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  • 1. Aung, S. H.
    et al.
    Zhao, L.
    Nonomura, K.
    Oo, T. Z.
    Zakeeruddin, S. M.
    Vlachopoulos, N.
    Sloboda, Tamara
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Svanström, S.
    Cappel, Ute B.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, A.
    Grätzel, M.
    Toward an alternative approach for the preparation of low-temperature titanium dioxide blocking underlayers for perovskite solar cells2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 7, no 17, p. 10729-10738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anodic electrodeposition method is investigated as an alternative technique for the preparation of a titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) blocking underlayer (UL) for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Extremely thin Ti IV -based films are grown from aqueous acidic titanium(iii) chloride in an electrochemical cell at room temperature. This precursor layer is converted to the UL (ED-UL), in a suitable state for PSC applications, by undertaking a sintering step at 450 °C for half an hour. PSCs with the composition of the light-absorbing material FA 0.85 MA 0.10 Cs 0.05 Pb(I 0.87 Br 0.13 ) 3 (FA and MA denote the formamidinium and methylammonium cations, respectively) based on the ED-UL are compared with PSCs with the UL of a standard type prepared by the spray-pyrolysis method at 450 °C from titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate) (SP-UL). We obtain power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of over 20% for mesoscopic perovskite devices employing both ED-ULs and SP-ULs. Slightly higher fill factor values are observed for ED-UL-based devices. In addition, ED-ULs prepared by the same method have also been applied in planar PSCs, resulting in a PCE exceeding 17%, which is comparable to that for similar PSCs with an SP-UL. The preparation of ED-ULs with a lower sintering temperature, 150 °C, has also been examined. The efficiency of a planar PSC incorporating this underlayer was 14%. These results point out to the possibility of applying ED-ULs in flexible planar PSCs in the future.

  • 2.
    Svanström, Sebastian
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Mol & Condensed Matter Phys, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jacobsson, T. Jesper
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, Box 538, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sloboda, Tamara
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Giangrisostomi, Erika
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Inst Methods & Instrumentat Synchrotron Radiat Re, Albert Einstein Str 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Ovsyannikov, Ruslan
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Inst Methods & Instrumentat Synchrotron Radiat Re, Albert Einstein Str 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Rensmo, Hakan
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Mol & Condensed Matter Phys, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Cappel, Ute B.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Effect of halide ratio and Cs+ addition on the photochemical stability of lead halide perovskites2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 44, p. 22134-22144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead halide perovskite solar cells with multi-cation/mixed halide materials now give power conversion efficiencies of more than 20%. The stability of these mixed materials has been significantly improved through the addition of Cs+ compared to the original methylammonium lead iodide. However, it remains one of the most significant challenges for commercialisation. In this study, we use photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) in combination with visible laser illumination to study the photo-stability of perovskite films with different compositions. These include Br : I ratios of 50 : 50 and 17 : 83 and compositions with and without Cs+. For the samples without Cs and the 50 : 50 samples, we found that the surface was enriched in Br and depleted in I during illumination and that some of the perovskite decomposed into Pb-0, organic halide salts, and iodine. After illumination, both of these reactions were partially reversible. Furthermore, the surfaces of the films were enriched in organic halide salts indicating that the cations were not degraded into volatile products. With the addition of Cs+ to the samples, photo-induced changes were significantly suppressed for a 50 : 50 bromide to iodide ratio and completely suppressed for perovskites with a 17 : 83 ratio at light intensities exceeding 1 sun equivalent.

  • 3.
    Zhang, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Cappel, Ute B.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Jia, Donglin
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Zhou, Qisen
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Du, Juan
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Sloboda, Tamara
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Svanström, Sebastian
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Mol & Condensed Matter Phys, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Fredrik O. L.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Mol & Condensed Matter Phys, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lindblad, Andreas
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Mol & Condensed Matter Phys, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Giangrisostomi, Erika
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Inst Methods & Instrumentat Synchrotron Radiat Re, Albert Einstein Str 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Ovsyannikov, Ruslan
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Inst Methods & Instrumentat Synchrotron Radiat Re, Albert Einstein Str 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Liu, Jianhua
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Mol & Condensed Matter Phys, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gardner, James M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala Univ, Phys Chem, Dept Chem Angstrom, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Probing and Controlling Surface Passivation of PbS Quantum Dot Solid for Improved Performance of Infrared Absorbing Solar Cells2019In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 31, no 11, p. 4081-4091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface properties of colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are critical for the transportation and recombination of the photoinduced charge carrier in CQD solar cells, therefore dominating the photovoltaic performance. Herein, PbS CQD passivated using liquid-state ligand exchange (LSLX) and solid-state ligand exchange (SSLX) strategies are in detail investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), and solar cell devices are prepared to understand the link between the CQD surface properties and the solar cell function. PES using different energies in the soft and hard Xray regime is applied to study the surface and bulk properties of the CQDs, and the results show more effective surface passivation of the CQDs prepared with the LSLX strategy and less formation of lead-oxide. The CQD solar cells prepared with LSLX strategy show higher performance, and the photoelectric measurements suggest that the recombination of photoinduced charges is reduced for the solar cell prepared with the LSLX approach. Meanwhile, the fabricated solar cells exhibit good stability. This work provides important insights into how to fine-tune the CQD surface properties by improving the CQD passivation, and how this is linked to further improvements of the device photovoltaic performance.

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