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  • 1.
    Beadle, H.W.P.
    et al.
    Wollongong University.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Smith, Mark T.
    Location Augmented Mobile Computing and Communication Systems1997In: Proc. Third Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC’97), 1997, p. 827-831Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Beadle, H.W.P.
    et al.
    Wollongong University.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Smith, Mark T.
    Location Based Personal Mobile Computing and Communication1998In: Proceedings of 9th IEEE Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, IEEE , 1998, p. 23-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Beadle, H.W.P.
    et al.
    Wollongong University.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Smith, Mark T.
    Using location and environment awareness in mobile communications1997In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, ICICS, IEEE , 1997, p. 1781-1785Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are investigating the use of badge based wearable computers to create highly mobile location and environment aware systems. When coupled to intelligent servers the badges provide an unparalleled platform for human centred information environments. This paper describes the architecture of the badge, its distributed computing environment, and presents initial results of application development trials conducted by a class of telecommunications students at KTH.

  • 4. Borkar, A.
    et al.
    Hayes, M.
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Communication Systems, CoS (closed 2012-01-01).
    A template matching and ellipse modeling approach to detecting lane markers2010In: Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 12th International Conference, ACIVS 2010, Sydney, Australia, December 13-16, 2010, Proceedings, Part II, Springer, 2010, no PART 2, p. 179-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lane detection is an important element of most driver assistance applications. A new lane detection technique that is able to withstand some of the common issues like illumination changes, surface irregularities, scattered shadows, and presence of neighboring vehicles is presented in this paper. At first, inverse perspective mapping and color space conversion is performed on the input image. Then, the images are cross-correlated with a collection of predefined templates to find candidate lane regions. These regions then undergo connected components analysis, morphological operations, and elliptical projections to approximate positions of the lane markers. The implementation of the Kalman filter enables tracking lane markers on curved roads while RANSAC helps improve estimates by eliminating outliers. Finally, a new method for calculating errors between the detected lane markers and ground truth is presented. The developed system showed good performance when tested with real-world driving videos containing variations in illumination, road surface, and traffic conditions.

  • 5. Borkar, A.
    et al.
    Hayes, M.
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Detecting lane markers in a complex environment using a single camera approach2011In: Proceedings of the 8th IASTED International Conference on Signal Processing, Pattern Recognition, and Applications, 2011, p. 15-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lane detection is an important application of driver assistance. In this paper, a new technique for detecting lane markers that is able to cope with many complex conditions is presented. Some of these conditions include dynamic illumination, scattered shadows, and the presence of neighboring vehicles to name a few. The input image is first pre-processed with a perspective removal transformation followed by a color space conversion. Then, the core elements of the proposed technique consisting of template matching, lane region merging, elliptical projections, and parametric tracking are explained. A formal error metric used in performance evaluation is also introduced. Finally, quantitative analyses show that the developed system performs well in real-world driving conditions with variations in illumination, traffic, and road surface quality.

  • 6.
    Borkar, Amol
    et al.
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Hayes, Monson
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    A New Multi-Camera Approach For Lane Departure Warning2011In: ACIVS 2011: Proceedings of Acivs 2011, 2011, p. 58-69Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a new multi camera approach to Lane Departure Warning (LDW). Upon acquisition, the captured images are transformed to a bird's-eye view using a modified perspective removal transformation. Then, camera calibration is used to accurately determine the position of the two cameras relative to a reference point. Lane detection is performed on the front and rear camera images which are combined using data fusion. Finally, the distance between the vehicle and adjacent lane boundaries is determined allowing to perform LDW. The proposed system was tested on real world driving videos and shows good results when compared to ground truth.

