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  • 1. Abbas, Ghazanfar
    et al.
    Chaudhry, M. Ashraf
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Singh, Manish
    Liu, Qinghua
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Qin, Haiying
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Study of CuNiZnGdCe-Nanocomposite Anode for Low Temperature SOFC2012In: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters, ISSN 1941-4900, Vol. 4, no 4, 389-393 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite electrodes of Cu0.16Ni0.27Zn0.37Ce0.16Gd0.04 (CNZGC) oxides have been successfully synthesized by solid state reaction method as anode material for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC). These electrodes are characterized by XRD followed by sintering at various time periods and temperatures. Particle size of optimized composition was calculated 40-85 nm and sintered at 800 degrees C for 4 hours. Electrical conductivity of 4.14 S/cm was obtained at a temperature of 550 degrees C by the 4-prob DC method. The activation energy was calculated 4 x 10(-2) eV at 550 degrees C. Hydrogen was used as fuel and air as oxidant at anode and cathode sides respectively. I-V/I-P curves were obtained in the temperature range of 400-550 degrees C. The maximum power density was achieved for 570 mW/cm(2) at 550 degrees C.

  • 2.
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Ahmad, M. Ashfaq
    Khan, M. Ajmal
    Hussain, M. Jafar
    Ahmad, Mukhtar
    Aziz, Hammad
    Ahmad, Imran
    Batool, Rida
    Altaf, Faizah
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Electrochemical investigation of mixed metal oxide nanocomposite electrode for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell2017In: International Journal of Modern Physics B, ISSN 0217-9792, Vol. 31, no 27, 1750193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc-based nanostructured nickel (Ni) free metal oxide electrode material Zn-0.60/CU0.20Mn0.20 oxide (CMZO) was synthesized by solid state reaction and investigated for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC) applications. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the synthesized electrode material were examined by XRD and SEM techniques respectively. The particle size of ZnO phase estimated by Scherer's equation was 31.50 nm. The maximum electrical conductivity was found to be 12.567 S/cm and 5.846 S/cm in hydrogen and air atmosphere, respectively at 600 degrees C. The activation energy of the CMZO material was also calculated from the DC conductivity data using Arrhenius plots and it was found to be 0.060 and 0.075 eV in hydrogen and air atmosphere, respectively. The CMZO electrode-based fuel cell was tested using carbonated samarium doped ceria composite (NSDC) electrolyte. The three layers 13 mm in diameter and 1 mm thickness of the symmetric fuel cell were fabricated by dry pressing. The maximum power density of 728.86 mW/cm(2) was measured at 550 degrees C.

  • 3.
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Ashfaq, M.
    Chaudhry, M. Ashraf
    Khan, Ajmal
    Ahmad, Imran
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Electrochemical study of nanostructured electrode for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC)2014In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 38, no 4, 518-523 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zn-based nanostructured Ba0.05Cu0.25Fe0.10Zn0.60O (BCFZ) oxide electrode material was synthesized by solid-state reaction for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell. The cell was fabricated by sandwiching NK-CDC electrolyte between BCFZ electrodes by dry press technique, and its performance was assessed. The maximum power density of 741.87 mW-cm(-2) was achieved at 550 degrees C. The crystal structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and SEM. The particle size was calculated to be 25 nm applying Scherer's formula from XRD data. Electronic conductivities were measured with the four-probe DC method under hydrogen and air atmosphere. AC Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of the BCFZ oxide electrode was also measured in hydrogen atmosphere at 450 degrees C.

  • 4. Abbas, Ghazanfar
    et al.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan .
    Chaudhry, M. A.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite calcium doped ceria electrolyte with alkali carbonates (NK-CDC) for SOFC2010In: ASME 2010 8th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, FUELCELL 2010, ASME Press, 2010, 427-432 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The entire world's challenge is to find out the renewable energy sources due to rapid depletion of fossil fuels because of their high consumption. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are believed to be the best alternative source which converts chemical energy into electricity without combustion. Nanostructured study is required to develop highly ionic conductive electrolyte for SOFCs. In this work, the calcium doped ceria (Ce0.8Ca0.2O 1.9) coated with 20% molar ratio of two alkali carbonates (CDC-M: MCO3, where M= Na and K) electrolyte was prepared by co-precipitation method in this study. Ni based electrode was used to fabricate the cell by dry pressing technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology was characterized by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The particle size was calculated in the range of 10-20nm by Scherrer's formula and compared with SEM and TEM results. The ionic conductivity was measured by using AC Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) method. The activation energy was also evaluated. The performance of the cell was measured 0.567W/cm2 at temperature 550°C with hydrogen as a fuel.

  • 5.
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Chaudhry, M. Ashraf
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Preparation and Characterization of Nanocomposite Calcium Doped Ceria Electrolyte With Alkali Carbonates (NK-CDC) for SOFC2011In: Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, ISSN 1550-624X, Vol. 8, no 4, 041013- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The entire world's challenge is to find out the renewable energy sources due to rapid depletion of fossil fuels because of their high consumption. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are believed to be the best alternative source, which converts chemical energy into electricity without combustion. Nanostructure study is required to develop highly ionic conductive electrolytes for SOFCs. In this work, the calcium doped ceria (Ce0.8Ca0.2O1.9) coated with 20% molar ratio of two alkali carbonates (CDC-M: MCO3, where M = Na and K) electrolyte was prepared by coprecipitation method. Ni based electrode was used to fabricate the cell by dry pressing technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by an X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size was calculated in the range 10-20 nm by Scherer's formula and compared with SEM and TEM results. The ionic conductivity was measured by using ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method. The activation energy was also evaluated. The performance of the cell was measured 0.567 W/cm(2) at temperature 550 degrees C with hydrogen as a fuel.

  • 6.
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Khan, M. Ajmal
    Ahmad, Imran
    Chaudhry, M. Ashraf
    Sherazi, Tauqir A.
    Mohsin, Munazza
    Ahmad, Mukhtar
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Synthesize and characterization of nanocomposite anodes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell2015In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 40, no 1, 891-897 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid oxide fuel cells have much capability to become an economical alternative energy conversion technology having appropriate materials that can be operated at comparatively low temperature in the range of 400-600 degrees C. The nano-scale engineering has been incorporated to improve the catalytic activity of anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells. Nanostructured Al0.10NixZn0.90-xO oxides were prepared by solid state reaction, which were then mixed with the prepared Gadolinium doped Ceria GDC electrolyte. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by XRD and SEM. The particle size was evaluated by XRD data and found in the range of 20-50 nm, which was then ensured by SEM pictures. The pellets of 13 mm diameter were pressed by dry press technique and electrical conductivities (DC and AC) were determined by four probe techniques and the values have been found to be 10.84 and 4.88 S/cm, respectively at hydrogen atmosphere in the temperature range of 300-600 degrees C. The Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis exhibits the pure electronic behavior at hydrogen atmosphere. The maximum power density of ANZ-GDC composite anode based solid oxide fuel cell has been achieved 705 mW/cm(2) at 550 degrees C.

