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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Astell, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Axberg, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hagstedt, Daniel S.
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Nylander, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Reberg, Michael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 3: Teknik till stöd för ledning2009Book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Arnborg, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Artman, Henrik
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Wallenius, Klas
    Information awareness in command and control: precision, quality, utility2000In: FUSION 2000: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Information Fusion, 2000, p. THB1/25-THB1/32 vol.2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In current command and control system design, the concept of information plays a central role. In order to find architectures for situation and threat databases making full use of all dimensions of information, the concept of information awareness must be understood. We consider and define some information attributes: measures of precision, quality and usability, and suggest some uses of these concepts. The analysis is Bayesian. A critical point is where subjective Bayesian probabilities of decision makers meet the objective sensor related Bayesian assessments of the system. This interface must be designed to avoid credibility problems.

  • 3.
    Aronsson, Sanna
    et al.
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Artman, Henrik
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Theoretical Computer Science, TCS. FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindquist, Sinna
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Swedena.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Design of simulator training: a comparative study of Swedish dynamic decision-making training facilities2019In: Cognition, Technology and WorkArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulator training is becoming increasingly important for training of time-critical and dynamic situations. Hence, how simulator training in such domains is planned, carried out and followed up becomes important. Based on a model prescribing such crucial aspects, ten decision-making training simulator facilities have been analyzed from an activity theoretical perspective. The analysis reveals several conflicts that exist between the training that is carried out and the defined training objectives. Although limitations in technology and organization are often alleviated by proficient instructors, it is concluded that there is a need for a structured approach to the design of training to be able to define the competencies and skills that ought to be trained along with relevant measurable training goals. Further, there is a need for a pedagogical model that takes the specifics of simulator training into account. Such a pedagogical model is needed to be able to evaluate the training, and would make it possible to share experiences and make comparisons between facilities in a structured manner.

  • 4.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Edlund, Lena
    Fallgren, Per
    Forsberg, Lars
    Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus
    Gustavii, Jonathan
    Herzing, Mathias
    Häckner, Jonas
    Jacobsson, Adam
    Jacobsson, Eva-Maria
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Källmén, Håkan
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Lundström, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Muren, Astri
    Sjöberg, Eric
    Thuresson, Björn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Tjörnhammar, Edward
    Wickström, Hans
    Effektiv miljötillsyn: Slutrapport2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målsättningen har varit att ta fram ny kunskap inom miljötillsynen och därigenom uppnå en effektivare miljötillsyn samt att få in nya vetenskapliga perspektiv på miljötillsyn.

    I rapporten studeras metoder för inspektioner och det kommunikativa samspelet mellan inspektören och företrädare för den verksamhet som inspekteras, hur den institutionella ramen för inspektionsprocessen fungerar samt visar på möjligheter att mäta effekterna av inspektioner och tillsyn.

    Naturvårdsverket kommer att ha resultatet som ett kunskapsunderlag i fortsatt arbete med tillsynsvägledning och utveckling av hur tillsyn och tillsynsvägledning kan följas upp och utvärderas.

  • 5. Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Herzing, Mathias
    Stockholm University.
    Jacobson, Adam
    Stockholm University.
    More efficient environmental inspections and enforcement2016In: Efficient Environmental Inspections and Enforcement / [ed] Herzing, M., Jacobsson, Adam, Naturvårdsverket , 2016, p. 246-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Trnka, Jiri
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Dialogical Emergency Management and StrategicAwareness in Emergency Communication2011In: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces two concepts—dialogical emergency management and strategic awareness—as means touse and understand the content of social media for the purpose of emergency communication. Dialogicalemergency management denotes that the emergency management organizations follow what people publish invarious social media on emergencies and ongoing emergency response, and then adjust their informationstrategies in a way that matches the expectations and needs for emergency information of the public. Theconcept of strategic awareness suggests that it is essential to have an understanding of the receiver (public) ofemergency information but also to have an understanding of the receivers’ idea about the emergency andemergency response. Hence, the notion of strategic awareness incorporates structured awareness of how peopleinterpret, value, and reacts on communication based on what they think about the sender’s (emergencymanagement organization’s) actual intentions and motives.

  • 7.
    Axberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    A Sensor Concept for Superior Surveillance2007In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Protection against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly developed aerial surveillance concept is presented. When fully implemented, the outlined surveillance system enhances situational awareness in two ways: it enhances the overall situational awareness in a large, possibly multinational, area and it provides the possibility to gain additional awareness in critical sites. The system is intended to be beneficial within various kinds of crisis management situations, e.g., disaster relief situations, humanitarian crises, chemical discharges, etc. In particular, the combination of large-area coverage with the possibility to instantly gain local situational awareness is believed to allow for pan-European collaboration and interoperability. Another targeted area includes critical ground sites such as ground transportation and infrastructure. The proposed concept uses surveillance at different altitudes and passes on near real-time information to a variety of end users through its embedded sensor and communications architecture.

  • 8.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    A Decision-Theoretic Framework Using Rational Agency2002In: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Computer-Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation, 2002, p. 459-463Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximizing expected utility has been the foremost method for decision-making for centuries and has been applied to numbers of decision tasks of various kinds. The ideas of using utility matrices in a tree structure to predict behavior among intelligent agents is however new with several contributions during the last decade. We have investigated such a decision-theoretic framework, the Recursive Modeling Method, which is originally applied within intelligent agents. This framework includes a data structure that holds information regarding the surrounding environment, and a model for computation that takes advantage of the mentioned data structure. The data structure is based on utility matrices used for storing information regarding preferences, the environment and other agents. These utility matrices are organized in a tree structure that also contains probability distributions representing beliefs regarding the current situation picture. The probability distributions are used recursively together with the utility matrices in order to solve decision tasks. We conclude that the investigated framework needs to be extended to be fully functional for Command and Control decision-making. Therefore we outline an extended framework where we introduce the “attribute domain”, which will be used throughout the model. The main idea is to keep track of different utility variables, one for each attribute, throughout the recursive process so that information can be used for various decision tasks. We believe that different utility functions will be used from time to time and therefore the utility cannot be combined into one single variable. Instead the data structure must be designed to hold sets containing one utility value for each attribute, rather than one single utility value describing all kinds of profit.