  • 7.
    Borkar, Amol
    et al.
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Hayes, Monson
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    A Non Overlapping Camera Network: Calibration and Application Towards Lane Departure Warning2011In: IPCV 2011: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Image Processing, Computer Vision, and Pattern Recognition, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a new multi camera approach toLane DepartureWarning (LDW). First, a perspective removaltransformation is applied to the camera captured images toconvert them into bird’s-eye view images. Then, the positionof the two cameras relative to a reference point is accuratelydetermined using a new calibration technique. Lane detectionis performed on the front and rear camera images who resultsare combined using data fusion. Finally, LDW is implementedby determining the distance between the vehicle andadjacent lane boundaries. The proposed system was tested onreal world driving videos and shows good results when comparedto ground truth.

  • 8. Borkar, Amol
    et al.
    Hayes, Monson
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    A Novel Lane Detection System With Efficient Ground Truth Generation2012In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 365-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new night-time lane detection system and its accompanying framework are presented in this paper. The accompanying framework consists of an automated ground truth process and systematic storage of captured videos that will be used for training and testing. The proposed Advanced Lane Detector 2.0 (ALD 2.0) is an improvement over the ALD 1.0 or Layered Approach with integration of pixel remapping, outlier removal, and prediction with tracking. Additionally, a novel procedure to generate the ground truth data for lane marker locations is also proposed. The procedure consists of an original process called time slicing, which provides the user with unique visualization of the captured video and enables quick generation of ground truth information. Finally, the setup and implementation of a database hosting lane detection videos and standardized data sets for testing are also described. The ALD 2.0 is evaluated by means of the user-created annotations accompanying the videos. Finally, the planned improvements and remaining work are addressed.

  • 9.
    Borkar, Amol
    et al.
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Hayes, Monson
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Mark T
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Advanced Lane Detection Using Elliptical Lane Marker Grouping and Cascaded Templates2010In: ACIVS 2010: Proceedings of ACIVS 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Borkar, Amol
    et al.
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Hayes, Monson
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Mark T
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    An Efficient Method to Generate Ground Truth For Evaluating Lane Detection Systems2010In: 2010 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ACOUSTICS, SPEECH, AND SIGNAL PROCESSING, 2010, p. 1090-1093Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this document, a new and efficient method to specify the ground truth locations of lane markers is presented. The method comprises of a novel process called Time-Slicing that provided the user with a unique visualization of the video. Coupled with automation via spline interpolation, the quick generation of necessary ground truth information is achieved. Videos recorded from a vehicle while driving on local city roads and highways are marked with ground truth information for use in testing. The performance of a variety of lane detection systems is compared to the ground truth and the error is computed for each system. Finally, quantitative analysis shows that the reference lane detection system presented in [1] produces the most accurate lane detections which is depicted by the smallest error.

  • 11.
    Borkar, Amol
    et al.
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Hayes, Monson
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Detecting Lane Markers in Complex Environments Using a Monocular Camera2011In: SPPRA 2011: Proceedings of the Eighth IASTED International Conference on Signal Processing, Pattern Recognition, and Applications, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Borkar, Amol
    et al.
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Hayes, Monson
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Detecting Lane Markers in Complex Urban Environments2010In: 2010 IEEE 7th International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), 2010, p. 727-732Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a new methodology for detecting lane markers that is able to withstand many challenging situations like scattered shadows, illumination changes, and presence of neighboring vehicles to name a few. At first, the input image undergoes a perspective removal followed by a color space conversion. Then, the core elements consisting of template matching, lane region merging, and elliptical projections are explained. Finally, the developed system showed good results when tested on 15 minutes of real-world driving videos containing variations in illumination, traffic, and road surface conditions.

  • 13.
    Borkar, Amol
    et al.
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Hayes, Monson
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Lane Detection and Tracking Using a Layered Approach2009In: ADVANCED CONCEPTS FOR INTELLIGENT VISION SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] BlancTalon, J; Philips, W; Popescu, D; Scheunders, P, 2009, p. 474-484Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new night-time lane detection system that extends the idea of a Layered Approach [1] is presented in this document. The extension includes the incorporation of (1) inverse Perspective Mapping (IPM) to generate a bird's-eye view of the road surface, (2) application of Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) to rid outliers from the data., and (3) Kalman filtering to smooth the output of the lane tracker. Videos of driving scenarios on local city roads and highways were used to test the new system. Quantitative analysis shows higher accuracy in detecting lane markers in comparison to other approaches.