  • 7. Ahmad, Muhammad Ashfaq
    et al.
    Akram, Nadeem
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Structural and electrical characterisation of nanostructure electrodes for SOFCs2014In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 39, no 30, 17487-17491 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the effects of sintering temperature on structure, particle size and conductivity of electrodes (Sn0.2Zn0.8Fe0.2O & Sn0.8Zn0.2Fe0.2O). The electrode material was prepared by the chemical method combining a solid state reaction. Structural analyses were performed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The particle size of the material obtained using Scherrer's formula was 50-60 nm and the nanostructure's surface was studied using electrochemical characterisations tools. Electrical conductivity was determined using the 4-probe DC method, which was compared with the 4-probe AC method. These results suggest a promising substitute for the conventional electrodes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). It is known that a sintering temperature above 1000 degrees C causes an increase in density and a reduction of porosity. Therefore, we optimised the sintering temperature at 1000 degrees C and obtained electrical conductivity of about 5 S Thus, this electrode could play a vital role in the development of high performance SOFCs at intermediate temperatures.

  • 8. Ahmed, A.
    et al.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Khalid, M. S.
    Saleem, M.
    Alvi, F.
    Javed, M. S.
    Sherazi, T. A.
    Akhtar, M. N.
    Akram, N.
    Ahmad, M. A.
    Rafique, A.
    Iqbal, J.
    Ali, A.
    Ullah, M. K.
    Imran, S. K.
    Shakir, I.
    Khan, M. A.
    Zhu, B.
    Highly efficient composite electrolyte for natural gas fed fuel cell2016In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 41, no 16, 6972-6979 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have the ability to operate with different variants of hydro carbon fuel such as biogas, natural gas, methane, ethane, syngas, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen and any other hydrogen rich gas. Utilization of these fuels in SOFC, especially the natural gas, would significantly reduce operating cost and would enhance the viability for commercialization of FC technology. In this paper, the performance of two indigenously manufactured nanocomposite electrolytes; barium and samarium doped ceria (BSDC-carbonate); and lanthanum and samarium doped ceria (co-precipitation method LSDC-carbonate) using natural gas as fuel is discussed. The nanocomposite electrolytes were synthesized using co-precipitation and wet chemical methods (here after referred to as nano electrolytes). The structure and morphology of the nano electrolytes were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fuel cell performance (OCV) was tested at temperature (300-600 °C). The ionic conductivity of the nano electrolytes were measured by two probe DC method. The detailed composition analysis of nano electrolytes was performed with the help of Raman Spectroscopy. Electrochemical study has shown an ionic conductivity of 0.16 Scm-1 at 600 °C for BSDC-carbonate in hydrogen atmosphere, which is higher than conventional electrolytes SDC and GDC under same conditions. In this article reasonably good ionic conductivity of BSDC-carbonate, at 600 °C, has also been achieved in air atmosphere which is comparatively greater than the conventional SDC and GDC electrolytes.

  • 9.
    Ajmal Khan, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Bohn Lima, Raquel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Chaudhry, M. Asharf
    Ahmed, E.
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    Comparative study of the nano-composite electrolytes based on samaria-doped ceria for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs)2013In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 38, no 36, 16524-16531 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ceria-based electrolyte materials have great potential in low and intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell applications. In the present study, three types of ceria-based nanocomposite electrolytes (LNK-SDC, LN-SDC and NK-SDC) were synthesized. One-step co-precipitation method was adopted and different techniques were applied to characterize the obtained ceria-based nano-composite electrolyte materials. TGA, XRD and SEM were used to analyze the thermal effect, crystal structure and morphology of the materials. Cubic fluorite structures have been observed in all composite electrolytes. Furthermore, the crystallite sizes of the LN-SDC, NK-SDC, LNK-SDC were calculated by Scherrer formula and found to be in the range 20 nm, 21 nm and 19 nm, respectively. These values emphasize a good agreement with the SEM results. The ionic conductivities were measured using EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) with two-probe method and the activation energies were also calculated using Arrhenius plot. The maximum power density was achieved 484 mW/cm(2) of LNK-SDC electrolyte at 570 degrees C using the LiCuZnNi oxide electrodes.

  • 10.
    Bohn Lima, Raquel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Li, Jiebing
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Ceria-carbonates nanocomposite electrolyte for lignin based fuel cell2012In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 243Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, C.
    Chen, M.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Low temperature ceramic fuel cells using all nano-composite materials2011In: EFC 2011 - Proceedings of the 4th European Fuel Cell Piero Lunghi Conference and Exhibition, 2011, 175-176 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano-structural components have attracted increasing attention in intermediate/low temperature ceramic fuel cell. We reported here a ceramic fuel cell with a configuration of (Ni/Fe)-NSDC/NSDC/LiNiZnO-NSDC by all nano-composite materials and operated at low temperature range of 500-600°C. The prepared nanocomposite materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances were studied by current -Voltage, power density characteristics and Ac impedance spectroscopy. The short term stability of fuel cell was also investigated in 100 min. The high fuel cell performance and reasonable stability demonstrated that the all nanocomposite fuel cell concept is feasible and may have great potential in future study.

  • 12.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, Chengyang
    Osamudiamen, Ose
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Singh, Manish
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Mixed ion and electron conductive composites for single component fuel cells: I. Effects of composition and pellet thickness2012In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 217, 164-169 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical performances of single component fuel cells (SCFCs) based on mixed ion and electron conductors have been studied as a function of composition and pellet thickness by polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electronic conductor of LNCZO shows conductivities of 21.7 and 5.3 S cm(-1) in H-2 and in air, respectively. SCFC using 40 wt. % of LNCZO and 60 wt. % of ion conductive SDC-Na2CO3 with a thickness of 1.10 mm shows the highest power density of 0.35 W cm(-2) at 550 degrees C. The performance is correlated to the mixed conduction properties (ionic and electronic, p and n-type) and the microstructure of the functional SCFC layer.