  • 9.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    A gaming perspective on command and control2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In emergency management and in military operations, command and control comprises the collection of functions, systems and staff personnel that one or several executives draw on to arrive at decisions and seeing that these decisions are carried out. The large amount of available information coupled with modern computers and computer networks brings along the potential for making well-informed and quick decisions. Hence, decision-making is a central aspect in command and control, emphasizing an obvious need for development of adequate decision-supporting tools to be used in command and control centers. However, command and control takes place in a versatile environment, including both humans and artifacts, making the design of useful computer tools both challenging and multi-faceted.

    This thesis deals with preparatory action in command and control settings with a focus on the strategic properties of a situation, i.e., to aid commanders in their operational planning activities with the utmost goal of ensuring that strategic interaction occurs under the most favorable circumstances possible. The thesis highlights and investigates the common features of interaction by approaching them broadly using a gaming perspective, taking into account various forms of strategic interaction in command and control. This governing idea, the command and control gaming perspective, is considered an overall contribution of the thesis.

    Taking the gaming perspective, it turns out that the area ought to be approached from several research directions. In particular, the persistent gap between theory and applications can be bridged by approaching the command and control gaming perspective using both an applied and a theoretical research direction. On the one hand, the area of game theory in conjunction with research findings stemming from artificial intelligence need to be modified to be of use in applied command and control settings. On the other hand, existing games and simulations need to be adapted further to take theoretical game models into account.

    Results include the following points: (1) classification of information with proposed measurements for a piece of information's precision, fitness for purpose and expected benefit, (2) identification of decision help and decision analysis as the two main directions for development of computerized tools in support of command and control, (3) development and implementation of a rule based algorithm for map-based decision analysis, (4) construction of an open source generic simulation environment to support command and control microworld research, (5) development of a generic tool for prediction of forthcoming troop movements using an algorithm stemming from particle filtering, (6) a non-linear multi-attribute utility function intended to take prevailing cognitive decision-making models into account, and (7) a framework based on game theory and influence diagrams to be used for command and control situation awareness enhancements. Field evaluations in cooperation with military commanders as well as game-theoretic computer experiments are presented in support of the results.

  • 10.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    An Information Assurance Curriculum for Commanding Officers using Hands-on Experiments2009In: Proceedings of the 40th ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, 2009, p. 236-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To authorize and initiate necessary investments and enforce appropriate policies and procedures, decision-makers need to have at least a fair understanding of computer security fundamentals. This paper presents the course design and the laboratory settings that have been developed for, and used within, the high rank officer curriculum at the Swedish National Defence College. The developed course looks at computer security from an attack versus defend viewpoint, meaning that computer attacks are studied to learn about prevention and self-defense. The paper discusses the pedagogical challenges related to education of high rank officers and similar personnel in light of recently-held courses and contrasts the course relative to similar undertakings. A standpoint taken is that computer security is best taught using hands-on laboratory experiments focusing on problem solving assignments. This is not undisputed since, e.g., high rank officers are busy people who are not fond of getting stuck learning about the peripherals.

  • 11.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    An Information Assurance Curriculum for Commanding Officers using Hands-on Experiments2009In: SIGCSE Bulletin Inroads, ISSN 1096-3936, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 236-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To authorize and initiate necessary investments and enforce appropriate policies and procedures, decision-makers need to have at least a fair understanding of computer security fundamentals. This paper presents the course design and the laboratory settings that have been developed for, and used within, the high rank officer curriculum at the Swedish National Defence College. The developed course looks at computer security from an attack versus defend viewpoint, meaning that computer attacks are studied to learn about prevention and self-defense. The paper discusses the pedagogical challenges related to education of high rank officers and similar personnel in light of recently-held courses and contrasts the course relative to similar undertakings. A standpoint taken is that computer security is best taught using hands-on laboratory experiments focusing on problem solving assignments. This is not undisputed since, e.g., high rank officers are busy people who are not fond of getting stuck learning about the peripherals.

  • 12.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Computer Security Training: A Military Officer Case Study2008In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2007, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2008, p. 49-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and dealing with computer security issues is normally considered a key objective for information technology (IT) support personnel. From a broader perspective, however, information-based threats are primarily a concern for managers and superior commanders who need to authorise and initiate the necessary investments and to enforce the appropriate policies and procedures to protect the organisation at hand. Enabling these latter-mentioned superior decision-makers to make well-founded decisions and to make sure the personnel actually conform to the approved procedures and practices require the decision-makers to have at least a fair understanding of computer security fundamentals. For this purpose, the Swedish National Defence College is in the midst of putting together a series of courses within information assurance to fulfil the need of IT training in governmental organisations. This paper presents the course design and the laboratory settings that were used within the first experimental course taught to students becoming high rank officers, i.e., officers elected for the very last two years of education within the curriculum of ordinary Swedish military training. The course looks at computer security from an attack versus defend viewpoint, i.e., computer attacks are studied to learn about prevention and self-defence. The pedagogical challenges related to education of high rank officers or similar personnel are discussed in light of the recently-held course. A standpoint taken is that computer security is best taught using hands-on laboratory experiments focusing on problem solving assignments. This is not undisputed since, e.g., high rank officers are busy people who are not fond of getting stuck learning about the peripherals. Also, it is emphasised that knowledge and tools within computer security by nature serve both the purpose of the attacker and the defender. The difference should be regarded purely as a question regarding intent.