  • 14.
    Borkar, Amol
    et al.
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Hayes, Monson
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Lane Detection Using Constraints of Parallel Lines2011In: ICCE 2011: Proceedings of the 29th IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Borkar, Amol
    et al.
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Hayes, Monson
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Polar Randomized Hough Transform For Lane Detection Using Loose Constraints of Parallel Lines2011In: 2011 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ACOUSTICS, SPEECH, AND SIGNAL PROCESSING, 2011, p. 1037-1040Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a new methodology for detecting lane markers that exploits the parallel nature of lane boundaries on the road. First, the input image is pre-processed and filtered to detect lane marker features. Then, using the Polar Randomized Hough Transform that is introduced in this paper, lines are fitted through the detected features and the orientation of each line is evaluated. By finding near parallel lines separated by a constraint specified distance, false signalling caused by artifacts in the image is greatly reduced. The proposed system was tested using a real world driving videos and showed good results despite the presence of neighboring vehicles, shadows, and irregularities on the road surface.

  • 16.
    Borkar, Amol
    et al.
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Hayes, Monson
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Robust Lane Detection and Tracking With Ransac and Kalman Filter2009In: 2009 16TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOLS 1-6, 2009, p. 3225-3228Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous paper, a simple approach to lane detection using the Hough transform and iterated matched filters was described [1]. This paper extends this work by incorporating an inverse perspective mapping to create a bird's-eye view of the road, applying random sample consensus to help eliminate outliers due to noise and artifacts in the road, and a Kalman filter to help smooth the output of the lane tracker.

  • 17.
    Borkar, Amol
    et al.
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Hayes, Monson
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Pankanti, Sharath
    IBM T.J. Watson Research Center.
    A Layered Approach to Robust Lane Detection at Night2009In: CIVVS 2009: 2009 IEEE WORKSHOP ON COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN VEHICLES AND VEHICULAR SYSTEMS, 2009, p. 51-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A layered approach is designed to address many of the real-world problems that an inexpensive lane detection system would encounter. A region of interest is first extracted from the image followed by an enhancement procedure to manipulate the shape of the lane markers. The extracted region is then converted to binary using an adaptive threshold. A model based line detection system hypothesizes lane position. Finally, an iterated matched filtering scheme estimates the final lane position. The developed system shows good performance when tested on real-world data that contains fluctuating illumination and a variety of traffic conditions.

  • 18.
    Hager, Rolf
    et al.
    Aachen Univ of Technology, Aachen, Germany.
    Klemets, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    Computer Science at Columbia University, New York NY, USA.
    Smith, Mark T.
    Hewlett Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto.
    Reichert, Frank
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    MINT: A mobile Internet router1993In: Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference '93, IEEE Press, 1993, p. 318-321Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mobility of portable computers and workstations is not transparent to users. They adjust to reduced services as long as they have no connection to a supporting infrastructure. The goal of the Walkstation project is to realize a user transparent mobile IP router (MINT) for wireless links (infrared and radio) operating at 1-10 Mbit/sec. For the study of user behavior and system characteristics, a campuswide testbed (ERIC) with 50-100 stations is planned to demonstrate the new solutions found in the Walkstation II project.

  • 19.
    Hans, Mat
    et al.
    HP.
    Hoover, Christopher
    HP.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Smith, Mark T.
    HP.
    Badge 4 Embedded Development Kit: Bastille Day Release2002Report (Other academic)
  • 20. Hans, Mat
    et al.
    Slayden, April
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Banerjee, Banny
    Gupta, Arvind
    Djammer, a New Digital, Mobile, Virtual Personal Musical Instrument2005In: ICME 2005: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Named for the combination of the words DJ and Jamming, the DJammer allows its users to manipulate their music using standard DJ techniques as well as interact with others in virtual jam sessions through the exchange and sharing of multiple music streams. In this paper, we describe the evolution of the DJammer including the interactive process and evaluation which led to the latest prototype. This latest prototype allows its users to "touch" their digital music through single-handed manipulation and control. By allowing both creativity and communication with digital music, the DJammer is a new musical instrument which takes the next step in the evolution of portable music players.

