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  • 1.
    Egeskog, Andrea
    et al.
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Barretto, Alberto
    Brazilian Bio-ethanol Science and Technology Laboratory(CTBE).
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Holmén, Magnus
    echnology Management and Economics and connected to Center for Business Innovation.
    Sparovek, G.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Actions and opinions of Brazilian farmers who shift to sugarcane: an interview-based assessment with discussion of implications for land-use change2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 57, p. 594-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sugarcane ethanol systems can deliver large greenhouse gas emissions savings if emissions associated with land-use change are kept low. This qualitative study documents and analyzes actions and opinions among Brazilian farmers who shift to sugarcane production. Semi-structured interviews were held with 28 actors associated with sugarcane production in three different regions: one traditional sugarcane region and two regions where sugarcane is currently expanding. Most farmers considered sugarcane a land diversification option with relatively low economic risk, although higher risk than their previous land use. Beef production was considered a low-risk option, but less profitable than sugarcane. In conjunction with converting part of their land to sugarcane, most farmers maintained and further intensified their previous agricultural activity, often beef production. Several farmers invested in expanded production in other regions with relatively low land prices. Very few farmers in the expansion regions shifted all their land from the former, less profitable, use to sugarcane. Very few farmers in this study had deforested any land in connection with changes made when shifting to sugarcane. The respondents understand "environmental friendliness" as compliance with the relevant legislation, especially the Brazilian Forest Act, which is also a requirement for delivering sugarcane to the mills. Indirect land-use change is not a concern for the interviewed farmers, and conversion of forests and other native vegetation into sugarcane plantations is uncontroversial if legal. We derive hypotheses regarding farmers' actions and opinions from our results. These hypotheses aim to contribute to better understanding of what takes place in conjunction with expansion of sugarcane and can, when tested further, be of use in developing, e.g., policies for iLUC-free biofuel production.

  • 2.
    Englund, Oskar
    et al.
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ometto, Jean P.
    Valle, Pedro C. E. O.
    Costa, Ciniro
    Lapola, Jean
    A new high-resolution nationwide aboveground carbon map for Brazil2017In: Geo: Geography and Environment, ISSN 2352-3808, E-ISSN 1749-8198, Vol. 4, no 2, article id e00045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brazil is home to the largest tracts of tropical vegetation in the world, harbouring high levels of biodiversity and carbon. Several biomass maps have been produced for Brazil, using different approaches and methods, and for different purposes. These maps have been used to estimate historic, recent, and future carbon emissions from land use change (LUC). It can be difficult to determine which map to use for what purpose. The implications of using an unsuitable map can be significant, since the maps have large differences, both in terms of total carbon storage and its spatial distribution. This paper presents comparisons of Brazil's new ‘official’ carbon map; that is, the map used in the third national communication to the UNFCCC in 2016, with the former official map, and four carbon maps from the scientific literature. General strengths and weaknesses of the different maps are identified, including their suitability for different types of studies. No carbon map was found suitable for studies concerned with existing land use/cover (LULC) and LUC outside of existing forests, partly because they do not represent the current LULC sufficiently well, and partly because they generally overestimate carbon values for agricultural land. A new map of aboveground carbon is presented, which was created based on data from existing maps and an up-to-date LULC map. This new map reflects current LULC, has high accuracy and resolution (50 m), and a national coverage. It can be a useful alternative for scientific studies and policy initiatives concerned with existing LULC and LUC outside of existing forests, especially at local scales when high resolution is necessary, and/or outside the Amazon biome. We identify five ongoing climate policy initiatives in Brazil that can benefit from using this map.

