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  • 1.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Zhang, Da
    Scania CV AB.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. Scania CV AB.
    Modelling Support for a Linked Data Approach to Tool Interoperability2016In: The Second International Conference on Big Data, Small Data, Linked Data and Open Data, ALLDATA, Lisbon, February 21 - 25, 2016., 2016, 42-47 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linked Data is increasingly being adopted for the integration of software tools, especially with the emergence of the Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) standard on tool interoperability. In this paper, we present a modelling approach – with accompanying tool support – for the specification of Linked Data resources, focusing on the particular needs of tool-chain development. The approach provides graphical models for the specification of constraints on resources being shared in the tool-chain. Moreover, it aims to maintain a centralized understanding and management of the overall information model being handled in the federated tool-chain architecture. This is achieved through an integrated set of modelling views that cover the early phases of tool-chain development.

  • 2.
    El-khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    A Model-Driven Engineering Approach to Software Tool Interoperability based on Linked Data2016In: International Journal On Advances in Software, ISSN 1942-2628, E-ISSN 1942-2628, Vol. 9, no 3 & 4, 248-259 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development environments need to shift from the current document-based, towards an informationbased focus, in which the information from the various engineering software tools is well integrated and made digitally accessible throughout the development lifecycle. To meet this need, a Linked Data approach to software tool interoperability is being adopted, specifically through the Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) interoperability standard. In this paper, we present a model-driven engineering approach to toolchain development that targets the specific challenges faced when adopting the technologies, standards and paradigm expected of Linked Data and the OSLC standard. We propose an integrated set of modelling views that supports the early specification phases of toolchain development, as well as its detailed design and implementation phases. An open-source modelling tool was developed to realize the proposed modelling views. The tool includes a code generator that synthesizes a toolchain model into almost-complete OSLC-compliant code. The study is based on a case study of developing a federated OSLC-based toolchain for the development environment at the truck manufacturer Scania AB.

  • 3.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Making Interoperability Visible: A Novel Approach to Understand Interoperability in Cyber-Physical Systems Toolchains2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In CPS development and production environments, tightly integrated processes include different engineering disciplines, development and production departments, and software tools working together, where all of the technical engineering processes become strictly intertwined. CPS development and production toolchains have a highly heterogeneous nature, and supporting toolchain architects is necessary for improving the understanding of the interrelationships between tools. To this end, this thesis mainly concentrates on the interoperability of CPS toolchains with an ambition to improve the understanding of interoperability.

    A literature survey was conducted to analyze the literature on interoperability with an aim to understand how the interoperability is assessed. Findings of the literature review showed that the existing methods mainly use maturity-like assessment models to assess interoperability and they focus on selective aspects of interoperability. These models use distinct levels and do not guide the stakeholders on how to improve the current state of interoperability. This revealed the need for a more flexible approach for assessing interoperability of CPS toolchains.

    A case study was developed and exercised with an ambition to test the applicability of the visualization approach. In total, three different visualization techniques were evaluated: circular ideogram, node-link diagram, and balloon layout with a clustering algorithm as an extended version of node-link diagram.

    This thesis concluded by highlighting that data visualizations and visual analytics are not only a method for understanding the interoperability of CPS toolchains, but also a necessity. Data visualization approaches create many opportunities to make interoperability finally visible and the CPS industry should focus its effort on appropriate data collection, usage, and sharing methods in order to best use data visualization and visual analytics technologies.

  • 4.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Measuring Tool Chain Interoperability in Cyber-physical Systems2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-Physical Systems are developed through complex engineering projects that include many stakeholders and a variety of tools and processes from different engineering backgrounds. Interoperability in these development tool chains is an important aspect for well-integrated systems. Furthermore, since full tool chain interoperability is neither possible nor necessarily desired, measuring interoperability in development environments is essential for setting the right priorities. This systematic literature review gives an overview of the literature about interoperability assessment methods. A survey was conducted through digital libraries and a total of 42 papers were read. Out of these papers, 24 different interoperability assessment models were identified and analyzed. A striking find of this study is that no proof of industrial adaptation of these models was found. In this paper, we analyze the reasons for this lack of validation in the context of CPS development. 

  • 5.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Visual Analytics Towards Tool Interoperabilty: A Position Paper2016In: Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications, SCITEPRESS , 2016, 141-147 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex-engineering projects include artefacts from several engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical, software components, processes and plans. While software tools can be powerful in each individual discipline, it is difficult to build integrated tool chains. Moreover, it is challenging to evaluate and update existing tool chains. At the same time, the field of visualization is getting mature and visual analytics promises an opportunity to develop knowledge, methods, technologies and practice for exploiting and combining the strengths of human and data. We consider this as a potential to evaluate current tool chains. This position paper discusses the visualization and visual analytics practices to assess existing tool chains performance.

  • 6.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Making Interoperability Visible: Data Visualization of Cyber-Physical Systems Development Tool Chains2016In: Journal of Industrial Information Integration, ISSN 2452-414X, Vol. 4, 26-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical system (CPS) development cycles include various engineering disciplines, artefacts, and areas of expertise. There are powerful software tools used in these cycles, which can be put to good use by one individual discipline but are challenging to integrate with other tools. This paper discusses a node-link diagram (NLD) visualization technique that can be used to visualize interoperability in CPS development tool chains. The purpose is to help tool chain developers assess the current interoperability status and make decisions on integration scenarios accordingly. To this end, a case study is introduced and explained as an example. Data about the tool chain, which contains different structures relating to the software tools usage and the interactions between them, are provided by ABB Corporate Research Centre. These structures are used in creation of visualizations for making interoperability visible in CPS development tool chains and applicability of each visualization technique is discussed with the interoperability perspective. In this study, we also exercised a clustering algorithm for an extended case study and discussed the use of visualizations to improve interoperability in CPS development environments.

