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  • 1.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Johnsson Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Why experience changes attitudes to congestion pricing: The case of Gothenburg2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 85, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities have seen public support for congestion charges increase substantially after charges have been introduced. Several alternative explanations of this phenomenon have been suggested, but so far little evidence has been available to assess the relative importance of these explanations. We study attitudes to congestion pricing in Gothenburg before and after congestion charges were introduced in January 2013. Attitudes to the charges did indeed become more positive after the introduction, just as in previous cities. Using a two-wave postal survey, we separate contributions to the attitude change from a number of sources: benefits and costs being different than anticipated, use of hypothecated revenues, reframing processes, and changes in related attitudes such as attitudes to environment, equity, taxation and pricing measures in general. We conclude that the dominant reason for the attitude change is status quo bias, rather than any substantial changes in beliefs or related attitudes, although some of these factors also contribute. Contrary to a common belief, nothing of the attitude change is due to benefits being larger than anticipated.

  • 2.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Hamilton, Carl J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Papaix, Claire
    Factors driving public support for road congestion reduction policies: Congestion charging, free public transport and more roads in Stockholm, Helsinki and Lyon2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 78, p. 452-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an across-the-board survey conducted among residents of Stockholm, Helsinki and Lyon, we explore the opinions on three policy measures to combat road congestion: congestion charging, free public transport and building more roads. The support for the two latter policies is substantially higher than the support for congestion charging, which is only supported by a majority in Stockholm. Self-interest is important for the formation of the opinion to all three policies. However, fundamental values and general political views, indicated by four attitudinal factors, are even more important in forming opinions towards the three transport policies. Of all attitudinal factors, the one indicating environmental concern most influences the support for all policies. Equity concerns, however, increase the support for free public transport and opposition to taxation increases the support for building more roads. Our results further suggest that the opinions towards free public transport and building more roads can be mapped along the left right political axis, where Environment and Equity are to the left and Pricing and Taxation are to the right. However, the opinion towards congestion charging cuts right through the political spectrum. The impact of the fundamental values and self-interest variables are similar for Stockholm and Helsinki, indicating that even if experience increases the overall support for charging, it does not change the relative strength of different political arguments to any major extent.

  • 3.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Fler bussar i Stockholm bättre än nytt spårvägsnät: DN Debatt2011In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Flexibel trängselskatt ger flyt åt Stockholmstrafiken: DN Debatt2012In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Omstridd skatt fyller sex. Trängselskattens påverkan på trafiken är till och med större i dag än när den infördes. Att många ändå upplever att köerna blivit längre beror på flera stora byggprojekt som påverkar kapaciteten på vägarna. Trängselskatten bör därför bli mer flexibel och anpassas efter vägarbeten, årstider etc. Essingeleden bör också snarast avgiftsbeläggas. Det skulle enkelt minska trafiken där med 13 procent och göra Stockholm effektivare, renare och trevligare, skriver fyra transportforskare.

  • 5. Grush, Bern
    et al.
    Schortmann, Joaquín
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Martínez-Olagüe, Miguel
    GMAR: a framework for performance monitoring autonomous RUC2009In: Proceedings from the 16th World Congress for ITS Systems and Services, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Hamilton, Cark
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Decisive factors for the acceptability of congestion pricing2012Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    7 Principles for Regulating Autonomous Road User Charging2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    A Note on the Acceptance of Stockholm Congestion Charges2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Enforcement of road pricing under weak institutions2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion pricing has been successfully implemented in several cities in the industrialised world, including Singapore, London, Stockholm, and Milan. Those systems are reliant on an extensive institutional framework, including databases of vehicles and personal identities, electronic payment channels, and perhaps most importantly, a cost effective method for ex post debt collection. In a context where such institutional support is weak, e.g. a developing nation or a road network with a large share of international traffic, the existing framework is not fully applicable. This paper suggests a conceptual model for solving these challenges, based on the simple assumption that visiting vehicles will eventually come back to the system, and can be enforced on site when they do. As part of the concept, the vehicles themselves are used as collateral for any unpaid tolls, and the operator is actively selecting which vehicles to target when optimizing enforcement operations. For this conceptual model to function consistently, a few design requirements are identified, related to the technical construction as well as the charging rules and the underpinning legal framework. A formal model is proposed, and finally, the model is implemented in a simulation environment and is calibrated to get an order of magnitude estimate of the most important parameters and the potential benefits of the system.

