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  • 1.
    Blomfeldt, Thomas O. J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Kuktaite, Ramune
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Eva
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Mechanical Properties and Network Structure of Wheat Gluten Foams2011In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1707-1715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Article reports the influence of the protein network structure on the mechanical properties of foams produced from commercial wheat gluten using freeze-drying. Foams were produced from alkaline aqueous solutions at various gluten concentrations with or without glycerol, modified with bacterial cellulose nanosized fibers, or both. The results showed that 20 wt % glycerol was sufficient for plasticization, yielding foams with low modulus and high strain recovery. It was found that when fibers were mixed into the foams, a small but insignificant increase in elastic modulus was achieved, and the foam structure became more homogeneous. SEM indicated that the compatibility between the fibers and the matrix was good, with fibers acting as bridges in the cell walls. IR spectroscopy and SE-HPLC revealed a relatively low degree of aggregation, which was highest in the presence of glycerol. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed distinct differences in HMW-glutenin subunits and gliadin distributions for all of the different samples.

  • 2. Rombouts, I.
    et al.
    Lagrain, B.
    Delcour, Jan A.
    Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Centre (LFoRCe), KULeuven, Belgium.
    Türe, Hasan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Johansson, E.
    Kuktaite, Ramune
    Crosslinks in wheat gluten films with hexagonal close-packed protein structures2013In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 51, p. 229-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat gluten/glycerol (WGG) films were extruded with aqueous ammonia/salicylic acid or urea to investigate the reactions contributing to their hexagonal close-packed protein structures and material properties. The addition of aqueous ammonia and salicylic acid increased the pH, which, in turn, increased the level of intermolecular disulfide and lanthionine cross-links in the WGG films. Increased protein cross-linking reactions resulted in higher material strength and tensile modulus. These cross-linking reactions and the resulting material properties were similar for WGG films with 7.5% and 10% aqueous ammonia. Added urea into WGG film partially degraded into cyanate and ammonium. Cyanate subsequently reacted with lysine and cysteine to ε-carbamyllysine and S-carbamylcysteine, respectively. Even though these reactions resulted in a more alkaline reaction environment, hereby favoring disulfide bond formation and decreasing protein extractability, they also prevented the involvement of cysteine and lysine in protein cross-linking. The alkylation of these reactive amino acids, together with the plasticizing effect of urea, led to lower material strength and elastic modulus with increasing levels of urea.

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