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  • 1.
    Cronhjort, Mikael
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Motives for choosing a double degree programme. a case study in engineering and education2017In: INTED2017: 11TH INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE / [ed] Chova, LG Martinez, AL Torres, IC, IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION A& DEVELOPMENT , 2017, p. 4267-4271Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in many other western countries, student interest and performance in STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) has been declining during the last decades. In Sweden, to make it worse, there is presently a severe shortage of teachers in these subjects in secondary and upper secondary school. In an effort to increase students' interest in becoming teachers, a double degree programme in engineering and education called Master of Science in Engineering and in Education was started at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in 2002. The programme is given in cooperation with Stockholm University and prepares for three roles: The pedagogical engineer, the upper secondary teacher with the engineering perspective, and the researcher in technology and learning. The contribution of teachers to the upper secondary school from this double degree programme is significant. According to a study by the trade union "Lararforbundet", half of those taking a degree in Sweden from a five years teacher programme in the spring 2014 in the subjects physics, chemistry, biology and technology, graduated from this programme. During the last four years there has been around 500 applicants to the programme. 60 students are admitted yearly. According to a yearly exit survey, sent out within 12 months from graduation, about 30% of the graduates indicate that they work as teachers in upper secondary school. \ This study investigates what motives are expressed in the exit survey for having chosen this double degree programme in engineering and education. Data are available from 48 respondents. The material is analysed in an exploratory approach using content analysis, including manifest as well as latent content [1]. Codes were generated from the data. The findings identify two major types of motives: Students chose this programme because they found the combination of STEM-subjects and pedagogics attractive (expressed 40 times). They express that the different parts reinforce each other and that this combination match their personal interests. Students also chose this programme because they were uncertain of career choices and identity, afraid of choosing other specific alternatives, or they had a desire for security (expressed 37 times). Several minor types of motives are also identified. Some graduates express that status was a motive for choosing this programme (6 times), some had strategic motives (5 times), and some express that this programme was their second choice (3 times). When these motives are compared with motives for choosing other engineering programmes at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, there are similarities as well as differences [2]. One conclusion is that the programme seems to have fulfilled the ambition to make more students interested in a degree in education.

  • 2.
    Cronhjort, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Filipsson, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Maria, Weurlander
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Can Peer Instruction in calculus improve student learning? 2013In: Proceedings of the 9th International CDIO Conference: Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University School of Engineering and Applied Sciences , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: CDIO , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on an experiment in which we used Peer Instruction instead of traditional lectures in a Calculus course for beginning engineering students at KTH Royal Institute of Technology. In order to enable evaluation in a controlled experiment setting, we kept the rest of the course – text book, tutorials and examination – unchanged. The student’s pre-knowledge was measured by a diagnostic test, and their post-knowledge was measured by the written exam of the course. Our data indicate that the Peer Instruction group learned more than the control group, who had traditional lectures. In questionnaires at the beginning of the course and at the end, we asked for the students’ perceptions of Peer Instruction as teaching method and if they had found it useful as a tool for learning calculus. The answers show that the students appreciated being more active and motivated with Peer Instruction, but also that they found the method challenging and somewhat frustrating. A major problem was that the textbook was difficult to read in advance.

  • 3.
    Cronhjort, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Filipsson, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Weurlander, Maria
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Improved engagement and learning in flipped-classroom calculus2018In: Teaching Mathematics and its Applications, ISSN 0268-3679, E-ISSN 1471-6976, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on an effort tomeasure the effect of replacing traditional lecture-based teachingin calculus with a flipped-classroom approach.We base the comparison between the twoteaching models on data fromthree sources: (a) a Calculus BaselineTest, designed specificallyfor this purpose and given as pre-test and post-test; (b) a survey measuring studentengagement; and (c) student achievement on the final exam. On the Calculus BaselineTest, we found that the normalized gain was 13% higher in the flipped-classroom group.Similarly, the flipped-classroom group scored significantly higher on the engagementsurvey. Also, the students of the flipped-classroom group performedmuch better than expectedon the final exam of the course, with a substantial decrease in failure rate.