  • 10.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Privacy in a Swedish km tax system2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Revisiting the costs of the Stockholm Congestion Charging System: (OECD/ITF white paper)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study revisits some of the key project participants and archive data, to provide a deeper understanding of what were the major cost drivers and whether it can be lower in future installations. The approach taken is to emphasise understanding of the particular circumstances rather than comparing aggregates with other seemingly similar systems. A main conclusion is that the political context, with a tight time plan and very high political risks for all involved, were key factors for the eventual costs of establishing the system.

  • 12.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Saving EETS2011In: Thinking highways, ISSN 1753-433XArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Seven Principles for establishing interoperability in Autonomous Road User Charging in Europe2008In: Proceedings of 15th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems, New York, USA, 2008, p. 5523-5534Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Why the EETS Directive will fail and what can be done to save it2009In: Proceedings from the 16th World Congress for ITS Systems and Services, Stockholm, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Why the European Directive on interoperable EFC will fail, and what can be done to save it2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    You paid what for a congestion charging system?: Comments to the cost of the implementation of the Stockholm Congestion Charging system2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Hamilton, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Costs and benefits of the European directive on road tolling interoperability2013In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 30, p. 221-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pricing of road use in the form of tolls, congestion charges, kilometre tax and other similar schemes, is becoming increasingly common. Each toll road operator has so far decided on its own how to design and implement systems for collecting road user charges, causing a plethora of system and scheme designs. As a measure to reduce the drawbacks of such differences, the European Union has passed legislation aiming at making available interoperable road charging services, valid across all charging systems a vehicle might pass during a European journey. This legislation is setting the bar high, requiring that virtually every charging system in the Union be covered. We analyse the costs and benefits caused by this regulation, and if an adjusted regulation can improve these results. We conclude that the new legislation yields a social loss ranging from 100 to just above 500 million Euros annually. Policy suggestions to improve this result are also provided.

  • 18.
    Hamilton, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Road pricing technology and technology cost2009In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, Leiden, Netherlands, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Hamilton, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Vertical separation as means to establish interoperability in road tolling in Europe2009Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hamilton, Carl J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    A proposed architechture for protecting driver privacy when implementing distance based road user charging in europe2008In: World Congr. Intell. Transp. Syst. ITS Am. Annu. Meet., 2008, p. 309-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thus far, solutions for distance based road user charging have typically been based on the road owner's requirements rather than those of the road users. As the techniques employed to measure road usage gets more sophisticated, for example by using satellite positioning, end user privacy is increasingly challenged. Road owners deciding on system design have to prioritize between many requirements competing for resources, and when doing so privacy is an early candidate to stand back. This paper argues that this is unnecessary, and that respect for privacy can be kept intact, without making any concessions on requirements for cost of ownership, ability to effectively enforce non compliant vehicles, or competitive system procurement. Portions of a charging concept with high privacy standards tested by the Oregon Department of Transport is here adapted and expanded to fit regulations and typical requirements from several European cases, presenting a holistic charging scheme.

  • 21.
    Hamilton, Carl J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Implementing Road Pricing: Standards, Institutions, Costs, and Public Acceptance2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been researched and written about road pricing, and especially how it affects traffic flow, congestion, the environment, and social welfare in general. This doctoral thesis analyses the implementation of road user charges rather than its effects. The dissertation consists of five separate papers, each addressing a subset of the topic. The first paper sheds light on the costs to introduce congestion taxes in Stockholm, and describes how public opinion and political risk lead to a system design that in all likelihood was more expensive than necessary. In the second paper the European regulation on interoperability between road charging system is evaluated from a benefit/cost perspective, which is found to be overly ambitious. Paper three builds upon the second, and suggests a general model for how costs and benefits interact in the case of road charging interoperability. Inpaper four a potential solution is presented for how the practical problems related to enforcement of road charging in an international context or in countries with weak institutions. The fifth and final paper analyses the public opinion of road charges, and especially urban congestion charges, using a survey conducted simultaneously in three European cities.