  • 21. Hutterer, Peter
    et al.
    Smith, Mark T
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Ankcorn, John
    Piekarski, Wayne
    Thomas, Bruce
    A Lightweight UI Software Infrastructure for Wrist-based Displays: If your microwave oven could talk to your watch, what would it say?2005In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Information Technology and Applications, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supporting a rich array of information sources is a key element to making highly mobile computing devices usable by the wider community. It is our belief that there will not be one specific killer application for this form of computing device, but an array of applications that the user can easily access. These applications will be context sensitive and associated with a range of activities. We have developed a custom watch platform that acts as a display for presenting this type of information to the user. In order to make the watch as small and low powered as possible, we have offloaded the processing onto an external mobile device we term a personal server, which is also carried by the user. We present our lightweight software infrastructure supporting a wrist-based display communicating with a portable personal server.

  • 22. Hutterer, Peter
    et al.
    Smith, Mark T
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Thomas, Bruce
    Piekarski, Wayne
    Ankcorn, John
    Lightweight User Interfaces for Watch Based Displays2005In: AUIC 2005: Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian User Interface Conference, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ubiquitous mobile computing devices offer the opportunity to provide easy access to a rich set of information sources. Placing the display for this computing device on the user's wrist allows for quick, easy, and pervasive access to this information. In this paper we describe a user interface model and a set of five applications we have developed, with the aim of providing a user interface that supports lightweight interactions. Our goal is to make our pervasive watch as simple to use as a common wrist-watch worn today.

  • 23.
    Kang, Jinwoo
    et al.
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Borkar, Amol
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Yeung, Angelique
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Nong, Nancy
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Mark T
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Hayes, Monson
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Short Wavelength Infrared Face Recognition For Personalization2006In: ICIP 2006: Prodeedings of the 2006 International Conference on Image Processing, 2006, Vol. 126, no 6Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Kanter, Theo G.
    et al.
    Ericsson.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Smith, Mark T.
    Hewlett- Packard Research Laboratories, Palo Alto, California, USA.
    Rethinking Wireless Internet with Smart Media2001In: Proceedings of the Nordic Radio Symposium 2001 (NRS'01), 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Third-generation mobile networks (3G) will support the end-to-end delivery of IP to wireless end-devices. The cost of this infrastructure and the moderate data-rates that can be expected have lead to proposals for a mixed 3G and wireless LAN (WLAN) approach. WLAN delivers much higher data-rates, currently up to 11 Mbps (IEEE 802.11b). Field trials with public WLAN extensions to Gigabit Ethernet networks show outdoor coverage of several hundred meters. Our previous work demonstrated smart delivery of multimedia involving agents running in the mobile, the access point, and the content provider. This allowed us to dynamically adapt both the application and network behavior (to each other) in order to meet the criteria for specific applications. In this paper, we extend this approach by adding service knowledge meta-data to the multimedia content (creating so-called Smart Media) to take advantage of the fact that for non real-time media content, which needs ample bandwidth to deliver, there does not need to be a coupling between transfer rate and playout rate. This approach enables the agent to further free resources for the delivery of streaming media to mobile users. In light of this approach, we propose novel network topologies with WLAN access using Smart Media Packets, for which we examine the minimal requirements for delivering the services.