  • 3.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Brazilian land use policies and the development of ecosystem services2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns related to global environmental changes due to land use changes have been driving international communities towards more sustainable land use systems. Brazil is a country of global strategic importance in this matter considering that it is the nation with the largest extension of preserved tropical native vegetation, recognised for its ecosystem services and high and unique biodiversity. Expansion of forestry and agriculture is taking place rapidly in Brazil, partly over degraded pastureland, but also over native vegetation. Regulating policies to govern and limit this expansion is crucial to ensure the preservation of the ecosystems services provided by native vegetation.  This thesis aims at improving the understanding of the potential impacts of prevailing public and private policies in the conservation of nature in Brazil. For this end, the Land Use Policy Assessment (LUPA) model was employed to evaluate potential pathways of implementation of the land use policies. Paper 1 evaluated the effects of current private and public command and control regulations in the protection of above-ground carbon stocks, identifying the most relevant stakeholders holding carbon stocks. The findings suggest that about 10% of carbon stocks are unprotected, where other policy instruments based on the market will be mostly required. Paper 2 performed an assessment of the mechanism for offsetting the legal deficit of native vegetation among landholders, evaluating the different offsetting implementation practices and their impacts on nature protection and socio-economic development. The results indicate that the offsetting mechanism may have little or no additional effects on protection of native vegetation and its ecosystem services because most of the offsetting is likely to take place where native vegetation is already protected by current legislations. However, it is viable to maximise environmental and socio-economic returns from the offsetting mechanism.

  • 4.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Brazilian public protection regulations and the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Brazil is significant for sustaining ecosystems services and biodiversity of global importance. However, the expansion of forestry and agriculture to supply national and international markets often results in loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Public protection regulations play a crucial role in setting limits for agricultural expansion. This thesis aims at improving the understanding of the potential impacts of prevailing policies in the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity associated with the native vegetation in Brazil. The Land Use Governance Assessment (LUGA) model was developed to simulate the implementation of existing public protection regulations, in particular, the Brazilian Forest Act.

    The results suggest that command and control regulations do not protect about 28 % of the above-ground carbon in Brazil. The regularisation process of undesignated land is expected to expand protection to an additional 18 % of the above-ground carbon stocks, leaving about 10 % of the carbon stocks unprotected. On the other hand, the preservation of viable populations of several threatened mammal species is highly dependent on an urgent expansion of protected areas in the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes. Furthermore, the results from this thesis indicate that offsetting legal deficit of native vegetation may have little or no additional effects on the protection of native vegetation. The potential loss of forest protection due to reduced legal reserve requirements in the Amazon could potentially range from 6.5 Mha to more than 15 Mha.

    There are critical gaps in the land use policies in Brazil that threaten the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity associated with native vegetation. Market-driven mechanisms can potentially contribute to filling this gap, protecting nature beyond the legal requirements. Yet, additional regulations may be necessary to improve the efficiency of the trading system of legal deficit of native vegetation among farmers, ensuring environmental and socio-economic functions of this system, and effectively balancing production with conservation.

  • 5.
    Freitas, Flavio L M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Antonelli, A
    Berndes, Göran
    Englund, Oskar
    Faurby, Sören
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Persson, Martin
    Pinto, L F G
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Strassburg, B B N
    Biodiversity values of Brazilian native vegetation – How much is protected by the Forest Act?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced land use change (LUC) is the most important driver of biodiversity loss. In Brazil, this process is particularly concerning considering that here are the most extensive tracts of tropical forest and other rare habitat types which host unique biodiversity. The preservation of much of this area is highly dependent on the implementation of the Forest Act, the central legal framework regulating the conservation of native vegetation on private land in Brazil. Recent studies provide a modelling framework for assessing the impacts of the Forest Act on the protection of native vegetation and associated carbon stocks for the entire Brazilian territory. However, there is not sufficient knowledge on the efficiency of this legislation in protecting areas of high and unique biodiversity in Brazil.