  • 4.
    Cronhjort, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Naeslund, L.
    Nyberg, Sara
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Competences developed in a double degree programme: Master of science in engineering and in education2017In: INTED2017: 11TH INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE / [ed] Chova, LG Martinez, AL Torres, IC, IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION A& DEVELOPMENT , 2017, p. 1762-1767Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2002 there has been a double degree programme in Stockholm, Sweden thanks to a joint venture between KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University. After five years of studying, which is the stipulated time for the teacher programme and engineering programmes in general, the graduates become engineers and teachers. By choosing this programme the graduates have the option of two professions during their careers. At present Sweden is in desperate need of more teachers in maths, science, and technology. These career options also offer flexibility when the number of teenagers decreases, or companies have to downsize. Sceptics might fear that this programme could lead to less competence, due to less time spent on specialising within the subjects of engineering, but according to Trevelyan most engineers spend more time on human interaction than on design and calculus [1]. Thus, studies in education can provide engineers with additional useful competence. Previous studies on double degree programmes have mainly focused on organizational problems, except for Wimshurst & Manning who mapped students' ongoing experiences when they combined a degree in criminology with degrees in other disciplines. These students complained about disjoint courses instead of joint discourses [2]. The aim of our study is to map and analyse: 1 how alumni evaluate this programme in retrospect, and 2 how they describe their present competences. Accordingly, 49 alumni answered a questionnaire in June 2016; and 15 of these respondents were selected for a tape recorded interview face to face. These alumni graduated from the programme 2-9 years ago. The data were coded according to principles of Grounded Theory [3]. In retrospect these alumni do appreciate the programme. Most respondents comment on the merits of maths learnt at KTH, though only a minority of engineers use higher maths as a practical tool. On the other hand, maths serves as a prototype for problem solving in general. Studies and training in leadership, learning theories and communication offer important tools for most engineers. Alumni employed as teachers claim that they are more well-prepared to teach maths, science, and technology than other teachers, partly because they can illustrate phenomena by giving examples from other realities than the school context. Alumni's descriptions of their present competence illuminate various combinations of engineering and educational skills. When data were coded three main categories emerged: material, processual and functional. Finally, the core category was formulated as follows: The programme matches new needs in present working life, i.e. that expertise knowledge is communicated to various kinds of recipients. The programme does not primarily reproduce labour, but rather support alumni in creating niches for themselves by pushing, widening and going beyond previous professional roles in working life. Conclusion: The double degree programme provides labour market with competent teachers and with communicative engineers. This is important in our era, when working life is partly transforming from standardized production into flexible knowledge processing.

  • 5.
    Cronhjort, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Naeslund, L.
    Nyberg, Sara
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    DOUBLE DEGREES: HITS AND PITS FOR THE CAREERS2017In: INTED2017: 11TH INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE / [ed] Chova, LG Martinez, AL Torres, IC, IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION A& DEVELOPMENT , 2017, p. 4302-4309Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the programmes at KTH Royal Institute of Technology are engineering programmes with traditional contents, but some are norm-breaking innovations, created to respond to changes or demands perceived in society or in working life. One example is the double degree programme Master of Science in Engineering and in Education, given in cooperation with Stockholm University. In this programme students get two degrees, one in engineering and one in education as teachers for the upper secondary school. This is a rather unusual concept in Sweden and Europe, but similar programmes exist in Gothenburg, Sweden, and in Tampere, Finland. Graduates from Master of Science in Engineering and in Education have several career options. Their engineering degrees are characterised by much Mathematics and Pedagogics, but also contain a specialisation in Physics, Chemistry or Technology/Computer Science. Besides working as engineers, graduates can work as teachers in the upper secondary school. It is a challenge for students in these double degree programmes to develop two professional identities [1]. Similar identity problems also exist for scientists who later add a second career as teacher, but they focus on one career at a time, which could make it easier [2]. In this study we focus on how alumni from Master of Science in Engineering and in Education describe their working tasks and careers, and how they perceive their success on the job market. Data were gathered by means of questionnaires and interviews. The development of the careers was addressed in a web questionnaire, sent out in the spring 2016 to alumni who graduated 2-9 years ago (49 respondents). To get more details, we invited 17 of the respondents to follow up interviews. The programme exit survey, given to all graduates within 12 months from their graduation, provides a picture of the introduction to working life (106 respondents). Preliminary results indicate that a little more than half of the graduates work in business, about 30% work as teachers, and about 10% are employed at universities. 2-9 years later, only a slightly higher percentage seems to have been working as teachers. About 10% of the alumni seem to have been working as engineers as well as teachers, and about 20% with education in another context than school. More than 50% of the respondents think that they have been favoured on the job market by having studied this particular double degree programme. About 40% express that they have been neither or both disadvantaged and favoured, and about 10% think that they have been disadvantaged. Some express that they were more favoured on the job market for teachers than on the job market for engineers. The interviews provide details about the introduction to working life. Those who work as teachers seem to have a busy first year. They perceive that their subject knowledge is appreciated and many have additional responsibilities as e.g. scheduler, head of department, or for the learning management system. When applying for jobs in engineering, many find it challenging to explain their qualifications to an employer. Especially outside of Stockholm, few employers seem to have knowledge of the programme and of double degrees in engineering and in education. Many respondents seem to find the first year as an engineer to be a soft start, but some data indicate that they may advance rapidly towards more difficult challenges and responsibilities.