  • 25.
    Klemets, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    Computer Science at Columbia University, New York.
    Reichert, Frank
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Smith, Mark T.
    3Media Technology Lab at Hewlett Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto CA.
    MINT-a mobile Internet router1993In: Global Data Networking 1993. Proceedings, IEEE , 1993, p. 70-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, mobility of portable computers and workstations is not transparent to users. They adjust to reduced services as long as they have no connection to a supporting infrastructure. The goal of the Walkstation project is to realize a user transparent mobile IP router (MINT) for wireless links (infrared and radio) operating at 1-10 Mbit/sec. For the study of user behavior and system characteristics a campus wide testbed (ERIC) with 50-100 stations is planned to demonstrate the new solutions found in the Walkstation II project.

  • 26.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Reichert, Frank
    Smith, Mark T.
    A multiport mobile internet-router1994In: Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE 44th Vehicular Technology Conference. Part 3 (of 3);, IEEE , 1994, p. 1435-1439Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish Walkstation project a device for mobile hosts and base stations is realized by the same kind of hardware but with different kinds of communication software. This device, called MINT (Mobile IP Router), consists mainly of three parts, one for the connection to the host or backbone net (Ethernet), one for connecting to wireless LANs (radio or infrared), and a processing part for computing the communication protocols. This device serves as more than a mobile modem, i.e., it actually routes packets over potentially multiple paths with varying connectivity and quality. By using Ethernet as an input channel, it should not be necessary to install special purpose wiring dedicated to mobile communication. Instead the existing network, which normally is globally available, is used to select suitable sites for base stations. To realize a large scale field trial the new router must be low cost, small in size, and have a low power consumption while offering high performance. The current phase of the project involves building a 68030 based router with multiple interfaces, including as host interfaces: SCSI, Ethernet, serial, parallel; and as wireless interfaces: IR, microwave-radio, or a-second Ethernet (supported for software development).

  • 27.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Smith, Mark T.
    Ohsawa, Tomoki
    NEC Corporation.
    Walkstation II project1995Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals of this project and a summary of what has been achieved thus far are presented. This includes a status report on our Mobile INTernet router which factors mobility out of the user device. Using this platform, we discuss the desirability of having multiple receivers, programmable radios, and new I/O devices. This paper will address how new technologies will enable future mobile distributed computing and communication systems. We seek to not only cut the umbilical cord which binds users to specific sites, but to allow users to easily make use of different infrastructures as necessary. This work is part of the Walkstation II project.

  • 28. Pradhan, S.
    et al.
    Brignone, C.
    Cui, J. H.
    McReynolds, A.
    Smith, Mark T.
    Websigns: Hyperlinking physical locations to the web2001In: Computer, ISSN 0018-9162, E-ISSN 1558-0814, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 42-+Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Rosen, Gail
    et al.
    Hasler, Paul
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Implementation of a Hebbian chemoreceptor model for diffusive source localization2009In: Biosystems (Amsterdam. Print), ISSN 0303-2647, E-ISSN 1872-8324, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 223-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While new approaches to chemical localization have been proposed, animals are still widely used for locating landmines and illegal substances. Existing electronic noses still do not have the necessary sensitivity and accuracy. By modeling a cell's chemical detection system, we can gain insight into the basic "olfactory" system. We use an inspiration from chemotaxis and Hebbian learning to enhance localization and tracking of gradient sources, which can be applied to both chemicals and heat. The eukaryotic receptor clustering model shows improvement over previous prokaryotic chemotaxis-inspired methods that do not take into account receptor clustering. Receptor clustering essentially adapts receptors spatio-temporally. For a mobile simulation. our method locates the source in less convergence time than the other chemotaxis algorithms and insignificantly less time compared to no spatio-temporal filtering (e.g. a single-sensor memoryless case). We then show that local regions of receptor cooperation have the best performance reflecting observations of receptor behavior in biology. To demonstrate the performance of this system in real-time, a stationary 4/8-sensor version of the array is implemented, and the algorithm improves the convergence time, mean, and variance of the Direction-of-Arrival calculation in diffusive, turbulent, and noisy environments.