    This study aims to apply the existing land use governance assessment (LUGA) model to quantify the extent to which the Forest Act protects biodiversity. For this purpose, we construct indicators at fine-scale levels to capture the multiple dimensions of biodiversity (species richness, genetic, and functional diversity) and how these are related to the native vegetation. Using state-of-the-art databases of species distribution data, GIS-based modeling frameworks are developed and adapted to identify values of native vegetation related to the preservation of biodiversity in general, and endangered species in particular, and ecological connectivity. The results are evaluated for Brazilian regions where the LUC pressure is recognized to be most significant. The final model output consists of geoexplicit indicators at a high resolution, which informs about the degree of biodiversity protection provided by the Forest Act. The information provided by this project can support decision-making related to the selection of areas of high importance for biodiversity protection at local and regional levels. Further, it can potentially contribute to efficient use of resources and improved effectiveness of incentive mechanisms in promoting conservation of unprotected native vegetation of high biodiversity value.

  • 6.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Guidotti, Vinicius
    d Institute of Agricultural and Forest Management and Certification – Imaflora.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Who owns the Brazilian carbon?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Freitas, Flavio L M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Englund, Oskar
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Berndes, Göran
    Guidotti, Vinicius
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Who owns the Brazilian carbon?2018In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 24, p. 2129-2142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brazil is one of the major contributors to land-use change emissions, mostly driven by agricultural expansion for food, feed and bioenergy feedstock. Policies to avoid deforestation related to private commitments, economic incentives, and other support schemes are expected to improve the effectiveness of current command and control mechanisms increasingly. However, until recently, land tenure was unknown for much of the Brazilian territory, which has undermined the governance of native vegetation and challenged support and incentive mechanisms for avoiding deforestation. We assess the total extent of public governance mechanisms protecting aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks. We constructed a land tenure dataset for the entire nation and modeled the effects and uncertainties of major land-use acts on protecting AGC stocks. Roughly 70% of the AGC stock in Brazil is estimated to be under legal protection, and an additional 20% is expected to be protected after areas in the Amazon with currently undesignated land undergo a tenure regularization. About 30% of the AGC stock is on private land, of which roughly two-thirds are protected. The Cerrado, Amazon and Caatinga biomes hold about 40%, 30% and 20% of the unprotected AGC, respectively. Effective conservation of protected and unprotected carbon will depend on successful implementation of the Forest Act, and regularization of land tenure in the Amazon. Policy development that prioritizes unprotected AGC stocks is warranted to promote conservation of native vegetation beyond the legal requirements. However, different biomes and land tenure structures may require different policy settings considering local and regional specifics. Finally, the fate of current AGC stocks relies upon effective implementation of command and control mechanisms, considering that unprotected AGC in native vegetation on private land only accounts for 6.5% of the total AGC stock.

  • 8.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Englund, Oskar
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Berndes, Göran
    Guidotti, Vinicius
    Pinto, Luis F. G.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Legal protection over the Brazilian carbon stocks2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brazilian native vegetation stands as one of the largest global carbon storages.  Here is also where most of the emissions related to land use change take place,  mostly driven by agricultural expansion. Policies of incentives and support to  avoid deforestation are expected to play a significant role to improve the  effectiveness of the prevailing command and control regulation and expand the  protection of carbon stocks in the native vegetation. However, the limited  available resources require wise targeting policies that maximise the outcomes  regarding carbon protection. In this study, we conducted a quantitative  assessment of the effect of command and control regulations in the protection of  above-ground carbon (AGC) stocks employing a land use policy assessment (LUPA)  model. The model enabled the construction of a land tenure dataset of national  coverage and modelled the effects of the major pieces of land use legislation in  the protection of AGC stocks. The outcomes suggest that roughly 70% of the AGC  stock in Brazil is protected and additional 20% is expected to be protected  after the tenure regularisation process of undesignated land. Private territory  sustains about 30% of the AGC stocks, half within small or medium sized private  properties which represent 98% of the Brazilian landholders and the other half  in the 2% larger properties. Roughly 20% of the AGC in private land is under  command and control protection, and the remaining 10% is unprotected. We argued  that targeting policy may prioritise the unprotected AGC stocks; however,  different biomes may require different policy settings considering the  specificity of each biome.

