KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.

Holography, relativity and the spooky ellipsoids2006In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Display Holography: Advances In Display Holography / [ed] Bjelkhagen, HI, 2006, p. 228-235Conference paper (Refereed)

Abstract [en]

The further away from a house we move, the smaller it appears. We could say that we are in the centre of a "sphere of observation", which must reach the house before we can see it. The larger that sphere is, the smaller the house appears. This is natural to us and not difficult to understand. In Einstein's Special Relativity it is stated that the faster we move past a house, the shorter it appears. We state in this paper that this is because the faster we travel, the more our "sphere of observation" is elongated into an "ellipsoid of observation". The longer that ellipsoid is, the shorter the house appears. This contraction is not so natural to us, because to be observable the velocity has to be extremely high, almost close to the velocity of light. A similar phenomenon can, however, be studied when holography with ultrashort pulses is used for measurement. In this case the sphere of observation is also transformed into an ellipsoid of observation. Thus, according to our approach objects appear shorter because the definition of length (the metre) becomes longer, just as time moves slower because the definition of time (the second) becomes longer. The transformation of the sphere into an ellipsoid is however hidden to the observer both in the case of holography and in relativity. This spooky behaviour of the ellipsoid has resulted in a new mathematical theorem.

4.

Abramson, Nils

et al.

KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.

Boman, J.

Bonnevier, Björn

KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.

Plane intersections of rotational ellipsoids2006In: The American mathematical monthly, ISSN 0002-9890, E-ISSN 1930-0972, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 336-339Article in journal (Refereed)

A diagram borrowed from holographic interferometry has been applied to visualize phenomena in Special Relativity. It displays how a sphere of observation is by velocity elongated into an ellipsoid of observation and produces graphically all the well accepted equations of Einsteins Special Relativity. The Lorentz contraction, however, is explained as an elongation of the measuring rod, the meter, which by definition is based on either a specific number of wavelengths or the velocity of light multiplied by time. The diagram displays the total apparent object distortions including not only the Lorentz contraction but also larger apparent contractions and elongations caused by the classic Doppler Effect. The reasons of these deformations are the delays caused by variations in distance from observer to different parts of the moving object. In this paper we do not discuss the meaning of apparent, as compared to real, deformation.

Diffraction limited resolution as introduced by Abbe is well established, but interference limited resolution was not well known until holographic interferometry was introduced. The holodiagram is used to simplify holography and in a new way visualize the distribution, ratio, and relation among resolutions of different optical techniques, including relativistic phenomena. Resolution, when measured by optical methods based on the number of wavelengths of light, is defined in the following as the minimum distance between resolvable points, or the largest object needed to be resolved. Everywhere in the diagram this resolution is represented by two orthogonal diagonals of rhombs.

In holographic interferometry, there is usually a static distance separating the point of illumination and the point of observation. In Special Relativity, this separation is dynamic and is caused by the velocity of the observer. The corrections needed to compensate for these separations are similar in the two fields. We use the ellipsoids of the holodiagram for measurement and in a graphic way to explain and evaluate optical resolution, gated viewing, radar, holography, three-dimensional interferometry, Special Relativity, and light-in-flight recordings. Lorentz contraction together with time dilation is explained as the result of the eccentricity of the measuring ellipsoid, caused by its velocity. The extremely thin ellipsoid of the very first light appears as a beam aimed directly at the observer, which might explain the wave or ray duality of light and entanglement. Finally, we introduce the concept of ellipsoids of observation.

KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).

Holographic Metrology and Basic Physics2013In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 415, no 1, p. 012030-Article in journal (Refereed)

Abstract [en]

A short pulse of light is emitted from one point followed by a short observation from another point separated in space and time from the first. Even if space is full of scattering particles no sphere of expanding light is seen from outside by the observer, instead he finds himself inside an ellipsoid of light. We use this ellipsoid for measurement and in a graphic way to explain and evaluate optical resolution, gated viewing, radar, holography, 3-D interferometry and Special Relativity. In the later case the Lorentz Contraction together with the Time Dilation are explained as results of the eccentricity of the measuring ellipsoid, caused by its velocity. Finally, the extremely thin ellipsoid of the very first light appears as a beam aimed directly at the observer which might explain the wave or ray duality of light and entanglement.

KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Metrology and Optics.

INSTANT RANDOM INFORMATION2010In: SEARCH FOR FUNDAMENTAL THEORY / [ed] Amoroso RL, Rowlands P, Jeffers S, MELVILLE, NY: AMER INST PHYSICS , 2010, Vol. 1316, p. 113-117Conference paper (Refereed)

Abstract [en]

Information is carried by matter or by energy and thus Einstein stated that "no information can travel faster than light." He also was very critical to the "Spooky action at distance" as described in Quantum Physics. However, many verified experiments have proven that the "Spooky actions" not only work at distance but also that they travel at a velocity faster than light, probably at infinite velocity. Examples are Young's fringes at low light levels or entanglements. My explanation is that this information is without energy. In the following I will refer to this spooky information as exformation, where "ex-" refers to existence, the information is not transported in any way, it simply exists. Thus Einstein might have been wrong when he stated that no information can travel faster than light. But he was is right in that no detectable information can travel faster than light. Phenomena connected to entanglement appear at first to be exceptions, but in those cases the information can not be reconstructed until energy is later sent in the form of correlation using ordinary information at the velocity of light. In entanglement we see that even if the exformation can not be detected directly because its luck of energy it still can influence what happens at random, bemuse in Quantum Physics there is by definition no energy difference between two states that happen randomly.

KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.

Lorentz contraction, apparent or real2013In: Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Stockholm, Sweden, Aug. 12-15, 2013, 2013, p. 1547-1549Conference paper (Refereed)

Abstract [en]

The Michelson Morley interference experiment of 1887 indicated that the velocity of light is independent of the velocities of source and observer. This surprising result was in conflict with earlier calculations. To make theory and experiment in agreement Lorentz stated a contraction of rigid objects parallel to velocity. We discuss if this contraction is real or caused by the interference method of measurement. Our approach is to introduce a sphere of observation based on ultra short light pulses combined to ultra short observations. When the experimenter travels at high velocity this sphere is according to Lorentz contracted into an oblate ellipsoid. According to our proposed theory the sphere is instead elongated into a prolate ellipsoid. The result of this effect is that stationary objects appear contracted. Our results are in full agreement to Einsteins Special Theory of Relativity. To support our statements we introduce a novel method to measure the length of a travelling object that is independent of interferometry.

11.

Abramson, Nils H.

KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Metrology and Optics.

For 15 years, lensless microscopes have been constructed based on the use of holography, a digital CCD detector, and a computer for image reconstruction by use of, e.g., Fourier transformation. Thus, no lens is involved and therefore the conventional resolution limit of half the wavelength no longer applies. Instead of being limited by the wavelength, the resolution is in this case limited by how exact one can measure the phases of the light. It is remarkable that the interference-limited resolution is approximately 0.01X, whereas the diffraction-limited resolution is only of the order of 0.5X. It is my hope that by combining these two techniques it will be possible to increase the magnification in optical systems by at least an order of magnitude. The calculations at so indicate that information does not necessarily decrease with distance.