  • 13.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Game-Theoretic Reasoning in Command and Control2004In: Proceedings of the 15th Mini-EURO Conference: Managing Uncertainty in Decision Support Models (MUDSM 2004), 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developers of tomorrow’s Command and Control centers are facing numerous problems related to the vast amount of available information obtained from various sources. On a lower level, huge amounts of uncertain reports from different sensors need to be fused into comprehensible information. On a higher level, representation and management of the aggregated information will be the main task, with the overall objective to provide reliable and comprehensible situation awareness to commanders. Hence, we consider prediction of future course of events being a necessary ingredient. Unfortunately, traditional agent modeling techniques do not capture gaming situations, i.e., situations where commanders make decisions based on other commanders’ reasoning about one’s own reasoning. To cope with this problem, we propose an architecture based on game theory for inference, coupled with traditional methods for uncertainty modeling. Applying an example, we show that our architecture could be used as a decision support tool, offering enhanced situation awareness in Command and Control. Finally, we wind up with a philosophical discussion regarding the ambiguities and the difficulties in interpreting the solution that game theory offers in the form of mixed strategy Nash equilibria.

  • 14.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Message from the EISIC 2017 program chair2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Message from the program chair2018In: Proceedings of the 8th European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference, EISIC 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, article id 8753044Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI) is an interdisciplinary field of research that focuses on the development, use, and evaluation of advanced information technologies, including methodologies, models and algorithms, systems, and tools, for local, national, and international security related applications. Over the past decade, the European ISI research community has matured and delivered an impressive array of research results that are both technically innovative and practically relevant.

  • 16.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Proceedings of the 2017 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference (EISIC 2017)2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Teaching Computer Security for High Rank Officers using Laboratory Experiments2007In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Military Technology, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and dealing with computer security issues is normally considered a key objective for IT support personnel. From a broader perspective, however, information-based threats are primarily a concern for managers and superior commanders who need to authorize and initiate the necessary investments and to enforce the appropriate policies and procedures to protect the organization at hand. Enabling these latter-mentioned superior decision-makers to make well-founded decisions and to make sure the personnel actually conform to the approved procedures and practices requires the decision-makers to have at least a fair understanding of computer security fundamentals. For this purpose, the Swedish National Defence College is in the midst of putting together a series of courses within information assurance to fulfill the need of IT manager training in governmental organizations. This paper presents the course design and the laboratory settings that were used within the first experimental course taught to students becoming high rank officers, i.e., officers elected for the very last two years of education within the curriculum of ordinary Swedish military training. The course looks at computer security from an attack versus defend viewpoint, i.e., computer attacks are studied to learn about prevention and self-defense. The pedagogical challenges related to education of high rank officers or similar personnel are discussed in light of the recently-held course. A standpoint taken is that computer security is best taught using hands-on laboratory experiments focusing on problem solving assignments. This is not undisputed since, e.g., high rank officers are busy people who do not have time to get stuck learning about the peripherals. Also, it is emphasized that knowledge and tools within computer security by nature serve both the purpose of the attacker and the defender, meaning that from a technical viewpoint it is not possible to distinguish between attack and defense. Instead, this difference should be regarded purely as a question regarding intent.

  • 18.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Using AI and games for decision support in command and control2007In: Decision Support Systems, ISSN 0167-9236, E-ISSN 1873-5797, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 1454-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developers of tomorrow's command and control centers are facing numerous problems related to the vast amount of available information obtained from various sources. On a lower level, huge amounts of uncertain reports from different sensors need to be fused into comprehensible information. On a higher level, representation and management of the aggregated information will be the main task, with prediction of future course of events being the uttermost goal. Unfortunately, traditional agent modeling techniques do not capture situations where commanders make decisions based on other commanders' reasoning about one's own reasoning. To cope with this problem, we propose a decision support tool for command and control situation awareness enhancements based on game theory for inference and coupled with traditional AI methods for uncertainty modeling.

  • 19.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Arnborg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    An Information Fusion Game Component2006In: Journal of Advances in Information Fusion, ISSN 1557-6418, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 108-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher levels of the data fusion process call for prediction and awareness of the development of a situation. Since the situations handled by command and control systems develop by actions performed by opposing agents, pure probabilistic or evidential techniques are not fully sufficient tools for prediction. Game-theoretic tools can give an improved appreciation of the real uncertainty in this prediction task, and also be a tool in the planning process. Based on a combination of graphical inference models and game theory, we propose a decision support tool architecture for command and control situation awareness enhancements.

    This paper outlines a framework for command and control decision-making in multi-agent settings. Decision-makers represent beliefs over models incorporating other decision-makers and the state of the environment. When combined, the decision-makers’ equilibrium strategies of the game can be inserted into a representation of the state of the environment to achieve a joint probability distribution for the whole situation in the form of a Bayesian network representation.

  • 20.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Arnborg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Bayesian Games for Threat Prediction and Situation Analysis2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher levels of the JDL model call for prediction of future development and awareness of the development of a situation. Since the situations handled by Command and Control systems develop by actions performed by opposing agents, pure probabilistic or evidential techniques are not quite sufficient tools for prediction. Game theoretic tools can give an improved appreciation of the real uncertainty in this prediction task, and also be a tool in the planning process. We review recent developments in game theory and apply them in a decision support tool for Command and Control situation awareness enhancements.

  • 21.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Arnborg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Refinements of the command and control game component2005In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conferenceon Information Fusion (FUSION 2005), 2005, p. 6-ppConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prediction of future courses of events is a necessary ingredient in tomorrow's command and control centers. This is being identified in higher levels of, e.g., the JDL model where awareness of the development of a situation is crucial for providing a complete and comprehensible situation picture. To cope with gaming situations, i.e., situations where commanders make decisions based on other commanders' reasoning about one's own reasoning, traditional AI methods for inference need to be extended with algorithms stemming from game theory. In this article, we formalize the ideas of an information fusion "game component". Also, we review current state of the art when it comes to computational game theory and discuss the time constraints from an information fusion perspective along with a discussion regarding the solution/equilibrium selection problem. Furthermore, results from computer simulations and analysis of computational bottlenecks are presented.