  • 9.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Faurby, Søren
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Persson, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Energy and Environment.
    Guidotti, Vinicius
    d Institute of Agricultural and Forest Management and Certification – Imaflora.
    Antonelli, Alexandre
    Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Department of Space, Earth and Environment.
    Pinto, Luis F. G.
    d Institute of Agricultural and Forest Management and Certification – Imaflora.
    Verdade, Luciano
    University of São Paulo.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Recent political development threaten terrestrial mammal diversity in BrazilManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent political developments may weaken the legal protection of native vegetation in Brazil, which holds large areas of high biodiversity value. We assess the extent to which legislation protects terrestrial mammal species in Brazil. To this end, we quantify the natural population of mammal species in each fragment of native vegetation and relating this quantification to relevant legislation. We also assess the urgency of interventions to improve the protection of the mammal species. The results indicate that the legislation concerning private and public lands protects at least 40%, and about one-third, of the habitats where half of the threatened mammal species live, respectively. In scenarios of full compliance with relevant legislation, at least 40% of habitats supporting about one-third of these species are unprotected or undesignated lacking command and control regulations protecting the native vegetation. The implications of these results are discussed in light of recent policy developments in Brazil.

  • 10.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Guidotti, Vinicius
    d Institute of Agricultural and Forest Management and Certification – Imaflora.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    TECHNICAL NOTE: LAND TENURE MAP OF BRAZIL2017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The land tenure map of Brazil is the result of a collaborative effort between Imaflora, ESALQ/USP’s GeoLab and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH, Sweden). This georeferenced database covers the entire Brazilian territory, offering an open and public picture of all public and private land holdings in Brazil.

    This land tenure map is an update on previous studies conducted by Professor Gerd Sparovek's team - ESALQ/USP’s GeoLab - (Freitas, Sparovek e Matsumoto, 2016; Sparovek et al., 2010, 2012, 2015) and includes new functionalities and the coding of a routine that allows for the continuous updating of this database developed by Imaflora and KTH-Sweden teams.

  • 11.
    Freitas, Flavio L M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Additionality of the compensation mechanism of the Brazilian Forest Code2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Freitas, Flavio L M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Towards integrated sustainability assessment of forest bioenergy options in Brazil2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Freitas, Flavio L M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Univ Sao Paulo, Soil Sci Dept, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Martin
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden ; Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Ecotechnol & Sustainable Bldg Engn, Englund GeoLab, Östersund, Sweden.
    Baretto, Alberto
    Univ Sao Paulo, Soil Sci Dept, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Potential increase of legal deforestation in Brazilian Amazon after Forest Act revision2018In: Nature Sustainability, Vol. 1, p. 665-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian Amazon rainforest is protected largely by command and control regulation of public and private land. The Brazilian Forest Act requires private landholders within the Amazon to set aside 80% of their land as legal reserves for nature protection, but this requirement can be reduced to 50% if more than 65% of a state’s territory is protected public land (for example, public conservation units and indigenous reserves). In the ongoing land designation process in Brazil, some Amazonian states may cross this 65% threshold. We assess the potential reduction in the legal reserve requirement from 80% to 50%, through spatially explicit modelling of scenarios concerning land tenure consolidation, employing up-to-date databases on land ownership. Depending on the outcome of land designation processes and political priorities, some 6.5–15.4 million hectares of private land previously protected as legal reserves may become available for legal deforestation. While protection of public land is crucial for safeguarding the Amazon, revisions of federal and state legislation may be needed to avoid the further extension of protected public land triggering increased legal deforestation on private lands. Zero-deforestation commitments and other initiatives may mitigate impacts in the absence of such revision.

