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  • 1.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Carlsson, U.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    On the environmental performance of a high-speed train2014In: International Journal of Rail transportation, ISSN 2324-8378, E-ISSN 2324-8386, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental performance is one of the major considerations of future high-speed trains. Two main issues have been closely investigated in the Green Train programme, namely (1) energy use and (2) external noise. Analysis, development and testing in the Green Train programme have focused primarily on speeds up to 250 km/h, although the energy issues have also been studied at top speeds up to 320 km/h. The energy use is estimated for both long-distance trains with few stops and for fast regional services with relatively tight underway stops. These estimations result in an energy use of 46–62 Wh per passenger-km – or 30–40 Wh per seat-km – accounted as electricity taken from the public electric power grid. Improved aerodynamic performance, efficient space utilization, electric regenerative brakes, eco-driving advice and improved energy efficiency in the propulsion system make this possible. Trackside noise has also been analysed and tested in the programme. In order to maintain the same or lower noise level at 250 km/h as at lower speeds with current trains, a number of measures are proposed. These include bogie skirts, wheel absorbers and careful aerodynamic design of the front area and of all protruding objects. In sensitive residential areas, further improvement may be achieved with rail absorbers or low trackside screens.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Energy Consumption and Related Air Pollution for Scandinavian Electric Passenger Trains2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption of a number of modern Scandinavian electric passenger train operations is studied. The trains are X 2000, Regina, OTU (Øresundstoget), Type 71 “Flytoget”and Type 73 “Signatur”. Energy measurements are made in regular train operations inSweden, Denmark and Norway. For Regina and Flytoget long time series (at least oneyear) are available, while shorter time series are available for the other train types. Energydata for new trains (introduced since 1999) are collected in the years 2002-2005. Energydata from 1994 are used for X 2000 and are corrected for operational conditions of 2004.For comparison, energy data for an older loco-hauled train of 1994 is also used.In the present study energy consumption for propulsion, on-board comfort and catering, aswell as idling outside scheduled service, is determined. The energy consumption includeslosses in the railway’s electrical supply, i.e. the determined amount of energy is as suppliedfrom the public electrical grid.Emissions of air pollutants, due to production of the electric energy used, are alsodetermined, in this case CO2, NOx, HC and CO. Three alternative determinations are made:(1) Pollution from average electric energy on the common Nordic market;(2) Pollution from “Green” electric energy from renewable sources;(3) Marginal contribution for an additional train or passenger, short-term and long-term.The newly introduced EU Emissions Trading Scheme with emission allowances willmost likely limit the long-term emissions independently of the actual amount ofelectric energy used by electric trains.It is shown that the investigated modern passenger train operations of years 2002- 2005 usea quite modest amount of energy, in spite of the higher speeds compared with trains of1994. For comparable operations the energy consumption is reduced by typically 25 – 30 %per seat-km or per passenger-km if compared with the older loco-hauled trains. The reasonsfor the improved energy performance are:(1) Improved aerodynamics compared with older trains (reduced air drag);(2) Regenerative braking (i.e. energy is recovered when braking the train);(3) Lower train mass per seat;(4) Improved energy efficiency in power supply, partly due to more advancedtechnologies of the trains.Energy consumption per passenger-km is very dependent of the actual load factor (i.e. ratiobetween the number of passenger-km and the offered number of seat-km). For longdistance operations load factors are quite high, typically 55 - 60 % in Scandinavia. In thismarket segment energy consumption is determined to around 0.08 kWh per pass-km. Forfast regional services with electric trains, the load factors vary from typically 20 to about40 %, while the energy consumption varies from 0.07 kWh per pass-km (for the highestload factor) to 0.18 kWh/pass-km.However, also in the latter cases the investigated trains are very competitive to other modesof transport with regard to energy consumption and emissions of air pollutants.