  • 22.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Engblom, Mattias
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Franzén, Robert
    Jonas, Nordh
    Voigt, Lennart
    Enhanced situation awareness using random particles2005In: Proceedingsof the Tenth International Command and Control Research and TechnologySymposium (ICCRTS), 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern command and control systems present the current view of the situationthrough a situation picture that is being built up from fused sensor data. However,merely presenting a comprehensible description of the situation does not give thecommander complete awareness of the development of a situation. This articlepresents a generic tool for prediction of forthcoming troop movements. The techniqueis similar to particle filtering, a method used for approximate inference indynamic Bayesian networks.The prediction tool has been implemented and installed into an existent electronicwarfare system. The tool makes use of the system’s geographic informationsystem to extract geographic properties and calculate troop velocities in the terrainwhich is, in turn, being used for the construction of the tool’s transition model.Finally, the result is presented together with the situation picture.The prediction tool has been evaluated in field tests performed in cooperationwith the Swedish Armed Forces in an exercise in Sweden during the spring of2005. Officers and operators of the electronic warfare system were interviewedand exposed to the tool. Reactions were positive and prediction of future troopmovements was considered to be interesting for short-term tactical command andcontrol.

  • 23.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Franke, Ulrik
    SICS Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Tariq, Muhammad Adnan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Varga, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Using Cyber Defense Exercises to Obtain Additional Data for Attacker Profiling2016In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI 2016), Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 37-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to be able to successfully defend an IT system it is useful to have an accurate appreciation of the cyber threat that goes beyond stereotypes. To effectively counter potentially decisive and skilled attackers it is necessary to understand, or at least model, their behavior. Although the real motives for untraceable anonymous attackers will remain a mystery, a thorough understanding of their observable actions can still help to create well-founded attacker profiles that can be used to design effective countermeasures and in other ways enhance cyber defense efforts. In recent work empirically founded attacker profiles, so-called attacker personas, have been used to assess the overall threat situation for an organization. In this paper we elaborate on 1) the use of attacker personas as a technique for attacker profiling, 2) the design of tailor-made cyber defense exercises for the purpose of obtaining the necessary empirical data for the construction of such attacker personas, and 3) how attacker personas can be used for enhancing the situational awareness within the cyber domain. The paper concludes by discussing the possibilities and limitations of using cyber defense exercises for data gathering, and what can and cannot be studied in such exercises.

  • 24.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Franke, Ulrik
    SICS Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Varga, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Cyber Situational Awareness Testing2016In: Combatting Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism: Challenges, Trends and Priorities / [ed] Akhgar, Babak; Brewster, Ben, Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG , 2016, p. 209-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the cyber security landscape, the human ability to comprehend and adapt to existing and emerging threats is crucial. Not only technical solutions, but also the operator’s ability to grasp the complexities of the threats affect the level of success or failure that is achieved in cyber defence. In this paper we discuss the general concept of situation awareness and associated measurement techniques. Further, we describe the cyber domain and how it differs from other domains, and show how predictive knowledge can help improve cyber defence. We discuss how selected existing models and measurement techniques for situation awareness can be adapted and applied in the cyber domain to measure actual levels of cyber situation awareness. We identify generic relevant criteria and other factors to consider, and propose a methodology to set up cyber situation awareness measurement experiments within the context of simulated cyber defence exercises. Such experiments can be used to test the viability of different cyber solutions. A number of concrete possible experiments are also suggested.

  • 25.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH. FOI Swedish Def Res Agcy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granasen, Magdalena
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Narganes Quijano, Maribel
    Nilsson, Susanna
    Trnka, Jiri
    Informing crisis alerts using social media: Best practices and proof of concept2018In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 28-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become an integrated part of human communication, both as a means to establish and maintain social relationships, and as a means of sharing and co-creating information. Social media comes with an array of possibilities for individuals as well as organizations, corporations, and authorities. Within the field of crisis communication, social media possibilities such as online sharing and social networking have had an impact on the way crisis information is disseminated and updated. This paper addresses the issues related to using social media for communicating crisis information and broadcasting alert messages to the general population, discusses the role of social media in future pan-European crisis alerting, and presents a prototype system demonstrating the possibilities. An extensive systematic literature review was carried out to identify factors that affect the use of social media for alerting and warning. These factors were mirrored in experiences, collected through interviews, obtained by emergency management organizations in three European countries (Sweden, Czech Republic, and Spain). The factors finally form the basis for suggestions and recommendations regarding the design of technological tools for both communication and information collection to serve as an integral part of a future pan-European crisis alerting system.

  • 26.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Granlund, Rego
    Assistance in Decision Making: Decision Help and Decision Analysis2001In: Proceedings Sixth International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision help and decision analysis are tools that will be of importance indecision support systems. They are likely to exist both in real operationalsystems and in simulation based systems used for training. In command andcontrol an example of a decision task is to command units in a geographicalenvironment. We have taken a closer look at this type of decision task, usinga simulated microworld as a research tool. In particular we are interested inthe case when the decision maker already has selected a course of action,but wants to have critique and suggestions of improvements. To analyze adecision where the “main direction” is already known in this way we denotedecision analysis, as opposed to decision help.An algorithm for decision analysis in maps has been developed. Thisalgorithm is based on rules. An implementation in Java with classes suitedfor reuse has been developed. The implementation has been tested in a microworldsystem, C3FIRE, suited for practice in forest fire fighting.

  • 27.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Horndahl, Andreas
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Kaati, Lisa
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Mårtenson, Christian
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Svenson, Pontus
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Analysis of Weak Signals for Detecting Lone Wolf Terrorists2012In: Proceedings of the IEEE European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference 2012 (EISIC 2012), 2012, p. 197-204Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lone wolf terrorists pose a large threat to modern society. The current ability to identify and stop these kind of terrorists before they commit a terror act is limited since they are very hard to detect using traditional methods. However, these individuals often make use of Internet to spread their beliefs and opinions, and to obtain information and knowledge to plan an attack. Therefore, there is a good possibility that they leave digital traces in the form of weak signals that can be gathered, fused, and analyzed.

    In this work we present an analysis method that can be used to analyze extremist forums to profile possible lone wolf terrorists. This method is conceptually demonstrated using the FOI Impactorium fusion platform. We also present a number of different technologies that can be used to harvest and analyze information from Internet, serving as weak digital traces that can be fused using the suggested analysis method, in order to discover possible lone wolf terrorists.