  • 30. Rosen, Gail
    et al.
    Smith, Mark T.
    Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.
    Hasler, Paul
    Circuit Implementation of a 2-D Gradient Source Localizer2004In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE SENSORS 2004, VOLS 1-3 / [ed] Rocha, D; Sarro, PM; Vellekoop, MJ, 2004, p. 206-206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gradient field localization, such as chemical and heat source location, is a complex problem, yet few designs have been proposed. Examples are locating fires, thermal leaks in insulation, explosive vapors, illegal substances, and chemical leaks. In this paper, we propose one 4 sensor stationary array to localize the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of a temperature source and model the approach on our previous biologically-inspired array processing technique. Several variants of the algorithm are shown, and with each degree of sophistication, it significantly reduces the DOA variance caused by noisy measurement conditions. Next, a clean 4/8-sensor version of the array was constructed, and it is shown that sensor cooperation improves the adaptation in diffusive, turbulent, and noisy environments.

  • 31. Simon, T. M.
    et al.
    Smith, R. T.
    Thomas, B.
    Von Itzstein, S.
    Smith, Mark
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Park, J.
    Merging tangible buttons and spatial augmented reality to support ubiquitous prototype designs2012In: Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology Series, Australian Computer Society, 2012, p. 29-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial design prototyping process has previously shown promising enhancements using Spatial Augmented Reality to increase the fidelity of concept visualizations. This paper explores further improvements to the process by incorporating tangible buttons to allow dynamically positioned controls to be employed by the designer. The tangible buttons are equipped with RFID tags that are read by a wearable glove sensor system to emulate button activation for simulating prototype design functionality. We present a new environmental setup to support the low cost development of an active user interface that is not restricted to the two-dimensional surface of a traditional computer display. The design of our system has been guided by the requirements of industrial designers and an expert review of the system was conducted to identify its usefulness and usability aspects. Additionally, the quantitative performance evaluation of the RFID tags indicated that the concept development using our system to support a simulated user interface functionality is an improvement to the design process.

  • 32. Simon, T. M.
    et al.
    Thomas, B. H.
    Smith, R. T.
    Smith, Mark
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Adding input controls and sensors to RFID tags to support dynamic tangible user interfaces2014In: TEI '14 Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, p. 165-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing high resolution tangible user interface components without batteries such as dials and sliders that support dynamic user interface arrangement is challenging. Previous work uses RFID to support limited resolution custom-built components. We demonstrate improved techniques using commercial off the shelf input controls incorporated into passive RFID tags using an on-off key subcarrier to encode state information into the RFID signal. Our method supports high resolution components that do not require power cables or batteries. We provide exemplars demonstrating how the technique supports a range of user interface components including buttons, dials, sliders, flex and light sensors. Compared to previous work, we obtain a higher resolution, only limited by sample time, for all components and demonstrate 115 discrete dial positions. Our technique allows the TUI components to be freely placed and rearranged without hardwiring or batteries.

  • 33.
    Smith, Mark
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Andersson, Per
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Analysis of roles and position of mobile network operators in mobile payment infrastructure2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of different mobile payment solutions have been presented the last decade. The phone subscription with its security mechanisms are used for user identification and payments. This is the case for SMS based payment and ticketing systems that are getting more and more popular. However, there are other ways to implement a Trusted Element (TE) , where a SIM card architecture is only one. It can be in the mobile phone, as a separate integrated circuit, as an optional customer deployed plug-in device (e.g., microSD) or be running as an application on a server existing entirely as software.

    In this paper we analyze what roles and responsibilities different actors have in different types of mobile payments solutions. The main focus is on the implications for the mobile operator business. It turns out that new types of intermediary actors in most cases play an important role. Sometimes mobile operators are not even involved. The emergence of new payment together with other non-SIM card based TE solutions opens up for many different market scenarios for mobile payment services.