  • 3. Dominguez, M.
    et al.
    Fernandez, A.
    Cucala, A. P.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Optimal design of metro automatic train operation speed profiles for reducing energy consumption2011In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 225, no F5, p. 463-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trains equipped with automatic train operation (ATO) systems are operated between stations according to the speed commands they receive from balises. These commands define a particular speed profile and running time, with associated energy usage (consumption). The design of speed profiles usually takes into account running times and comfort criteria, but not energy consumption criteria. In this article, a computer-aided procedure for the selection of optimal speed profiles, including energy consumption, which does not have an effect on running times, is presented. To this end, the equations and algorithms that define the train motion and ATO control have been modelled and implemented in a very detailed simulator. This simulator includes four independent modules (ATO, motor, train dynamics, and energy consumption), an automatic generator of every possible profile and a graphical assistant for the selection of speed commands in accordance with decision theory techniques. The results have been compared with measured data in order to adjust and validate the simulator. The implementation of this new procedure in the Madrid underground has led to a 13 per cent of energy saving. As a result, the decision has been taken to redesign all the ATO speed profiles on this underground.

  • 4.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    A simple method to determine train running resistance from full-scale measurements2007In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 221, no 3, p. 331-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a simple method to determine train running resistance. The resistance is determined by calculating the change in kinetic and potential energy of a coasting train between successive measurement positions. The strength of this method is that the measuring equipment needed is kept at a minimum and it is not limited to a track having a constant grade, thus making this method suitable, in particular, for long freight trains running in mountain areas. An error analysis is performed for this method and the probable error sources are discussed.

  • 5.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Vehicle Engineering.
    Energy Consumption and Running Time for Trains: modelling of running resistance and driver behaviour based on full scale testing2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The accuracy in determined energy consumption and runningtime of trains, by means of computer simulation, is dependent upon the various models used. This thesis aims at developing validated models of running resistance, train and of a generaldriver, all based on full scale testing.

    A partly new simple methodology for determining running resistance, called by energy coasting method is developed and demonstrated. An error analysis for this methodis performed. Running resistance of high speed train SJ X2000, conventional loco hauled passenger trains and freight trains is systematically parameterised. Influence of speed, number of axles, axle load, track type, train length,and train configuration is studied. A model taking into account the ground boundary layer for determining the influence ofmeasured head and tail wind is developed.

    Different factors and parameters of a train, that are vital for the accuracy in computed energy consumption and runningtime are identified, analysed and finally synthesized into a train model. Empirical models of the braking and the traction system, including the energy efficiency, are developed for the electrical locomotive of typeSJ Rc4, without energy regeneration.

    Driver behaviour is studied for freight trains and a couple of driving describing parametersare proposed. An empirical model of freight train driver behaviour is developed from fullscale testing and observations.

    A computer program, a simulator, is developed in Matlabcode, making use of the determined runningresistance and the developed models of train and driver. The simulator calculates the energy consumption and running time ofa single train. Comparisons between simulations and corresponding measurements are made. Finally, the influence of driving on energy consumption and running time is studied and demonstrated in some examples.

    The main conclusions are that:

    The method developed for determining running resistanceis quite simple and accurate. It can be used on any train andon any track.

    The running resistance of tested trains includes some interesting knowledge which is partly believed to be new. Mechanical running resistance is less than proportional to the actual axle load. Air drag increases approximately linearly with train length and the effect of measured head and tail wind on the air drag can be calculated if the groundboundary layer is considered.

    The developed train model, including running resistance, traction, braking etc. is quite accurate, as verified for the investigated trains.

    The driver model together with the train model insimulations, is verified against measurements and shows good agreement for energy consumption and running time.

    It is recommended to use a driver model, when calculating energy consumption and running times for trains. Otherwise, the energy consumption will most likely be over-estimated.This has been demonstrated for Swedish ordinary freighttrains.