  • 13.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, Chengyang
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Qin, Haiying
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Low temperature Solid Oxide fuel cells using all nanocomposite materials2011In: Proceedings: 4th European Fuel Cell - Piero Lunghi Conference, Italy: ENEA , 2011, 175-176 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Chen, Mingming
    Chemical engineering and technology.
    Wang, Chengyang
    Chemical engineering and technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Qin, Haiying
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, Xuetao
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    High performance transition metal oxide composite cathode for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells2012In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 203, no 1, 65-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with metal oxide composite cathode on the ceria–carbonate composite electrolyte have shown promising performance. However, the role of individual elements or compound is seldom investigated. We report here the effect of the ZnO on the physico-chemical and electrochemical properties of lithiated NiO cathode. The materials and single cells are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, DC polarization electrical conductivity, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and fuel cell performance. The ZnO modified lithiated NiO composite materials exhibit smaller particle size and lower electrical conductivity than lithiated NiO. However, improved electro-catalytic oxygen reduction activity and power output are achieved after the ZnO modification. A maximum power density of 808 mW cm−2 and the corresponding interfacial polarization resistance of 0.22 Ω cm2 are obtained at 550 °C using ZnO modified cathode and 300 μm thick composite electrolyte. The single cell keeps reasonable stability over 300 min at 500 °C. Thus, ZnO modified lithiated NiO is a promising cathode candidate for low temperature SOFCs.

  • 15. Gao, Zhan
    et al.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Development of Direct Methanol Low Temperature Fuel Cells from a Polygeneration, Perspective2011In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 35, 690-696 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Gao, Zhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mao, Zongqiang
    Development of methanol-fueled low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells2011In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 35, no 8, 690-696 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, 300-600 degrees C) technology fueled by methanol possessing significant importance and application in polygenerations has been developed. Thermodynamic analysis of methanol gas-phase compositions and carbon formation indicates that direct operation on methanol between 450 and 600 degrees C may result in significant carbon deposition. A water steam/methanol ratio of 1/1 can completely suppress carbon formation in the same time enrich H(2) production composition. Fuel cells were fabricated using ceria-carbonate composite electrolytes and examined at 450-600 degrees C. The maximum power density of 603 and 431 mW cm(-2) was achieved at 600 and 500 degrees C, respectively, using water steam/methanol with the ratio of 1/1 and ambient air as fuel and oxidant. These results provide great potential for development of the direct methanol low-temperature SOFC for polygenerations.

  • 17.
    Gao, Zhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Mao, Zongqiang
    Electrochemical Characterization on SDC/Na2CO3 Nanocomposite Electrolyte for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells2011In: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 11, no 6, 5413-5417 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our previous work has demonstrated that novel core-shell SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolyte possesses great potential for the development of low temperature (300-600 degrees C) solid oxide fuel cells. This work further characterizes the nanocomposite SDC/Na2CO3 electrochemical properties and conduction mechanism. The microstructure of the nanocomposite sintered at different temperatures was analyzed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrical and electrochemical properties were studied. Significant conductivity enhancement was observed in the H-2 atmosphere compared with that of air atmosphere. The ratiocination of proton conduction rather than electronic conduction has been proposed consequently based on the observation of fuel cell performance. The fuel cell performance with peak power density of 375 mW cm(-2) at 550 degrees C has been achieved. A.C. impedance for the fuel cell under open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions illustrates the electrode polarization process is predominant in rate determination.

  • 18. Gao, Zhan
    et al.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mao, Zongqiang
    Wang, Cheng
    Liu, Zhixiang
    Preparation and characterization of Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9/Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolyte for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells2011In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 36, no 6, 3984-3988 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (SDC)/Na2CO3 nanocomposite synthesized by the co-precipitation process has been investigated for the potential electrolyte application in low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The conduction mechanism of the SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite has been studied. The performance of 20 mW cm(-2) at 490 degrees C for fuel cell using Na2CO3 as electrolyte has been obtained and the proton conduction mechanism has been proposed. This communication demonstrates the feasibility of direct utilization of methanol in low-temperature SOFCs with the SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolyte. A fairly high peak power density of 512 mW cm(-2) at 550 degrees C for fuel cell fueled by methanol has been achieved. Thermodynamical equilibrium composition for the mixture of steam/methanol has been calculated, and no presence of C is predicted over the entire temperature range. The long-term stability test of open circuit voltage (OCV) indicates the SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolyte can keep stable and no visual carbon deposition has been observed over the anode surface. Copyright (C) 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.

  • 19.
    Imran, Syed Khalid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Characterization and Development of Bio-Ethanol Solid Oxide Fuel Cell2011In: Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, ISSN 1550-624X, E-ISSN 1551-6989, Vol. 8, no 6, 061014- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-ethanol based fuel cell is an energy source with a promising future. The low temperature solid oxide fuel cell fed by direct bio-ethanol is receiving considerable attention as a clean and highly efficient for the production of both electricity and high grade waste heat. The comparison of fuel cell performance with different metal-oxide based electrodes was investigated. The power densities of 584 mW cm(-2) and 514 mW cm(-2) at 520 degrees C and 570 degrees C respectively were found. The effect of electrode catalyst function, ethanol concentration on the electrical performance was investigated at different temperature ranged in between 300 degrees C-600 degrees C. The effect of deposited carbon on the electrode was investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope after testing the cell with bio-ethanol.

  • 20. Javed, Muhammad Sufyan
    et al.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Hassan, Irtaza
    Saeed, Rehan
    Shaheen, Nusrat
    Iqbal, Javed
    Shaukat, Saleem F.
    The energy crisis in Pakistan: A possible solution via biomass-based waste2016In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1941-7012, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 8, no 4, 043102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing countries like Pakistan need a continuous supply of clean and cheap energy. It is a very common fear in today's world that the fossil fuels will be depleted soon and the cost of energy is increasing day-by-day. Renewable energy sources and technologies have the potential to provide solutions to long-standing energy problems faced by developing countries. Currently, Pakistan is experiencing a critical energy crisis and renewable energy resources can be the best alternatives for quickly terminating the need for fossil fuels. The renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and biomass energy combined with fuel cell technology can be used to overcome the energy shortage in Pakistan. Biomass is a promising renewable energy source and is gaining more interest because it produces a similar type of fuel like crude oil and natural gas. Energy from biomass only depends upon the availability of raw materials; therefore, biomass can play an important role to fulfill the energy requirements of the modern age. The use of energy has increased greatly since the last century and almost all human activities have become more dependent on energy. Biomass, being a potential and indigenous candidate, could be a good solution to meet the energy needs of Pakistan. In this review paper, the detailed current energy requirements and solutions from available energy resources and the scope, potential, and implementation of biomass conversion to energy in Pakistan are explored with a special focus on the major province of Punjab and the advantages of biomass for energy purposes.