  • 14.
    Freitas, Flavio L M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Berndes, Göran
    Persson, Martin
    Englund, Oskar
    Barretto, Alberto
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Potential increase of legal deforestation in Brazilian Amazon after Forest Act revision2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Freitas, Flavio L M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Berndes, Göran
    Persson, Martin
    Englund, Oskar
    Barretto, Alberto
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Potential increase of legal deforestation in Brazilian Amazon after Forest Act revision2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Hiromiti Matsumoto, Marcelo
    A ADICIONALIDADE DO MECANISMO DE COMPENSAÇÃO DE RESERVA LEGAL DA LEI NO 12.651/2012: UMA ANÁLISE DA OFERTA E DEMANDA DE COTAS DE RESERVA AMBIENTAL2016In: Mudanças no código florestal brasileiro: desafios para a implementação da nova lei / [ed] Ana Paula Moreira da Silva, Henrique Rodrigues Marques and Regina Helena Rosa Sambuichi, Rio de Janeiro: IPEA , 2016, p. 359-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Klug, Israel
    Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Nutrition and Food Systems Division.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Offsetting legal deficits of native vegetation among Brazilian landholders: effects on nature protection and socioeconomic developmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Klug, Israel
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers.
    Offsetting legal deficits of native vegetation among Brazilian landholders: Effects on nature protection and socioeconomic development2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 68, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian native vegetation supports essential ecosystem services and biodiversity for the global society, whileland use competition may intensify around the increasing needs for food, fibre and bioenergy. The Brazilian Forest Actof 2012 amplified a market-based mechanism for offsetting native vegetation deficits in private farmlands. Thismechanism enables a large-scale trading system allowing landholders to offset their own deficits of native vegetationby purchasing certificates associated with a surplus of native vegetation from other landholders. This mechanism is analternative for the more expensive restoration of native vegetation on own land. The launching of the mechanism nowdepends on specific regulations at state level, which may include geographical restrictions for offsetting deficits. Theaim of this study is to evaluate the effects in nature protection and socio-economic development of different offsettingimplementation alternatives. Our findings suggest that in a business-as-usual scenario the offsetting mechanism mayhave little or no additional effects on protection of native vegetation, because most of the offsetting is likely to takeplace where native vegetation is already protected by prevailing legislations. We concluded that it is possible tomaximise environmental and socio-economic returns from the offsetting mechanism without undermining productiveland. This would be possible if regulations ensure additionality in nature protection while enabling a self-sustainingmechanism for income generation for small-scale family farmers in the poorest region of Brazil, protecting biodiversityand counteracting major trade-offs between ecosystem services.

  • 19.
    Hansson, Julia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Climate & Sustainable Cities, Energy, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Mech & Maritime Sci, Maritime Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Berndes, Goran
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Mazzaro de Freitas, Flavio Luiz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Soil Sci, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil..
    How is biodiversity protection influencing the potential for bioenergy feedstock production on grasslands?2019In: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 517-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable feedstock supply is a critical issue for the bioenergy sector. One concern is that feedstock production will impact biodiversity. We analyze how this concern is addressed in assessments of biomass supply potentials and in selected governance systems in the EU and Brazil, including the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED), the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and the Brazilian Forest Act. The analysis focuses on grasslands and includes estimates of the amount of grassland area (and corresponding biomass production volume) that would be excluded from cultivation in specific biodiversity protection scenarios. The reviewed assessments used a variety of approaches to identify and exclude biodiverse grasslands as unavailable for bioenergy. Because exclusion was integrated with other nature protection considerations, quantification of excluded grassland areas was often not possible. The RED complements and strengthens the CAP in terms of biodiversity protection. Following the RED, an estimated 39%-48% (about 9-11 Mha) and 15%-54% (about 10-38 Mha) of natural and non-natural grassland, respectively, may be considered highly biodiverse in EU-28. The estimated biomass production potential on these areas corresponds to some 1-3 and 1.5-10 EJ/year for natural and non-natural grassland, respectively (depending on area availability and management intensity). However, the RED lacks clear definitions and guidance, creating uncertainty about its influence on grassland availability for bioenergy feedstock production. For Brazil, an estimated 16%-77% (about 16-76 Mha) and 1%-32% (about 7-24 Mha) of natural and non-natural grassland, respectively, may be considered highly biodiverse. In Brazil, ecological-economic zoning was found potentially important for grassland protection. Further clarification of grassland definitions and delineation in regulations will facilitate a better understanding of the prospects for bioenergy feedstock production on grasslands, and the impacts of bioenergy deployment on biodiversity.

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