  • 22.
    Hamilton, Carl J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Privacy in Road User Charging2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Hamilton, Carl J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301).
    Regulating road user charging2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Hamilton, Carl J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Revisiting the cost of the Stockholm congestion charging system2011In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 836-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In January 2006, a system for congestion charging was introduced in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. The charging scheme was run in the form of a full-scale trial for seven months, after which it was deactivated, awaiting its evaluation and an advisory public referendum. Several parties, including representatives of the scientific community as well as media and special interest groups, have analysed and evaluated the system. A recurring theme in several of these analyses is that the cost to build and operate the system was excessive, compared to costs for other road charging installations.

    This study revisits some of the key project participants and archive data, to provide a deeper understanding of what were the major cost drivers and whether lower cost can be achieved in future installations. The approach taken is to emphasise understanding of the particular circumstances rather than comparing aggregates with other seemingly similar systems. The main conclusions include the identification of a rational actor paying an insurance against unacceptable risk, the importance of the election cycle, and the interplay between risk, acceptance, performance, and cost. A conceptual model for this interaction is suggested.

  • 25.
    Hamilton, Carl J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Vertical separation as means to establish interoperability in road charging in EuropeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hamilton, Carl J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Vertical separation as means to establish interoperability in road tolling in Europe2011In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1019-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As more European roads become tolled by various means, an increasing share of road users become subject to more than one tolling scheme in their regular driving. This can be especially burdensome for long distance hauliers, who may pass several countries and tolled motorway systems during the course of 1 day. For this reason, a range of projects have been initiated attempting to increase the level of interoperability between tolling systems, many of which with only limited success. By analyzing current incentives, costs and benefits for toll operators and road users, we conclude firstly that the current level of interoperability is likely to be lower than socially optimal, and secondly that a direct regulation making the provision of interoperability mandatory is likely to be in excess of what is socially optimal. We argue that vertically separating the monopolistic toll operators could be a cost-efficient way to achieve a socially optimal level of interoperability as a equilibrium market outcome.

  • 27.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Medfinansiering med vägavgifter: transportekonomiska argument för och emot2010Report (Other academic)
  • 28. Souche-Le Corvec, Stephanie
    et al.
    Raux, C.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Brundell-Freij, K.
    Kiiskila, K.
    Tervonen, J.
    Predicting the results of a referendum on urban road pricing in France: "the cry of Cassandra"?2016In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Abundant literature now exists on the acceptability of the new pricing measure represented by urban tolls. However, this literature contains few examples providing a "political" analysis of their introduction. Here, our aim is to study how the political behavior of individuals, identified on the basis of general attitudes regarding the principles of regulation and pricing, influences, or does not influence, attitudes with respect to urban tolls. Method We study the ex-ante determinants of a vote on urban tolls. We use the results of a survey performed in France in the framework of the European Project ExpAcc (Explanatory Factors of Road User Charging Acceptability). We process the data using a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) then perform ordered logit estimation. Result Regarding the specific question to the referendum, we show that it would be rejected by electors. We also show that there is a significant link between general attitudes to regulation by legislation, tax or pricing policies in transport on the one hand, and the vote in the referendum on tolls on the other. We confirm that individual self-interest matters a lot in political behaviour but that other types of motives also matter strongly Conclusion As a consequence, a real-life political analysis cannot be limited to classical "economic" variables, even if they matter too obviously. Lastly, our results should be placed in relation with those concerning the more global issue of the acceptability of a new pricing measure through, for example, that of the compensation to be implemented.

1 - 28 of 28
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