  • 21.
    Lima, Raquel B.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Li, Jiebing
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Qin, Haiying
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fan, Liangdong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Direct lignin fuel cell for power generation2011In: 16th International Symposium on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry: Proceedings, ISWFPC, 2011, 257-262 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, the second most abundant component after cellulose in biomass, has been examined in this study as a fuel for a direct conversion into electricity using direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC). Two different types of industrial lignins were investigated: lignosulphonate (LS) and kraft lignin (KL), either directly in their commercial forms, after their blending with commercial active carbon (AC) or after alternation of their structures by a pH adjustment to pH 10. It has been found that the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the DCFC could reach around 0.7 V in most of the trials. Addition of active carbon increased the maximum current density from 43∼57 to 85∼101 mA/cm 2. The pH adjustment not only increased the maximum current density but also reduced the differences between the two types of lignins, resulting in an OCV of 0.680-0.699 V and a maximum current density of 74∼79 mA/cm 2 from both lignins. Typical power density was 12 (for KL +AC) and 24 mW cm -2 (for LS +AC). It has been concluded that a direct lignin fuel cell is feasible and the lignin hydrophilicity is critical for the cell performance.

  • 22.
    Lima, Raquel Bohn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Qin, Haiying
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Li, Jiebing
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Direct lignin fuel cell for power generation2013In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 3, no 15, 5083-5089 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, the second most abundant component after cellulose in biomass, has been examined in this study as a fuel for direct conversion into electricity using direct carbon fuel cells (DCFC). Two different types of industrial lignins were investigated: Lignosulfonate (LS) and Kraft lignin (KL), in their commercial forms, after their blending with commercial active carbon (AC) or after alteration of their structures by a pH adjustment to pH 10. It was found that the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the DCFC could reach around 0.7 V in most of the trials. Addition of active carbon increased the maximum current density from 43-57 to 83-101 mA cm(-2). The pH adjustment not only increased the maximum current density but also reduced the differences between the two types of lignins, resulting in an OCV of 0.68-0.69 V and a maximum current density of 74-79 mA cm(-2) from both lignins. Typical power density was 12 (for KL + AC) and 24 mW cm(-2) (for LS + AC). It is concluded that a direct lignin fuel cell is feasible and the lignin hydrophilicity is critical for the cell performance.

  • 23.
    Liu, Qinghua
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Qin, Haiying
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fan, Liangdong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Li, Yongdan
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Advanced electrolyte-free fuel cells based on functional nanocomposites of a single porous component: analysis, modeling and validation2012In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 2, no 21, 8036-8040 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a fuel cell device constructed with only one layer composited of ceria-based nanocomposites (typically, lithium nickel oxide and gadolinium doped ceria (LiNiO2-GDC) composite materials), called an electrolyte-free fuel cell (EFFC), was realized for energy conversion by Zhu et al. The maxium power density of this single-component fuel cell is 450 mW cm(-2) at 550 degrees C when using hydrogen fuel. In this study, a model was developed to evaluate the performance of an EFFC. The kinetics of anodic and cathodic reactions were modeled based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The results show that both of the anodic and cathodic reactions are kinetically fast processes at 500 degrees C. Safety issues of an EFFC using oxidant and fuels at the same time without a gas-tight separator were analyzed under open circuit and normal operation states, respectively. The reaction depth of anodic and cathodic processes dominated the competition between surface electrochemical and gas-phase reactions which were effected by the catalytic activity and porosity of the materials. The voltage and power output of an EFFC were calculated based on the model and compared with the experimental results.

  • 24.
    Ma, Ying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Thermal stability study of SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolyte for low temperatur SOFCs2010In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 35, no 7, 2580-2585 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The novel core-shell nanostructured SDC/Na2CO3 composite has been demonstrated as a promising electrolyte material for low-temperature SOFCs. However, as a nanostructured material, stability might be doubted under elevated temperature due to their high surface energy. So in order to study the thermal stability of SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite, XRD, BET, SEM and TGA characterizations were carried on after annealing samples at various temperatures. Crystallite sizes, BET surface areas, and SEM results indicated that the SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite possesses better thermal stability on nanostructure than pure SDC till 700 °C. TGA analysis verified that Na2CO3 phase exists steadily in the SDC/Na2CO3 composite. The performance and durability of SOFCs based on SDC/Na2CO3 electrolyte were also investigated. The cell delivered a maximum power density of 0.78 W cm-2 at 550 °C and a steady output of about 0.62 W cm-2 over 12 h operation. The high performances together with notable thermal stability make the SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite as a potential electrolyte material for long-term SOFCs that operate at 500-600 °C.

  • 25.
    Mizuhata, Minoru
    et al.
    Kobe University.
    Takeda, Kaori
    Kobe University.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Interfacial Phenomena of Ceria-Molten Carbonate Composite Electrolytes Studied by Raman Spectroscopy2011In: Proceedings: 4th European Fuel Cell - Piero Lunghi Conference, December 14-16, 2011, Rome, Italy, Italy: ENEA , 2011, 367-368 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Qin, Haiying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Singh, M.
    Fan, Liangdong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Lund, P.
    Integration design of membrane electrode assemblies in low temperature solid oxide fuel cell2012In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 37, no 24, 19365-19370 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an integration design of membrane electrode assemblies in low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs) is accomplished by using a mixed ionic-electronic conductor. The mixed ionic-electronic conductor is a composite material, LiNiCuZn oxides, Gd2O3 and Sm-doped CeO2 composited with Na2CO3 (LiNiCuZn oxides-NGSDC), which consists of ionic conductor, n-type and p-type semiconductors. The multi-phase composite material can also be used in single layer fuel cell (SLFC) to replace single-phase materials. A SLFC using the LiNiCuZn oxides-NSGDC composite exhibits an OCV of 1.05 V and maximum power density of 800 mW cm-2, which is comparable to the cell performance of conventional LTSOFCs and much higher than that of SLFC reported before. The reasons leading to the good performance are porous structure of electrode and the matching of ionic conductor and semiconductor.