  • 6.
    Cronhjort, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Nyberg, Sara
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Naeslund, Lars
    Civilingenjör och lärare – ett bidrag till hållbar ingenjörsutbildning2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har studerat hur kombinationsutbildningen Civilingenjör och lärare på KTH bidrar till att avhjälpa lärarbristen och därigenom bidrar till en hållbar ingenjörsutbildning. Studien bygger på data från enkäter och intervjuer med programmets alumner. Enkätmaterialet visar att cirka 30% av alumnerna arbetar i gymnasieskolan, 60% i näringslivet och 10% med övrigt, exempelvis i organisationer eller på universitet. Alumnerna anser sig vara gynnade på arbetsmarknaden. De har ett starkt självförtroende och en mycket positiv bild av den egna kompetensen.

  • 7.
    Cronhjort, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Weurlander, Maria
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    STUDENT PERSPECTIVES ON FLIPPED CLASSROOMS INENGINEERING EDUCATION2016In: Proceedings of the 12th International CDIO Conference / [ed] J. Björkqvist, K. Edström, R. J. Hugo, J. Kontio, J. Roslöf, R. Sellens, & S. Virtanen, CDIO , 2016, p. 1041-1050Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used focus group interviews and the student perspective in order to investigate student perceptions of flipped classroom in engineering education. The learning environment included web-based interactive video films, where students had to answer quizzes in order to continue seeing the films, and interactive in-class sessions with clickers. In general the students had experience of flipped classroom in many courses and subjects, and could compare different implementations in physics, mechanics and calculus. We studied perceived advantages, strengths, drawbacks, or difficulties, and students’ views on learning with flipped classroom. Overall, the students were positive, or in one case indifferent to flipped classroom. They saw many advantages, but they also pointed out difficulties and had many opinions about how a flipped learning environment was best implemented. In the interviews, they also expressed their views on learning and described how they studied. Many used rote learning and surface approaches to learning, but many also had a focus on understanding. Some declared an intention to focus on understanding but still used rote learning. Some students expressed a strategic approach to learning with focus on the examination. Heavy workload and a threatening examination system seem to favor surface approaches to learning also in a flipped classroom learning environment. One of our interviewees had dyslexia and described her experience and special conditions. We conclude by suggesting a list of five key elements for flipped classroom. We think that the interplay between these elements is important, and that they are considerably weaker without the support of the others.

  • 8.
    Thunberg, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    Filipsson, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    Cronhjort, Mikael
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Gymnasiets mål och högskolans förväntningar2006In: Nämnaren : tidskrift för matematikundervisning, ISSN 0348-2723, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 10-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Weurlander, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Organisation and leadership.
    Cronhjort, Mikael
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Filipsson, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Engineering students’ experiences of interactive teaching in calculus2017In: Higher Education Research and Development, ISSN 0729-4360, E-ISSN 1469-8366, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 852-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on an educational development initiative where peer instruction was used instead of traditional lectures in a calculus course for first-year engineering students. The aim of the study was to explore students’ experiences of this method. Data were collected by means of an open-ended questionnaire on two occasions: early and late in the course. The data were analyzed with an inductive content analysis. The findings comprise three qualitatively different ways to experience the interactive teaching method in calculus: (1) enthusiasm, (2) nuanced skepticism and (3) aversion. The categories differed regarding emotional reactions to the teaching, experiences of learning, conceptions of teaching and learning, and experiences of meaningfulness. Many students expressed enthusiasm for learning with peer instruction and noted that the method gave both teachers and students feedback on what students have difficulties with. These students perceived that they were responsible for their own learning. Other students experienced that peer instruction had some advantages and disadvantages, and preferred a mix between traditional lectures and peer instruction sessions. They seemed to believe that teachers and students share responsibility for learning. Some students expressed an aversion for peer instruction and the method seemed to challenge their beliefs of how teaching and learning is best conducted. Our study illustrates that educational development initiatives, even though based on research on student learning, do not benefit all students. One of the major obstacles seems to be that students’ underlying beliefs regarding teaching and learning may be counterproductive to the ideas behind the educational initiative. We suggest that beliefs regarding teaching and learning need to be addressed when introducing new teaching and learning methods.

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