  • 34.
    Smith, Mark T.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Reconciling ICT and Wearable Design: Ten Lessons from Working with Swatch2007In: ISWC 2007: Proceedings of the ISWC 2007 Workshop on the Role of Design in Wearable Computing, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a product development collaborationbetween Swatch, a wearable design company, and HewlettPackard (HP), a provider of Information and CommunicationTechnologies (ICT). For both companies, the interaction wasunique in that it required them to consider the deployment ofwearable computing technology and support services into anapplication space dominated by fashion design. The author of thispaper worked at Hewlett Packard Laboratories, and wasextensively involved in this joint work. The goal of the projectwas to broaden the market for Swatch’s designs by using ICT.However as the project progressed it became clear that theinfluence of ICT on fashion design is highly complex andreciprocal. This paper describes what was observed during the 3years of the joint project, and presents ten learned outcomes fromthe attempt to merge wearable computing with fashion design.

  • 35.
    Smith, Mark T.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Receiver and correlator used to determine position of wireless device2001Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A system for identifying the position of a wireless device and transmitting that position back to the wireless device, the system comprising a plurality of receiver/correlators, each receiver/correlator being positioned at a fixed location in the network for receiving position request packets from the wireless cellular device, thereby generating a trigger signal each time a position request packet is received, the trigger signal used to record a local time, as indicated by an internal clock, at which the position request packet is received, and generating timing packets which include information about received position request packet, including time received. The system further including a central server for receiving the timing packets from the plurality of receiver/correlators and determining the position of the wireless device using the information in various timing packets.

  • 36.
    Smith, Mark T.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Self-powered network access point1998Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A system for providing operational power to network access points includes a router having an external power supply to transmit network signals to the network access points. Each self-powered access point includes power extraction circuitry for extracting power from the network signals and a power storage subsystem for storing the extracted power. Signal conversion circuitry is connected to the power storage subsystem for receiving operating power to perform signal conversion of received network signals addressed to a computer and to reconfigure data received from the computer for transmission over the network. In a preferred embodiment, the power extraction circuitry includes a full-power extraction mode and a partial power extraction mode. A data analyzer monitors received network signals to determine whether the signals are required by the computer for processing. If a signal is required for processing, the data analyzer enables the partial power extraction mode in the power extraction circuitry to preserve a minimum signal power required by the computer for signal processing. If the signal is not required for processing, the data analyzer enables the full power extraction mode to extract substantially all power from the signal. Power level detection circuitry determines whether the power storage subsystem stores a minimum power level. If a power level below the minimum is detected, the power level detection circuitry disables the data analyzer and enables the full power extraction mode of the power extraction circuitry until the minimum power is achieved, at which time the data analyzer is re-enabled.

  • 37.
    Solsona Belenguer, Jordi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Smith, Mark T
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    An Extension of Computer Engineering Methods for Interdisciplinary Design2011In: PerCom 2011: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Pervasive Computing  (Workshop paper), 2011, p. 584-587Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study that focuses on design methods developed by a computer engineer engaged in an interdisciplinary design project with a classic designer. Of interest is how the computer engineer initially found the task of achieving the shared design goals to be almost impossible, primarily due to the differences between the codified design methods of the engineer, and the tacit knowledge based methods of the designer. The study describes how the engineer developed new design realization skills enabling him to reconcile these differences in a way that allow the tacit knowledge of the designer to influence the codified engineering process in a repeatable way. These methods referred to as dreaming and mirroring represent a potentially learnable extension to the classic engineering design realization process.

  • 38. Thomas, B. H.
    et al.
    Smith, Mark Thomas
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Simon, T.
    Park, J.
    Von Itzstein, G. S.
    Smith, R. T.
    Glove-based sensor support for dynamic tangible buttons in spatial augmented reality design environments2011In: Proc. Int. Symp. Wearable Comput. ISWC, 2011, p. 109-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial Augmented Reality has shown promising results to support the industrial design process, this paper explores improvements by incorporating tangible buttons to allow dynamically positioned controls with a wearable glove sensor system for simulating prototype design functionality. We present a system to support the low cost development of an active user interface that is not restricted to the two-dimensional surface of a traditional computer display.

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