  • 27.
    Qin, Haiying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Zhigang
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Liu, Qinghua
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Jing, Yifu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Imran, Syed Khalid
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Singh, Manish
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Direct biofuel low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells2011In: ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, ISSN 1754-5692, Vol. 4, no 4, 1273-1276 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell system was developed to use bioethanol and glycerol as fuels directly. This system achieved a maximum power density of 215 mW cm(-2) by using glycerol at 580 degrees C and produced a great impact on sustainable energy and the environment.

  • 28. Rafique, Asia
    et al.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. COMSATS Inst Informat Technol.
    Akram, Nadeem
    Ullah, M. Kaleem
    Ali, Amjad
    Irshad, Muneeb
    Siraj, Khurram
    Khan, M. Ajmal
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Hubei Univ.
    Dawson, Richard
    Significance enhancement in the conductivity of core shell nanocomposite electrolytes2015In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, no 105, 86322-86329 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there is great demand of electrolytes with high ionic conductivities at low operating temperatures for solid-oxide fuel cells. Therefore, a co-doped technique was used to synthesize a highly ionically conductive two phase nanocomposite electrolyte Sr/Sm-ceria-carbonate by a co-precipitation method. A significant increase in conductivity was measured in this co-doped Sr/Sm-ceria-carbonate electrolyte at 550 degrees C as compared to the more commonly studied samarium doped ceria. The fuel cell power density was 900 mW cm(-2) at low temperature (400-580 degrees C). The composite electrolyte was found to have homogenous morphology with a core-shell structure using SEM and TEM. The two phase core-shell structure was confirmed using XRD analysis. The crystallite size was found to be 30-60 nm and is in good agreement with the SEM analysis. The thermal analysis was determined with DSC. The enhancement in conductivity is due to two effects; co-doping of Sr in samarium doped ceria and it's composite with carbonate which is responsible for the core-shell structure. This co-doped approach with the second phase gives promise in addressing the challenge to lower the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).

  • 29.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Electrolyte free fuel cell: A new energy conversion device2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Functional nanocomposites for advanced fuel cell technology and polygeneration2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the use of fossil fuels has increased exponentially with a corresponding sharp increase in the pollution of the environment. The need for clean and sustainable technologies for the generation of power with reduced or zero environment impact has become critical. A number of attempts have been made to address this problem; one of the most promising attempts is polygeneration. Polygeneration technology is highly efficient and produces lower emissions than conventional methods of power generation because of the simultaneous generation of useable heat and electrical power from a single source of fuel. The overall efficiency of such systems can be as high as 90%, compared to 30-35% for conventional single-product power plants.

    A number of different technologies are available for polygeneration, such as micro gas turbines, sterling engines, solar systems, and fuel cells. Of these, fuel cell systems offer the most promising technology for polygeneration because of their ability to produce electricity and heat at a high efficiency (about 80%) with either low or zero emissions. Various fuel-cell technologies can be used in polygeneration systems. Of these, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the most suitable because they offer high system efficiency for the production of electricity and heat (about 90%) coupled with low or zero emissions. Compared to other types of fuel cells, SOFCs have fuel flexibility (direct operation on hydrocarbon fuels, such as biogas, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, etc.) and produce high-quality heat energy. The development of polygeneration systems using SOFCs has generally followed one of two approaches. The first approach involves the design of a SOFC system that operates at a temperature of 850 oC and uses natural gas as a fuel. The second approach uses low-temperature (generally 400-600 oC) SOFC (LTSOFC) systems with biomass, e.g., syngas or liquid fuels, such as bio-methanol and bio-ethanol. The latter systems have strong potential for use in polygeneration.

    High-temperature SOFCs have obvious disadvantages, and challenges remain for lowering the cost to meet commercial interest. The SOFC systems need lower operating temperatures to reduce their overall costs.

    This thesis focuses on the development of nanocomposites for advanced fuel-cell technology (NANOCOFC), i.e., the next generation SOFCs, which are low-temperature (400-600 oC), marketable, and affordable SOFCs. In addition, new concepts that pertain to fuel-cell science and technology—NANOCOFC (www.nanocofc.com)—are explored and developed. The content of this thesis is divided into five parts:

    In the first part of this thesis (Papers 1-5), the two-phase nanocomposite electrolytes, viz. ceria-salt and ceria-oxide, were prepared and studied using different electrochemical techniques. The microstructure and morphology of the composite electrolytes were characterised using XRD, SEM and TEM, and the thermal analysis was conducted using DSC. An ionic conductivity of 0.1 S/cm was obtained at 300 ºC, which is comparable to that of conventional YSZ operating at 1000 ºC. The maximum output power density was 1000 mW/cm2 at 550 oC. A co-doped ceria-carbonate was also developed to improve the ionic conductivity, morphology, and performance of the electrolyte.

    In the second part of this thesis (Papers 7-9), composite electrodes that contained less or no nickel (Ni) were developed for a low-temperature SOFC. All of the elements were highly homogenously distributed in the composite electrode, which resulted in high catalytic activity and good ASOFC performance. The substitution of Ni by Zn in these electrodes could reduce their cost by a factor of approximately 25.

    In the third part of this thesis (Papers 10), an advanced multi-fuelled solid-oxide fuel cell (ASOFC) with functional nanocomposites (electrolytes and electrodes) was developed. Several different types of fuel, such as gaseous (hydrogen and biogas) and liquid fuels (bio-ethanol and bio-methanol), were tested. Maximum power densities of 1000, 300, 600, and 550 mW/cm2 were achieved with hydrogen, bio-gas, bio-methanol, and bio-ethanol, respectively, in the ASOFC. Electrical and total efficiencies of 54% and 80%, respectively, were achieved when the single cell was used with hydrogen.

    The fourth part of this thesis (Papers 11) concerns the design of a 5 kW ASOFC system based on the demonstrated advanced SOFC technology. A polygeneration system based on a low-temperature planar SOFC was then designed and simulated. The efficiency of the overall system was approximately 80%.

    The fifth part of this thesis (Paper 12) describes a single-layer multi-fuelled electrolyte-free fuel cell that is a revolutionary innovation in renewable-energy sources. Conventional fuel cells generate electricity by ion transport through the electrolyte. However, this new device works without an electrolyte, and all of the processes occur at particle surfaces in the material. Based on a theoretical calculation, an additional 18% enhancement of the fuel cell’s efficiency will be achieved using this new technology compared to the conventional technologies.