  • 28.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Horndahl, Andreas
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Kaati, Lisa
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Mårtenson, Christian
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Svenson, Pontus
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    A Vision of a Toolbox for Intelligence Production2008In: Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2008), 2008, p. 77-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe preliminary work on a toolbox aiming to help analysts involved in the intelligence production process. Intelligence analysts are overwhelmed by information, both in the form of sensory data, text stemming from human observations and other sources. In order to make sense of this information and to produce the intelligence reports needed by decision-makers, assisting computer tools are needed. We briefly describe parts of the intelligence process and touch upon the subject of what parts can and cannot be automated. A tool for tagging information semantically that we are currently working on is described, and ideas for two other tools are briefly outlined.

  • 29.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Horndahl, Andreas
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Kaati, Lisa
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Mårtenson, Christian
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Svenson, Pontus
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Development of Computerized Support Tools for Intelligence Work2009In: Proceedings of the 14th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (14th ICCRTS), 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the tasks facing the armed forces today there is a need for new and improved intelligence analysis tools. The opponents no longer follow strict doctrines that determine their behavior and force-composition. Several different opposing groups must be taken into account, some of which will appear to act friendly towards us. In this paper, we describe a vision for how various information fusion tools can be used to help intelligence analysts and decision-makers achieve situation awareness. We consider intelligence work and propose an analyst-centric toolbox aiming to help analysts involved in the intelligence production process to prepare suitable reports. Intelligence analysts are overwhelmed by information, both in the form of sensory data, text stemming from human observations and other sources. We describe parts of the intelligence process and touch upon the subject of what parts can and cannot be automated. The toolbox is outlined by describing a number of possible tools, e.g., semantic information tagging, a threat model construction assistant, a situation picture construction assistant, social network visualization, a game-theoretic reasoning engine, etc. Some of the tools described have been implemented as concept prototypes whereas others are the subject of ongoing research.

  • 30.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Högberg, Johanna
    Umeå University.
    Kaati, Lisa
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Mårtenson, Christian
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Svenson, Pontus
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Detecting Social Positions Using Simulation2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advances in Social Network Analysis and Mining (ASONAM 2010), 2010, p. 48-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Describing social positions and roles is an important topic within social network analysis. One approach is to compute a suitable equivalence relation on the nodes of the target network. One relation that is often used for this purpose is regular equivalence, or bisimulation, as it is known within the field of computer science. In this paper we consider a relation from computer science called simulation relation. Simulation creates a partial order on the set of actors in a network and we can use this order to identify actors that have characteristic properties. The simulation relation can also be used to compute simulation equivalence which is a less restrictive equivalence relation than regular equivalence but is still computable in polynomial time. This paper primarily considers weighted directed networks and we present definitions of both weighted simulation equivalence and weighted regular equivalence. Weighted networks can be used to model a number of network domains, including information flow, trust propagation, and communication channels. Many of these domains have applications within homeland security and in the military, where one wants to survey and elicit key roles within an organization. Identifying social positions can be difficult when the target organization lacks a formal structure or is partially hidden.

  • 31.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Hörling, Pontus
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Malm, Michael
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Mårtenson, Christian
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Rosell, Magnus
    Recorded Future AB.
    Truvé, Staffan
    Recorded Future AB.
    Using Temporal Analytics for Early Discovery of Upcoming Threats2011In: Proceedings of the National Symposium on Technology and Methodology for Security and Crisis Management 2011 (TAMSEC 2011), 2011, p. 16-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ocean of data is available on the web. From this ocean of data, information can in theory be extracted and used by analysts for detecting emergent trends. However, to do this manually is a daunting and nearly impossible task. We describe an implemented semi-automatic system in which data is automatically collected from selected sources, and to which linguistic analysis is applied to extract, e.g., entities and events. The extracted information is automatically transformed into OSINT reports which are clustered and visualized. The user can interact with the system in order to obtain a better awareness of historic as well as emergent trends.

  • 32.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Johansson, F.
    Message from the Program Chairs EISIC 20132013In: Proceedings - 2013 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference, EISIC 2013, 2013, p. 6657116-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Johansson, FredrikSwedish Defence Research Agency.
    Proceedings of the 2016 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference (EISIC 2016)2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Kaati, Lisa
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Svenson, Pontus
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Social Positions and Simulation Relations2012In: Social Network Analysis and Mining, ISSN 1869-5450, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 39-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Describing social positions and roles is an important topic within the social network analysis. Identifying social positions can be difficult when the target organization lacks a formal structure or is partially hidden. One approach is to compute a suitable equivalence relation on the nodes of the target network. Several different equivalence relations can be used, all depending on what kind of social positions that are of interest. One relation that is often used for this purpose is regular equivalence, or bisimulation, as it is known within the field of computer science. In this paper we consider a relation from computer science called simulation relation. The simulation relation creates a partial order on the set of actors in a network and we can use this order to identify actors that have characteristic properties. The simulation relation can also be used to compute simulation equivalence which is a related but less restrictive equivalence relation than regular equivalence that is still computable in polynomial time. We tentatively term the equivalence classes determined by simulation equivalence social positions. Which equivalence relation that is interesting to consider depends on the problem at hand. We argue that it is necessary to consider several different equivalence relations for a given network, in order to understand it completely. This paper primarily considers weighted directed networks and we present definitions of both weighted simulation equivalence and weighted regular equivalence. Weighted networks can be used to model a number of network domains, including information flow, trust propagation, and communication channels. Many of these domains have applications within homeland security and in the military, where one wants to survey and elicit key roles within an organization. After social positions have been calculated, they can be used to produce abstractions of the network—smaller versions that retain some of the most important characteristics.