  • 6.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Vehicle Engineering.
    Energy saving driving methods for freight trains2004In: COMPUTERS IN RAILWAY SIX / [ed] Allan, J; Brebbia, CA; Hill, RJ; Sciutto, G; Sone, S, 2004, Vol. 15, p. 901-909Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The power consumption of trains is a growing concern. Not only because of cost, but also because of pollution. It is possible to reduce train energy usage significantly, by driving the trains in an optimized way. In order to study optimized train driving, with respect to energy usage and running time, a computer program is developed by KTH from full-scale tests. By means of full-scale testing and computer simulations, a parametric study is done showing which parameters are significant and their quantitative impact on energy usage. This is the aim of this study. The study shows that energy usage is sensitive to the driver's look forward distance, the braking ratio, and the degree of coasting. By planning the driving and making use of coasting it is possible to save 10-15% in energy. If only unnecessary braking can be avoided, an energy saving of 5-7% can be achieved. Combining the studied parameters results in an even greater save in energy. The running time is only slightly affected. The results show that in Sweden, and many other countries, there is an unused potential for saving energy. This possibility should be of interest to the train operators. In this paper a review of the study is made, with conclusions.

  • 7.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Impact of train model variables on simulated energy usage and journey time2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several train model input variables, such as running resistance, line voltage, adhesion, braking release time and braking gain time, are studied. An analysis is performed on how variations in the variables impact relatively on calculated energy usage and running time of trains. The study shows that for the calculation of energy usage the simulations are most sensitive to variations in running resistance, followed by line voltage, adhesion, braking release time and braking gain time. For the running time, the study shows that variation in mechanical rolling resistance and air drag has a relatively small influence provided that the tractive force is big enough. If the line voltage and adhesion, which affect here the tractive force, drop below certain levels the running time increases dramatically. The braking release and gain times have little influence on the running time. The results also show which variables should be paid extra attention to, when constructing a train model.

  • 8.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Running resistance - results and analysis of full-scale tests with passenger and freight trains in Sweden2007In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 221, no 2, p. 183-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experimental results of running resistance tests. Running resistance is determined for conventional passenger trains, freight trains, and the X2 high-speed train. The influence of variables such as speed, number of axles, number of coaches, axle load, track type, and train length is studied. The running resistance is expressed in a general form by a second degree polynomial. The three terms in the polynomial are functions of these variables. The magnitude of the first term is speed independent and varies with number of axles, axle load, and type of track. The second term varies with speed and train length. No influence of axle load is distinguished. The third term is related to the air drag and varies with the speed squared and train configuration. It can be divided into two parts. One part is constant and depends upon the front and rear of the train, and another part increases approximately linearly with train length.

  • 9.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Running resistance and energy consumption of ore trains in Sweden2009In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 223, no 2, p. 189-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Running resistance of ore trains consisting of Uad-type wagons is determined from full-scale measurements on Malmbanan. Tests are also run in curves with the Uad equipped with three piece bogies where the axles are non-steerable and an ore wagon equipped with bogies allowing the axles to better align themselves on straight track and more radially in curves, thus making them steerable. Influence of speed, axle load, curve radii, and train length is studied and quantified. The running resistance is parameterized and expressed in a general way so that it can be calculated for any Swedish ore train consisting of Uad-type wagons. The study shows that the increase in running resistance is linear due to the increasing axle load on tangent track and train length. The increase in resistance due to curves is significant and increases as the curve radius decreases. If the axles align themselves radially, the curve resistance reduces by 40 per cent, compared with the Uad. The results show which parameters in a running resistance formula should be paid extra attention when constructing a train model for simulation purposes. A comparison is made between ore trains and ordinary Swedish loco-hauled freight trains. The energy consumption of an ore train is not much affected if the operational speed increases from 50 to 60 km/h. Also, a reduced aerodynamic drag has a very little effect on the consumption due to the low operational speed. In this article, a review of the study is made with conclusions.

  • 10.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Green Train Energy Consumption: Estimations on High-Speed Rail Operations2009Report (Other academic)
1 - 10 of 10
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