    Our developed ASOFC systems with functional nanocomposites offer significant advantages in reducing the operational and capital costs for the production of power and heat by using different fuels based on the fuel-cell technology. ASOFC systems can be used for polygeneration with renewable fuels (i.e., biomass fuels) at high efficiency as a sustainable solution to energy generation in our society. The results have been achieved for this thesis work has demonstrated an advanced fuel cell technology.

  • 31.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Abbas, G.
    Liu, Qinghua
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Patel, I.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    La 0.3Sr 0.2Mn 0.1Zn 0.4 oxide-Sm 0.2Ce 0.8O 1.9 (LSMZ-SDC) nanocomposite cathode for low temperature SOFCs2012In: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 12, no 6, 4994-4997 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposite based cathode materials compatible for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs) are being developed. In pursuit of compatible cathode, this research aims to synthesis and investigation nanocomposite La 0.3Sr 0.2Mn 0.1Zn 0.4 oxide-Sm 0.2Ce 0.8O1.9 (LSMZ-SDC) based system. The material was synthesized through wet chemical method and investigated for oxideceria composite based electrolyte LTSOFCs. Electrical property was studied by AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The microstructure, thermal properties, and elemental analysis of the samples were characterized by TGA/DSC, XRD, SEM, respectively. The AC conductivity of cathode was obtained for 2.4 Scm ?1 at 550 °C in air. This cathode is compatible with ceria-based composite electrolytes and has improved the stability of the material in SOFC cathode environment.

  • 32.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    Imran, Syed Khalid
    Patel, Imran
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    GDC-Y2O3 Oxide Based Two Phase Nanocomposite Electrolyte2011In: JOURNAL OF FUEL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 1550-624X, Vol. 8, no 4, 041012- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxide based two phase composite electrolyte (Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-Y2O3) was synthesized by coprecipitation method. The nanocomposite electrolyte showed the significant performance of power density 785 mW cm(-2) and higher conductivities at relatively low temperature 550 degrees C. Ionic conductivities were measured with ac impedance spectroscopy and four-probe dc method. The structural and morphological properties of the prepared electrolyte were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The thermal stability was determined with differential scanning calorimetry. The particle size that was calculated with Scherrer formula, 15-20 nm, is in a good agreement with the SEM and X-ray diffraction results. The purpose of this study is to introduce the functional nanocomposite materials for advanced fuel cell technology to meet the challenges of solid oxide fuel cell.

  • 33.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Electrochemical study of the composite electrolyte based on samaria-doped ceria and containing yttria as a second phase2011In: Solid State Ionics, ISSN 0167-2738, E-ISSN 1872-7689, Vol. 188, no 1, 58-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to develop new oxide ionic conductors based on nanocomposite materials for an advanced fuel cell (NANOCOFC) approach. The novel two phase nanocomposite oxide ionic conductors, Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-delta (SDC)-Y2O3 were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The structure and morphology of the prepared electrolyte were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). XRD results showed a two phase composite consisting of yttrium oxide and samaria doped ceria and SEM results exhibited a nanostructure form of the sample. The yttrium oxide was used on the SDC as a second phase. The interface between two constituent phases and the ionic conductivities were studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An electrochemical study showed high oxide ion mobility and conductivity of the Y2O3-SDC two phase nanocomposite electrolytes at a low temperature (300-600 degrees C). Maximum conductivity (about 1.0 S cm(-1)) was obtained for the optimized Y2O3-SDC composite electrolyte at 600 degrees C. It is found that the nanocomposite electrolytes show higher conductivities with the increased concentration of yttrium oxides but decreases after reaching a certain level. A high fuel cell performance, 0.75 W cm(-2), was achieved at 580 degrees C.

  • 34.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    GDC-Y2O3 Oxide Based Two Phase Nanocomposite Electrolytes2010In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FUEL CELL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND TECHNOLOGY 2010, VOL 1, NEW YORK: AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2010, 365-370 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An oxide based two phase nanocomposite electrolyte (Ce0.9Gd0.1O2) was synthesized by a co-precipitation method and coated with Yttrium oxide (Y2O3). The nanocomposite electrolyte showed the significant performance of power density 750mW/cm(2) and higher conductivities at relatively low temperature 550 degrees C. Ionic conductivities were measured with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and DC (4 probe method). The structural and morphological properties of the prepared electrolyte were investigated by means of High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM). The thermal stability was determined with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The particle size was calculated with Scherrer formula and compare with SEM results, 15-20 nm is in a good agreement with the SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. The purpose of the study to introduce the functional nanocomposite materials, for advanced fuel cell technology (NANOCOFC) to meet the challenges of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC).

  • 35.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Ahmad, A.
    Akram, N.
    Saleem, M.
    Niazakhtar, M.
    Sherazi, T. A.
    Ajmal Khan, M.
    Abbas, G.
    Shakir, I.
    Mohsin, M.
    Alvi, F.
    Javed, M. S.
    Yasir Rafique, M.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Hubei University, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organochemical Materials, Wuhan, China .
    Composite electrolyte with proton conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell2015In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 107, no 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, cost-effective nanocomposite electrolyte (Ba-SDC) oxide is developed for efficient low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). Analysis has shown that dual phase conduction of O-2 (oxygen ions) and H+ (protons) plays a significant role in the development of advanced LTSOFCs. Comparatively high proton ion conductivity (0.19 s/cm) for LTSOFCs was achieved at low temperature (460°C). In this article, the ionic conduction behaviour of LTSOFCs is explained by carrying out electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Further, the phase and structure analysis are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, we achieved an ionic transport number of the composite electrolyte for LTSOFCs as high as 0.95 and energy and power density of 90% and 550 mW/cm2, respectively, after sintering the composite electrolyte at 800°C for 4 h, which is promising. Our current effort toward the development of an efficient, green, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with the incorporation of high proton conductivity composite electrolyte may open frontiers in the fields of energy and fuel cell technology.

  • 36.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Ahmad, M. Ashfaq
    Iqbal, Javed
    Akram, N.
    Gao, Zhan
    Javed, Sufyan
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Ce-0.8(SmZr)(0.2)O-2-carbonate nanocomposite electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell2014In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 38, no 4, 524-529 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A nanocomposite Zr/Sm-codoped ceria electrolyte coated with K2CO3/Na2CO3 was synthesized by a coprecipitation method. The electrochemical study of the two-phase nanocomposite electrolytes with carbonate coated on the doped ceria shows high oxygen ion mobility at low temperatures (300-600 degrees C). The interface between the two constituent phases was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Ionic conductivities were also measured with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The morphology and structure of composite electrolyte were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The fuel cell power density is 700 mW cm(-2), and an open-circuit voltage of 1.00 V is achieved at low temperatures (400-550 degrees C). This codoped approach with a second phase provides a good indication regarding overcoming the challenges of solid oxide fuel cell technology.