  • 35.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Luotsinen, Linus
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Efficient Implementation of Simulation Support for Tactical-Level Military Training2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC 2016), Arlington, Virginia: National Training and Simulation Association (NTSA) , 2016, p. 1-12, article id 16292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer-based games and simulations provide the means for practicing essential elements of combat which in a realistic exercise setting would require substantial resources in terms of personnel, time, and investments. Another important aspect of such games and simulations is the possibility to make use of gameplay log data for conducting debriefings, etc. This paper presents a study where relatively simple computer simulations were developed to improve poorly supported training aspects, and support debriefing and measuring of training outcome. A previous feasibility study showed a lack of systematical implementation of tactical-level military training simulation support. In the feasibility study, three Swedish military units were chosen to illuminate a number of varying and currently undeveloped tactical-level training domains where games and simulations can make a difference, to evaluate the potential training benefits in terms of learning and organizational practices. The feasibility study showed and exemplified that there exist many tactical-level military training domains that are likely to benefit from using relatively simple computer simulations, and also that the same system can be a support for both the training audience and the exercise management. Based on the feasibility study, this paper presents a proof of concept agent based simulation system that has been implemented and validated within the scope of a military command post exercise. Through using a generic agent based simulation engine along with commonly accepted communication protocols, the potential to complement and provide an additional edge to today’s procedures can be achieved using comparatively small efforts. The paper is concluded by presenting a generic approach to easily implement agent based simulation support at undeveloped tactical domains, and best practices for doing so.

  • 36.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. FOI, Sweden.
    Sharma, Rishie
    KTH.
    Detectability of Low-Rate HTTP Server DoS Attacks using Spectral Analysis2015In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCES IN SOCIAL NETWORKS ANALYSIS AND MINING (ASONAM 2015), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, p. 954-961Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks pose a threat to any service provider on the internet. While traditional DoS flooding attacks require the attacker to control at least as much resources as the service provider in order to be effective, so-called low-rate DoS attacks can exploit weaknesses in careless design to effectively deny a service using minimal amounts of network traffic. This paper investigates one such weakness found within version 2.2 of the popular Apache HTTP Server software. The weakness concerns how the server handles the persistent connection feature in HTTP 1.1. An attack simulator exploiting this weakness has been developed and shown to be effective. The attack was then studied with spectral analysis for the purpose of examining how well the attack could be detected. Similar to other papers on spectral analysis of low-rate DoS attacks, the results show that disproportionate amounts of energy in the lower frequencies can be detected when the attack is present. However, by randomizing the attack pattern, an attacker can efficiently reduce this disproportion to a degree where it might be impossible to correctly identify an attack in a real world scenario.

  • 37.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Wallenius, Klas
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    A toolbox for multi-attribute decision-making2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are obvious opportunities to incorporate multiagent simulation in decision support tools for military commanders. To be successfully integrated, however, the simulation tool must fit into the overall decision process, in which the commander is involved. In this paper we propose some important properties of simulation-based tools for decision-making based on different theories on how decisions are made. Our theoretical contribution is a definition of a non-linear utility function that should better fit prevailing cognitive models of decision-making than traditional linear utility functions do. Finally we specify a toolbox that, based on the utility function, multiagent-based simulation and genetic algorithms, may be used to evolve strategies and to support decision-making in the Command and Control domain.

  • 38.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Wallenius, Klas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Game environment for command andcontrol operations (GECCO)2001In: Proceedings of the First International Workshopon Cognitive Research With Microworlds, 2001, p. 85-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In GECCO we have implemented a game platform specificallyfor the Command and Control research community. GECCO is astrategy game where one move units on a map. The game is generic inthe sense that it stores all information regarding the scenario in files thatare easy to adjust. The source code is distributed to the research communityas open source, and it is well documented and well structured.The game is suited to all common computer environments.

  • 39.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Yap, M. H.
    Message from the Program Chairs2015In: Proceedings - 2015 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference, EISIC 2015, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, article id 7379713Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Cooper, Stephen
    et al.
    Purdue University.
    Nickell, Christine
    U.S. Department of Defense.
    Piotrowski, Victor
    National Science Foundation.
    Oldfield, Brenda
    Department of Homeland Security.
    Abdallah, Ali
    London South Bank University.
    Bishop, Matt
    University of California, Davis.
    Caelli, Bill
    Queensland University of Technology.
    Dark, Melissa
    Purdue University.
    Hawthorne, Elizabeth K.
    Union County College.
    Hoffman, Lance
    George Washington University.
    Pérez, Lance C.
    University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
    Pfleeger, Charles
    Pfleeger Consulting Group.
    Raines, Richard
    Air Force Institute of Technology.
    Schou, Corey
    Idaho State University.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media technology and interaction design.
    An Exploration of the Current State of Information Assurance Education2009In: ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, ISSN 0097-8418, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 109-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Assurance and computer security are serious worldwide concerns of governments, industry, and academia. Computer security is one of the three new focal areas of the ACM/IEEE’s Computer Science Curriculum update in 2008. This ACM/IEEE report describes, as the first of its three recent trends, “the emergence of security as a major area of concern.”

    The importance of Information Assurance and Information Assurance education is not limited to the United States. Other nations, including the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and other members from NATO countries and the EU, have inquired as to how they may be able to establish Information Assurance education programs in their own country.

    The goal of this document is to explore the space of various existing Information Assurance educational standards and guidelines, and how they may serve as a basis for helping to define the field of Information Assurance. It was necessary for this working group to study what has been done for other areas of computing. For example, computer science (CS 2008 and associate-degree CS 2009), information technology (IT 2008), and software engineering (SE 2004), all have available curricular guidelines.

    In its exploration of existing government, industry, and academic Information Assurance guidelines and standards, as well as in its discovery of what guidance is being provided for other areas of computing, the working group has developed this paper as a foundation, or a starting point, for creating an appropriate set of guidelines for Information Assurance education. In researching the space of existing guidelines and standards, several challenges and opportunities to Information Assurance education were discovered. These are briefly described and discussed, and some next steps suggested.