  • 7.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Assessing tool chain interoperability in cyber-physical systems: A systematic reviewIn: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are developed using artefacts from several engineering disciplines. Powerful software tools are utilized by each individual discipline, but it remains challenging to connect these into tool chains for increased efficiency. To support this endeavour, a survey of the literature on interoperability assessment was performed to identify concepts that could be valuable to transfer to the tool integration field.

    Interoperability assessment models were identified as potentially valuable to transfer, but lacking in industrial uptake. To avoid importing inefficient concepts, this lack of impact was analysed. Three main problems were identified as; the models either use complex metrics, separate levels or combinations of these; they concentrate on selective aspects of interoperability; and they focus on structure and content, providing little guidance on how to deal with problems. Visualization and visual analytics is discussed as a promising direction to be used during assessment of tool integration. Based on this approach it is suggested that the following concepts are transferred: the elaborated parts of system contexts; types of interoperability; and the theory connected to interoperability as a balance between interests rather than an optimization of a single, uniform metric. It is also suggested that interoperability researchers consider visualization and visual analytics techniques in their own contexts.

  • 8.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Johansson, Morgan
    Hansen, Stefan
    Data Visualization of A Cyber-Physical Systems Development Toolchain: An Integration Case Study2017In: ALLDATA 2017: The Third International Conference on Big Data, Small Data, Linked Data and Open Data, Venice, Italy: IARIA XPS Press , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) requires various engineering disciplines, artifacts, and areas of expertise to collaborate. There are powerful software tools, which are used during CPS development, but it is often challenging to integrate these tools with each other. This paper proposes a data visualization approach to understanding current interoperability status and the integration needs in CPS development toolchains, and make decisions on potential integration scenarios accordingly. To this end, a case study is introduced based on a toolchain for the development of an embedded application at ABB Corporate Research. The node-link diagram (NLD) data visualization technique was used to understand integration needs and priorities. The study showed that the NLD visualization has the potential to inform toolchain architects about the interoperability situation and help them to make decisions accordingly, especially for small toolchains. Moreover, the integration solution is implemented and the result has been compared with the non-integration study.

  • 9.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tasala Gradin, Katja
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Interoperable Toolchains in Cyber-physical Systems with a Sustainability Perspective2017In: IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability Proceedings, Phoenix, AZ, USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of cyber-physical systems (CPS) requires various engineering disciplines, artifacts, and areas of expertise to collaborate. Powerful software tools are used during this development process, but while successful in one individual discipline, it is often challenging to integrate with other tools. Several studies have been done on integration solutions for these toolchains. However, the possibility of including the sustainability concept to the interoperability strategies is rarely studied. This paper discusses an approach to include sustainability aspects while improving the interoperability of toolchains in CPS manufacturing. To this end, an automobile manufacturing process has been studied as a use case, and relevant sustainability metrics for each stage of the process are identified. Life cycle sustainability assessment methodology is used to identify the sustainability metrics, and the use case is employed to exemplify how some of these metrics can be integrated with interoperable toolchains to illustrate the applicability of the approach.

  • 10.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH-Royal Insititute of Technology.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    An  Investigation of Functionalities of the Future Toolchain of Aerospace Industry2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is advocated as one important means to deal with increasing product complexity. In this paper, we investigate the increasing interest and use of MBSE in the aerospace domain. The growth of MBSE tools causes new challenges in the corresponding tool-chain development including data and information management, tool’s applicability identification, tool-integration, etc. In this paper, a literature survey into trends and usages of large-scale MBSE tool-chains is presented. It is found that the key functionalities include functional roles, elements, abstraction levels and tool integration techniques. Additionally, we propose a methodology to provide guidance in optimizing future MBSE tool-chain functionalities for the aero-industry. In closing, we present a case study in order to illustrate the decision-making process required to develop expected tool-chains by the proposed methodology.

  • 11.
    Shariatzadeh, Navid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lindberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Sivard, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Using Linked Data with Information Standards for Interoperability in Production Engineering2015In: RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN MANUFACTURING: KEY ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE FACTORIES OF THE FUTURE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 48TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS, 2015, 502-507 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design and verification of factory layout and material flow is a multidisciplinary, knowledge-intensive task which requires a collaborative framework where all specialists involved can communicate, interact, manage and visualize different models. However, the communication of digital models comes with challenges. First of all the information resides in various systems and applications, in different formats and with various levels of detail and viewpoints. Moreover, models share common properties and it is common that these properties influence each other. Hence modification of one model should be propagated to other models, which need to be coordinated.To deal with the data exchange and integration problem, information standards such as ISO 10303 have been developed. ISO 10303 (STEP) has shown a strong capability to represent rich information models in a wide variety of industrial domains for the purpose of exchanging data. However, STEP is intrinsically complex and sometimes adds unnecessary level of detail to information to be shared. On the other hand, the Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) initiative provides a minimalistic set of standardized information models, focusing on the most common concepts within a particular domain. Assuming a loosely-coupled distributed architecture of tools and services, OSLC adopts the Linked Data approach to ensure data consistency across the data resources.How can we combine STEP’s rich information model for data exchange, with OSLC’s minimalistic approach for data integration?The aim of this work is to show the applicability of using these two complementary paradigms – and their corresponding standards - to support interoperability and data integration in a heterogeneous IT environment for material flow analysis and layout design. To this end, an industrial case study was implemented through the information standard STEP and the OSLC specifications to verify the suggested approach.

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