  • 37.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Akram, N.
    Javed, M. S.
    Rafique, A.
    Ullah, K.
    Ali, A.
    Saleem, M.
    Ahmed, R.
    Fuel cell technology for sustainable development in Pakistan - An over-view2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 53, 450-461 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel cell technology holds the combination of benefits, which are barely offered by any other energy generating technology. Because the fuel used in this technology is found in abundance in nature and can also be renewed/sustained. Pakistan is blessed with renewable energy resources which are suitable for fuel cell technology. Therefore, fuel cell technology offers a great opportunity to meet the demand of energy and for the sustainable development of Pakistan. The energy research group at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Lahore has made efforts to study the technical aspects of fuel cell technology and its commercial benefits. The research group is interested in finding ways and means of generating and storing the energy produced by using fuel cells. In this paper, the research activities on fuel cell technology in Pakistan have been reviewed and it is also discussed how this technology can resolve the current energy crises in Pakistan and can be the source of sustainable energy. It has been also reviewed that the country would greatly benefit from fuel cells and fuel cell hybrid system (environmental friendly technology), which could be the best solution for electricity production as well for automobile industry.

  • 38.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zn0.6 Fe0.1Cu0.3/GDC Composite anode for Low Temperature SOFC (300-600) oC2010In: Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, ISSN 1550-624X, E-ISSN 1551-6989, Vol. 8, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Gao, Zhan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Singh, Tavpraneet
    Singh, Gajendra
    Li, Song
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    LiAlO2-LiNaCO3 Composite Electrolyte for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells2011In: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 11, no 6, 5402-5407 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a new approach to develop functional solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) electrolytes based on nanotechnology and two-phase nanocomposite approaches using non-oxygen ion or proton conductors, e.g., lithium aluminate-lithium sodium carbonate, with great freedom in material design and development. Benefited by nanotechnology and nanocomposite technology, the lithium aluminate-lithium sodium carbonate two-phase composite electrolytes can significantly enhance the material conductivity and fuel cell performance at low temperatures, such as 300 degrees C-600 degrees C compared to non-nano scale materials. The conductivity mechanism and fuel cell functions are discussed to be benefited by the interfacial behavior between the two constituent phases in nano-scale effects, where oxygen ion and proton conductivity can be created, although there are no intrinsic mobile oxygen ions and protons. It presents a new scientific approach to design and develop fuel cell materials in breaking the structural limitations by using non-ionic conductors on the desired ions i.e., proton and oxygen ions, and creating high proton and oxygen ion conductors through interfaces and interfacial mechanism.

  • 40.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Defence Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.
    Khan, Asifa
    Rafique, Asia
    Aunbreen, Ayesha
    Alzhtar, Kalsoom
    Ahmad, M. Ashfaq
    Akhtar, Sophia
    Hashmi, Khurrarn
    Ullah, Mehtab
    Ali, Rashid
    Nanocomposite BaZr0.7Sm0.1Y0.2O3-delta-La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3-delta materials for single layer fuel cell2017In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 42, no 34, 22280-22287 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single layer fuel cell (SLFC) is a novel breakthrough in energy conversion technology. This study is to realize the physical-electrochemical co-driving mechanism of a single component device composed of mixed ionic and semiconductor material. This paper is focused on investigating the mechanism and characterization of synthesized nanocomposite BaZr0.7Sm0.1Y0.2O3-delta (BZSY) La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3-delta (LSCF) in proportion 1:1 and 3:7 for SLFC. The crystallographic structure and morphology is studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nano-particles lie in the range of 100 210 nm. Ultraviolet (UV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to analyze the semiconducting nature of nanocomposite (BZSY LSCF). The performance of SLFC was carried out at different temperatures ranging between 400 and 650 degrees C. The mixed conductivity of the synthesized material was about 2.3 S cm(-1). The synergic effect of junction and energy band gap towards charge separation as well as the promotion of ion transport by junction built in field contributes to the working principle and high power output in the SLFC. (C) 2017 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Liu, Qinghua
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Nisar, Jawad
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    ZnO/NiO nanocomposite electrodes for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells2011In: Electrochemistry communications, ISSN 1388-2481, E-ISSN 1873-1902, Vol. 13, no 9, 917-920 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO/NiO nanocomposite electrodes have successfully been developed using a cost-effective method, and for the first time used in LT-SOFCs at 300-600 degrees C. They exhibit high conductivity and a dual catalytic functionality in both the cathode and the anode for the electrochemical reduction of O(2) and oxidation of H(2), respectively. An excellent fuel cell performance, e.g. a maximum power density of 1107 W cm(-2), has been shown for a symmetrical fuel cell that contained ZnO/NiO nanocomposite electrodes at 500 degrees C. To our knowledge, to date this is by far the highest power density achieved at this temperature.

  • 42.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Liu, Xiangrong
    Zhu, Bin
    Study on Nanocomposites Based on Carbonate@Ceria2010In: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 10, no 2, 1203-1207 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposites based on the ceria-carbonate composite have demonstrated as electrolytes in development of successful 300-600 oC fuel cell technology. In this paper, the nanocomposite electrolyte based on carbonate@SDC (SDC: samarium doped ceria) was directly synthesized from the co-precipitation method and characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, BET, etc. It was proved that the carbonate@SDC was a two-phase material with average particle size about 14.5 nm (S-BET) and crystalline size (D-XRD) ranged from 12 to 14 nm. When the carbonate@SDC electrolyte was used to fabricate single SOFC, the cell shows remarkable performance with maximum power density 1000-1180 mW/cm2 at low temperature (300-550 oC).