  • 41.
    Cooper, Stephen
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Nickell, Christine
    U.S. Department of Defense.
    Pérez, Lance C.
    University of Nebraska.
    Oldfield, Brenda
    U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media technology and interaction design.
    Gökce, Asım Gençer
    TÜBİTAK.
    Hawthorne, Elizabeth K.
    Union County College.
    Klee, Karl J.
    Alfred State College.
    Lawrence, Andrea
    Spelman College.
    Wetzel, Susanne
    Stevens Institute of Technology.
    Towards Information Assurance (IA) Curricular Guidelines2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 ITiCSE Working Group Reports (ITiCSE-WGR’10), 2010, p. 49-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information assurance and information security are serious worldwide concerns. Computer security is one of the three new focal areas of the ACM/IEEE’s Computer Science Curriculum update in 2008. This ACM/IEEE report describes, as the first of its three recent trends, “the emergence of security as a major area of concern.” [3]

    The purpose of this working group report is to continue the work of the 2009 working group on information assurance (IA) education. The focus of the 2010 working group is to examine the curricula of existing academic programs, as well as at the key academic governmental and industry IA education standards and guidelines identified by the 2009 IA working group in order to begin defining the IA education space as a first step towards developing curricular guidelines.

  • 42.
    Garcia Lozano, Marianela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Software and Computer systems, SCS. FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, SE-164 90, Sweden.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Theoretical Computer Science, TCS. FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, SE-164 90, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, POB 1263, SE-16429 Kista, Sweden..
    Rosell, Magnus
    FOI Swedish Def Res Agcy, SE-16490 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tjörnhammar, Edward
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Software and Computer systems, SCS. FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, SE-164 90, Sweden.
    Varga, Stefan
    KTH. Swedish Armed Forces Headquarters, Stockholm, SE-107 85, Sweden.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Veracity assessment of online data2020In: Decision Support Systems, ISSN 0167-9236, E-ISSN 1873-5797, Vol. 129, article id 113132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fake news, malicious rumors, fabricated reviews, generated images and videos, are today spread at an unprecedented rate, making the task of manually assessing data veracity for decision-making purposes a daunting task. Hence, it is urgent to explore possibilities to perform automatic veracity assessment. In this work we review the literature in search for methods and techniques representing state of the art with regard to computerized veracity assessment. We study what others have done within the area of veracity assessment, especially targeted towards social media and open source data, to understand research trends and determine needs for future research. The most common veracity assessment method among the studied set of papers is to perform text analysis using supervised learning. Regarding methods for machine learning much has happened in the last couple of years related to the advancements made in deep learning. However, very few papers make use of these advancements. Also, the papers in general tend to have a narrow scope, as they focus on solving a small task with only one type of data from one main source. The overall veracity assessment problem is complex, requiring a combination of data sources, data types, indicators, and methods. Only a few papers take on such a broad scope, thus, demonstrating the relative immaturity of the veracity assessment domain.

  • 43.
    García Lozano, Marianela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS. FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Schreiber, Jonah
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC). Google, Inc., United States.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS. FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Tracking Geographical Locations using a Geo-Aware Topic Model for Analyzing Social Media Data2017In: Decision Support Systems, ISSN 0167-9236, E-ISSN 1873-5797, Vol. 99, no SI, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tracking how discussion topics evolve in social media and where these topics are discussed geographically over time has the potential to provide useful information for many different purposes. In crisis management, knowing a specific topic’s current geographical location could provide vital information to where, or even which, resources should be allocated. This paper describes an attempt to track online discussions geographically over time. A distributed geo-aware streaming latent Dirichlet allocation model was developed for the purpose of recognizing topics’ locations in unstructured text. To evaluate the model it has been implemented and used for automatic discovery and geographical tracking of election topics during parts of the 2016 American presidential primary elections. It was shown that the locations correlated with the actual election locations, and that the model provides a better geolocation classification compared to using a keyword-based approach.

  • 44.
    Huang, Qi
    et al.
    SaabTech Systems AB.
    Hållmats, Jenny
    SaabTech Systems AB.
    Wallenius, Klas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Simulation-Based Decision Support for Command and Control in Joint Operations2003In: Proceedings of the 2003 European Simulation Interoperability Workshop, 2003, p. 591-599Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting and evaluating the consequences of tentative plans are essential parts of the decision-making in joint operations. Decision support based on simulation aims to facilitate these two activities. This paper first analyzes the decision-making and the generic planning process in joint operations. Based on this analysis, the paper describes both multi-agent simulation used to predict the consequences of tentative plans and multi-attribute evaluation to evaluate and compare the multi-attribute consequences based on the goals or objectives for the operation. It also clarifies the relationships between plans and agent models as well as consequences and utilities. In order to realize embedded simulation support, an architecture is suggested for network based Command and Control (C2) systems. As a result, this simulation based decision support will enhance the situation awareness by the ability to, not only present and explain the situation, but also to predict it. By iteratively using multi-agent simulation and multi-attribute evaluation in the different planning phases, the commanders will be able to verify and evaluate possible plans in different aspects such as opportunity versus risk, feasibility versus difficulty, task versus consequence, etc. Finally the iterative process leads to a deliberate plan. Therefore, the simulation-based decision support will become an essential part in future C2 systems.

  • 45.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Hörling, Pontus
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Malm, Michael
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Mårtenson, Christian
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Truvé, Staffan
    Recorded Future AB.
    Rosell, Magnus
    Recorded Future AB.
    Detecting Emergent Conflicts through Web Mining and Visualization2011In: Proceedings of the IEEE European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference 2011 (EISIC 2011), 2011, p. 346-353Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ocean of data is available on the web. From this ocean of data, information can in theory be extracted and used by analysts for detecting emergent trends (trend spotting). However, to do this manually is a daunting and nearly impossible task. We describe a semi-automatic system in which data is automatically collected from selected sources, and to which linguistic analysis is applied to extract, e.g., entities and events. After combining the extracted information with human intelligence reports, the results are visualized to the user of the system who can interact with it in order to obtain a better awareness of historic as well as emergent trends. A prototype of the proposed system has been implemented and some initial results are presented in the paper.

