a garment is to find out if ICG measurements with textile sensors give a good enough quality of the signal to allow the estimation of the fundamental ICG parameters.

    In this work, the measurement performance of a 2-belt set with incorporated textrodes for thorax and neck was compared against ICG measurements obtained with Ag/AgCl electrodes. The analysis was based on the quality of the fundamental ICG signals (∆Z, dZ/dt and ECG), systolic time intervals and other ICG parameters. The obtained results indicate the feasibility of using textrodes for ICG measurements with consistent measurements and relatively low data dispersion. Thus, enabling the development of measuring garments for ICG measurements.

  • 9.
    Marquez Ruiz, Juan Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Textrode functional straps for bioimpedance measurements-experimental results for body composition analysis2013Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 67, nr SUPPL. 1, s. S22-S27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Objectives:Functional garments for physiological sensing purposes have been used in several disciplines, that is, sports, firefighting, military and medicine. In most of the cases, textile electrodes (textrodes) embedded in the garment are used to monitor vital signs and other physiological measurements. Electrical bioimpedance (EBI) is a non-invasive and effective technology that can be used for the detection and supervision of different health conditions.EBI technology could make use of the advantages of garment integration; however, a successful implementation of EBI technology depends on the good performance of textrodes. The main drawback of textrodes is a deficient skin-electrode interface that produces a high degree of sensitivity to signal disturbances. This sensitivity can be reduced with a suitable selection of the electrode material and an intelligent and ergonomic garment design that ensures an effective skin-electrode contact area.Subjects/Methods:In this work, textrode functional straps for total right side EBI measurements for body composition are presented, and its measurement performance is compared against the use of Ag/AgCl electrodes. Shieldex sensor fabric and a tetra-polar electrode configuration using the ImpediMed spectrometer SFB7 in the frequency range of 3-500 kHz were used to obtain and analyse the impedance spectra and Cole and body composition parameters.Results:The results obtained show stable and reliable measurements; the slight differences obtained with the functional garment do not significantly affect the computation of Cole and body composition parameters.Conclusions:The use of a larger sensor area, a high conductive material and an appropriate design can compensate, to some degree, for the charge transfer deficiency of the skin-electrode interface.

  • 10.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Bouwstra, Sibrecht
    Technical University of Eindovhen.
    Marquez, Juan Carlos
    löfhede, johan
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Smart Textiles in Neonatal Monitoring: Enabling Unobtrusive Monitoring at the NICU2012Ingår i: Neonatal Monitoring Technologies: : Design for Integrated Solutions / [ed] W. Chen, S. Oetomo, & L. Feijs, IGI Global, 2012, s. -55Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Ferreira, Javier
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Marquez, Juan Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås.
    Conductive Polymer Films as Textrodes for Biopotential Sensing2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: After several years of progresses in textile technology and wearable measurement instrumentation, applications of wearable textile-electronics systems are arising providing a stable background for commercial applications. So far, the available commercial solutions are centered on fitness applications and mostly based in the acquisition of heart rate through Textile Electrodes (Textrodes) based on metallic threads or on conductive rubber compounds. Methods and Materials: In this work a novel material approach is presented to produce Textrodes for acquisition of Electrocardiographic (ECG) signals using a conductive polypropylene (PP1386 from Premix, Finland) polymer material. The polymer was film extruded into thin films, and used as such in the Textrode. Conductive Polymer Films (CPF) have been used to produce Textrodes, and its measurement performance has been compared with the ECG signals obtained with commercial Textrode fabrics and conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes. In order to set up the same measurement conditions, a chest strap tailored to host the testing electrodes has been used. Results: The close resemblance of the ECG acquired with the textile fabric electrodes, the Ag/AgCl electrodes and the PP1386 CPF electrodes suggest that the Polymer Electrodes PP1386 are a feasible alternative to the current textile fabrics that use silver thread as conductive material and also to conductive rubber material. Discussion & Conclusion: The availability of the Conductive Polymer Electrode PP1386 in a film form allows the manufacturing of electrodes by conventional textile processes, like lamination or sewing, therefore facilitating the transition from lab prototyping to industrial manufacturing. Replacing the traditional silver thread as conductive element in the fabrication of Textrodes will definitely reduce the material cost per Textrode. Biocompatibility issues and manufacturability issues must be addressed but the exhibited functional performance is showing encouraging results.

  • 12.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    School of Engineering, University of Borås.
    Marquez, Juan Carlos
    School of Engineering, University of Borås.
    Ferreira, Javier
    School of Engineering, University of Borås.
    Buendia, Ruben
    School of Engineering, University of Borås.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    The Challenge of the Skin-Electrode Contact in Textile-enabled Electrical Bioimpedance, Measurements for Personalized Healthcare Monitoring Applications2011Ingår i: Biomedical Engineering, Trends in Materials Science / [ed] Anthony N. Laskovski, IN-TECH, 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Rempfer, Markus
    University of Borås.
    Marquez, Juan Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS).
    Textile-enabled Instrumentation for Impedance Cardiographic Signals2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14. Zhuang, C.
    et al.
    Marquez, Juan C.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system. Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Qu, H. E.
    He, X.
    Lan, N.
    A neuromuscular electrical stimulation strategy based on muscle synergy for stroke rehabilitation2015Ingår i: International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, s. 816-819Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent experiments have suggested that the central nervous system (CNS) makes use of muscle synergies as a neural strategy to simplify the control of a variety of movements by using a single pattern of neural command signal. This nature of muscle coordination could have great significance in the treatment and rehabilitation of upper limb impairments for hemiparetic patients post stroke. The use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for neural prosthetics or therapeutic applications has been demonstrated as a promising clinical intervention for stroke patients to recover motor function of the upper extremity. However, the existing NMES systems do not provide control methods for the patient to achieve an individualized and functional rehabilitation training. In this research work, muscle synergies from the flexionextension elbow antagonistic muscles were studied. Using motion information and EMG signals, muscle synergies were extracted using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) method. Reconstructed signals obtained from the muscle synergies were then applied to the virtual arm (VA) model to test a synergy based NMES strategy. Results show close resemblance to the original elbow trajectory of normal movements and thus the feasibility to control movements in stroke patients for rehabilitation.

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