  • 43.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Qin, Haiying
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fan, Liangdong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Takeda, Kaori
    Mizuhata, Minoru
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Electrochemical study on co-doped ceria-carbonate composite electrolyte2012In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 201, 121-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A co-doped ceria-carbonate (Ce0.8Sm0.2-xCaxO2-delta-Na2CO3) has been synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The detailed electrochemical characterizations (e.g. impedance spectra, polarization curve and IV curves) of this composite material are reported and discussed. The two phase nanocomposite electrolytes with carbonate coated on the co-doped ceria displays dual (H+/O2-) ion conduction at low temperature (300-600 degrees C) in solid oxide fuel cell. The observed remarkable temperature-dependent of conductivity is attributed to the softening/melting of carbonate phase as the physical state of carbonate phase transforms from solid to molten state. Coexistence of various charge carriers, oxide phase composition, and the oxide-carbonate interfacial area are investigated by Raman spectra. The enhancement of conductivity is also discussed by the general mixing rule/percolation theory of composite interfaces. The co-doping with 2nd phase gives a good approach to realize challenges for solid oxide fuel cell.

  • 44.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Qin, Haiying
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Liu, Qinghua
    Samavati, Mahrokh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Lima, Raquel B.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Advanced Multi-Fuelled Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (ASOFCs) Using Functional Nanocomposites for Polygeneration2011In: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6840, Vol. 1, no 6, 1225-1233 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An advanced multifuelled solid oxide fuel cell (ASOFC) with a functional nanocomposite was developed and tested for use in a polygeneration system. Several different types of fuel, for example, gaseous (hydrogen and biogas) and liquid fuels (bio-ethanol and bio-methanol), were used in the experiments. Maximum power densities of 1000, 300, 600, 550 mW cm−2 were achieved using hydrogen, bio-gas, bio-methanol, and bio-ethanol, respectively, in the ASOFC. Electrical and total efficiencies of 54% and 80% were achieved using the single cell with hydrogen fuel. These results show that the use of a multi-fuelled system for polygeneration is a promising means of generating sustainable power.

  • 45.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Ullah, M. K.
    Afzal, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Rafique, A.
    Ali, A.
    Arshad, S.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Hubei University, China.
    Low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells with bioalcohol fuels2017In: Bioenergy Systems for the Future: Prospects for Biofuels and Biohydrogen, Elsevier, 2017, 521-539 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and environmental issues become key factors for sustainable development of society and national economy. Sustainable energy targeting opportunities for economic friendly growth of a country are commonly recognized. The growing interest is focused on the renewable energy resources because of the global energy demands increasing day by day. To meet the demands, an extensive research is aimed to develop sustainable energy devices such as solar cells, rechargeable batteries, and fuel cells. In recent years, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) among fuel-cell types has got more attention especially due to its fuel flexibility (e.g., different hydrocarbons, alcohols, and gasoline/diesel), high efficiency, and low emission. Thus, LTSOFC fed by direct bioethanol is receiving considerable attention as a clean, highly efficient for the production of both electricity and high-grade waste heat. These multifuel advantages provide the opportunities to develop an advanced SOFC system especially bioalcohol SOFC systems. This is a very dynamic area for SOFC applications with a promising future. It may create great energy savings and pollution reductions, if the bioalcohol fuel-based-technologies in these applications come into practical use.This chapter is focused on the development of LTSOFC operated by direct bioalcohol (bioethanol and biomethanol) for sustainable development. The content of this chapter is divided into three parts: (i) development of materials, (ii) characterization and analysis, (iii) demonstration of the nanocomposite materials in a bioalcohol FC, and (iv) case studies. Such bioalcohol FC research and development can enhance the use of sustainable/renewable energy for the society, and results achieved for applications have great potential to revolutionize the energy technology in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way.

  • 46.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Haung, Yizhong
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Enhancement of conductivity in ceria-carbonate nanocomposites for LTSOFCs2009In: Journal of nano research, ISSN 1662-5250, Vol. 6, 197-204 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work first explores high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the interfacial regions and provide experimental evidences for interfaces between the SDC and carbonate constituent phases of the SD-carbonate two-phase composites to further investigate the superionic conduction mechanism in the ceria-carbonate composite systems and enhancement of conductivity. Schober first reported interfacial superionic conduction in ceria-based composites but without direct experimental proofs. Such superionic conduction mechanism remains unknown. Especially, in the nano-scale, this region is trifle to be detected.

  • 47.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Liu, Xiangrong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Improved ceria-carbonate composite electrolytes2010In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 35, no 7, 2684-2688 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been successfully demonstrated that the fuel cells using the ceria-carbonate composite as electrolytes have achieved excellent performances of 200-1150 W/cm(2) at 300-600 degrees C. Previously it was reported these ceria-carbonate composite electrolytes have been prepared with two-step processes: step 1, prepare ion-doped ceria which was prepared usually through the wet-chemical co-precipitation process; step 2, mixing the doped ceria with carbonates in various compositions. We first report here to prepare the SDC-carbonate composites within one-step chemical co-precipitation process, i.e. mixing carbonates and preparing the SDC in the same process. The one-step process has provided a number of advantages: (i) to reduce the involved preparation processes to enhance the production, to make the produced materials in good quality control, more homogenous composites microstructure; (ii) as results, these composites showed also different microstructures and electrical properties. It has significantly improved the ceria-carbonate conductivities and cause the superionic conduction at much lower temperatures; (iii) to reduce manufacturing costs also.

  • 48.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    A nanostructure anode (Cu0.2Zn0.8) for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell at 400-600 oC2010In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 195, no 24, 8067-8070 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed a new nickel-free anode for a low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC) that demonstrated an outstanding electrochemical output of 1000 mW cm(-2) at 550 degrees C. The nanostructure anode had good conductivity and was compatible with cerium oxide-based electrolytes. The performance of a single cell was comparable and or better than those using standard Ni-YSZ and Ni-SDC electrodes (anode). It may have applications for hydrocarbon-based fuel for preventing carbon deposition and replacing nickel in the anode of LTSOFCs.

  • 49.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    Ma, Ying
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Study on calcium and samarium co-doped ceria based nanocomposite electrolytes2010In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 195, no 19, 6491-6495 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calcium co-doped SDC-based nanocomposite electrolyte (Ce0.8Sm0.2-xCaxO2-delta-Na2CO3) was synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The microstructure and morphology of the composite electrolytes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM), and thermal properties were determined with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The particle size, as shown by TEM imaging, was 5-20 nm, which is in a good agreement with the SEM and XRD results. The co-doping effect on both interfaces of the composite electrolyte and doped bulk effect inside the ceria was studied. The excellent performance of the fuel cell was about 1000 mW cm(-2) at 560 degrees C and at the very low temperature of 350 degrees C the power density was 200 mW cm(-2). This paper may give a new approach to develop functional nanocomposite electrolyte for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC). (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 50.
    Raza, Rizwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    A fuel flexible single functional layer2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
12 1 - 50 of 72
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