  • 46.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Narganes Quijano, Maribel
    Tecnalia Research and Innovation.
    Estimating Citizen Alertness in Crises using Social Media Monitoring and Analysis2012In: Proceedings of the IEEE European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference 2012 (EISIC 2012), IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 189-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of social media for communication and interaction is becoming more and more frequent, which is also the case during crises. To monitor social media may therefore be a useful capability from a crisis management perspective, both for detecting new or emergent crises, as well as for getting a better situation awareness of how people react to a particular crisis. The work presented in this paper is part of the EU research project Alert4All, having the overall goal of improving the effectiveness of alert and communication toward the population in crises.

  • 47.
    Lilja, Hanna
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Identifying Radio Communication Inefficiency to Improve Air Combat Training Debriefings2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC 2016), Arlington, Virginia: National Training and Simulation Association (NTSA) , 2016, p. 1-12, article id 16287Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In flight simulator training, the retrospective debriefing activity is the essential tool for reflecting upon the conducted exercise. The debriefing typically serves to highlight carefully chosen exercise moments that can help the trainees to gain further insight. These moments are revisited from a number of different perspectives in order to make the overall picture of what actually happened during the exercise clear to the trainees. It is therefore of utmost importance to be able to identify the most instructive moments, and compile the data to be used for the debriefing. This is a delicate and critical task that needs to be undertaken swiftly so that the debriefing activity can be conducted directly after the flight exercise. This paper presents a methodology and prototype system for identifying moments of inefficient radio communication as a means to obtaining additional data for improving many versus many air combat flight simulator training debriefings. The work fits into an overall systems perspective where off the shelf speech recognition technology is used to obtain textual representations of the radio communication call sentences, which are then fed to a tailor-made machine learning classifier that is capable of detecting incorrect terminology/phrasing, unnecessary repetitions, unnecessary stalling of the radio communication channel, etc. With this overall systems perspective in mind, radio communication recordings originating from ordinary exercises being held at the Swedish Air Force Combat Simulation Centre have been used to construct classifiers capable of capturing communication patterns that are interesting to look at from an efficiency point of view. To validate its usefulness, the developed classifiers have been used to create visualizations that help identifying additional exercise moments in terms of inefficient radio communication that ought to be highlighted alongside the ordinary 3D visualization of the air flight, the cockpit displays, etc.

  • 48.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Hellgren, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Lundin, Mikael
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Narganes Quijano, Maribel
    Tecnalia Research and Innovation.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Making use of New Media for pan-European Crisis Communication2012In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2012), ISCRAM , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social or new media have over the past years become an integrated part of human communication, both as a means to establish and maintain social relationships, but also as a means of sharing and co-creating information. New media comes with an array of possibilities for individuals as well as organisations, corporations and authorities. Within the field of crisis communication new media possibilities, such as online sharing and social networking, has had an impact on the way crisis information is disseminated and updated. This paper addresses the issues related to using new media as a means of communicating crisis information and broadcasting alerting messages to the general population, and also discusses the role of new media in future pan-European alerting. It focuses on current and on-going research on social media for crisis communication. An extensive systematic literature review was done to identify factors that affect the use of social media for alerting and warning. These factors were mirrored in experiences, collected through interviews, in crisis communication organisations in three European regions (Sweden, Czech Republic and Spain). The factors finally form the basis for suggestions regarding the design of technological tools for both communication and information collection as part of a pan-European alerting system.

  • 49.
    Párraga Niebla, Cristina
    et al.
    German Aerospace Center (DLR).
    Weber, Tina
    German Red Cross (DRK).
    Skoutaridis, Paris
    Avanti Communications Ltd.
    Hirst, Paul
    British Association of Public-Safety Communications Officers (BAPCO).
    Ramírez, Joaquin
    Tecnosylva.
    Rego, Delfim
    EDISOFT.
    Gil, Guillermo
    Tecnalia.
    Engelbach, Wolf
    University of Stuttgart.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Wigro, Holger
    Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe (BBK).
    Grazzini, Sébastien
    Eutelsat.
    Dosch, Christoph
    Institut fuer Rundfunktechnik GmbH.
    Alert4All: An Integrated Concept for Effective Population Alerting in Crisis Situations2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of the Alert4All concept, an innovative pan-European integrated and scalable approach to improve the effectiveness of alert and communication systems for the population. The Alert4All is a system-oriented scalable concept that considers human, technological and management aspects for two purposes: on the one hand to implement improvements to key elements of the alert system (such as communications channels, including satellite) and on the other hand, to develop and exploit synergies between such elements (e.g. by simulation and web monitoring). In particular, Alert4All provides solutions to align alert procedures and processes to contemporary crises (natural or man-made), available and emerging technologies, available information sources and trends in social behaviour in a scalable manner, from a regional to a pan-European perspective.

  • 50.
    Pérez, Lance C.
    et al.
    University of Nebraska.
    Cooper, Stephen
    Stanford University.
    Hawthorne, Elizabeth K.
    Union County College.
    Wetzel, Susanne
    Stevens Institute of Technology.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Gökce, Asım Gençer
    TÜBİTAK.
    Impagliazzo, John
    Hofstra University.
    Khmelevsky, Youry
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Klee, Karl J.
    Alfred State College.
    Leary, Margaret
    Northern Virginia Community College.
    Philips, Amelia
    Highline Community College.
    Pohlmann, Norbert
    Institute for Internet Security, University of Applied Sciences.
    Taylor, Blair
    Towson University.
    Upadhyaya, Shambhu
    University at Buffalo.
    Information Assurance Education in Two- and Four-Year Institutions2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 ITiCSE Working Group Reports (ITiCSE-WGR’11), 2011, p. 39-53Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2011 ITiCSE working group on information assurance (IA) education examined undergraduate curricula at the two- and four-year levels, both within and outside the United States (US). A broad set of two-year IA degree programs were examined in order to get a sense of similarities and differences between them. A broad set of four-year IA degree programs were also examined to explore their similarities and differences. A comparison between the two-year and four-year degree programs revealed that the common challenge of articulation between two- and four-year programs exists in IA as well. The challenge of articulation was explored in some depth in order to understand what remedies might be available. Finally, a number of IA programs at international institutions were examined in order to gain insight into differences between US and non-US IA programs.

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