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  • 1.
    Gullström, Charlie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Jonsson, Alex (Contributor)
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Handberg, Leif (Contributor)
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Miranda Corranza, Pablo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Lefter, Iulia (Contributor)
    TU Delft.
    Nefs, Harold T (Contributor)
    TU Delft.
    Nyström, Jimmy (Contributor)
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Nyström, Nicklas (Contributor)
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Amram, Noam (Contributor)
    LiveU.
    Valli, Seppo (Contributor)
    VTT.
    Kristiansson, Johan (Contributor)
    Ericsson.
    High-fidelity Mock-up Report: Public deliverable D.2.4 from COMPEIT, EU FP7 project2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    COMPEIT is a 3-year EU 7th framework project and focuses on a web-based system for highly interactive, personalised, shared media experiences by developing technologies that A) enrich social connections, B) improve the feeling of being together in one shared space and C) enhance collaboration whilst being separated in time or space. COMPEIT takes the view that Internet-based distribution will transform traditional broadcasting towards higher levels of interactivity and integration with virtual and augmented reality, enabled by advanced web technologies and the proliferation of tangible devices. The project addresses Quality of Experience as a key variable in the experience of media production and consumption systems.

    A first mock-up of the COMPEIT system has been put together. It illustrates technical components from WP 4 (Mediated Presence Components); services from WP 5 (New Media Services); and D3.2 Initial System Specification. It informs further research towards D3.4 First Prototype.

  • 2.
    Koch, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    Models and diagrams in architectural design2014In: Journal of Space Syntax, ISSN 2044-7507, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this issue is to contribute to the integration and communication between space syntax specifically, and architectural theory and practice in general. This aim comes both from a desire from our side, and a perceived potential for inspiring and rewarding contributions and developments from and to all sides in such an integration. This is neither a necessary nor obvious aim for space syntax research, but a potential that we would like to explore and a path we would like to see taken. However, we do think this aim comes with a range of consequences and questions to address, and the purpose of this issue is to contribute to address-ing some of these consequences and questions through its focus on diagrams and models, which forms only one, albeit arguably a crucial, part of such an endeavour. In stating it in this way, we do not mean to say that other steps have not been taken; it is a way to frame the topic of the issue that explains its intents in a clear manner.

  • 3.
    Koch, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    Syntactic Resilience2013In: Proceedings of Ninth International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Young Ook Kim, Hoon Tae Park, Kyung Wook Seo, Seoul: Sejong University Press , 2013, p. 54:1-54:16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many fields connected to architecture and urban design, the term ‘resilience’ has grown common and tends to stand for a variety of different things. What this paper intends to do is to work with the term under a rather basic understanding – that of systems capable of performing even after being altered. Specifically, this means the extent to which a spatial configuration is sensitive to smaller or larger changes, where these sensitivities can be found and the degree of impact should the links be severed. Building on investigations by Hillier, Shpuza, and Conroy Dalton and Kirsan, the intent is to take one step further and set the term in relation to what a spatial configuration operates as social and cultural interface. Thus, a system that is considered as syntactically resilient is a system where inhabitance (use, identity) can follow similar principles as before the change, whereas a non-resilient system is one that can suffer big changes in the spatial logic by ostensibly minor local changes, thereby putting considerable strain on or enforcing change of inhabitance. The paper furthermore establishes some basic methods and measures for how to measure and analyse this, and also discusses the pros and cons of different spatial models for the ability of analyzing the question at hand.

    Concretely, the investigation begins with a conceptual, methodological discussion that is then followed by analysis of a small number of buildings to investigate the validity of the proposed methods and measures. The paper investigates the use of a series of existing measures as well as proposes new measures of configurational sensitivity. Finally it discusses how these measures relate to on the one hand security issues, and on the other generic questions in architectural design.

  • 4.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Miranda, Pablo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Markhede, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    The Spatial Positioning Tool (SPOT): Computer application for analysis of spatial analysis2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Markhede, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Spatial Positioning Tool: Background, prototype software and some correlation data2010In: Journal of Space Syntax, ISSN 2044-7507, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 149-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial Positioning Tool (SPOT) is an isovist-based spatial analysis software written in Java that works as a stand-alone program. SPOT differs from regular Space syntax software as it can produce integration graphs and intervisibility graphs from a selection of positions. SPOT was originally developed for a series of field studies on building interiors highly influenced by organizations and social groups. These studies needed a tool that could produce graphs using a specific position as starting point for the isovists. Now, we have developed SPOT as in several steps, although this paper focuses mainly on the first iteration. In this version, basic SPOT operations use selected positions to create isovist sets. The sets can be colour-coded and layered; the layers can be activated and made visible by being turned on or off. At this point, there are two graphs produced in SPOT, the isovist overlap graph that shows intervisibility between overlapping isovist fields and the network integration analysis built on visibility relations. The graphs for correlation studies are made using workstations as the origins for the isovists. We use data from an office case study regarding face-to-face interaction. The software aims to be used as a fast and interactive sketch tool as well as a precise analysis tool. Data, images, and diagrams can be exported for use in conjunction with other CAD or illustration programs. The first stage of development is to have a functioning prototype with the implementation of all the basic algorithms and a minimal basic functionality with respect to user interaction. We will also briefly discuss recent developments of SPOT, and we furthermore provide a theoretical background for its development.

  • 6.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Armies and Clerks: Operations Research and Computed Architecture2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In his address to the Operations Research Society of America in 1957, Herbert Simon brought attention to the common origin of the computer and Operations Research (OR) in Adam Smith’s principle of division of labour: the first, as its application to the mechanisation of mathematical calculations by Charles Babbage during the nineteenth century; the latter, as the further development of Smith’s ideas by Frederick Taylor into scientific management at the beginning of the twentieth. As both the digital computer and OR emerged respectively from the calculation and management demands of WWII, Simon suggested to expand their previous application to 'well structured’ problems, reducible to systematic computational routines, to the 'ill structured' problems of top-level management and executive decisions; through his proposed theory of heuristics, intuition, insight, and learning would no longer be exclusive possession of humans,  as any large high-speed computer could be programmed also to exhibit them;  mental processes could be understood in their turn as algorithms running in the hardware of the mind, the hypothesis behind the then nascent cognitive psychology. 

    A few years later, Christopher Alexander proposed a method of architectural synthesis grounded on Simon’s theories and the premises of cognitive psychology: the first use of computers in architecture would supplement architects’s insufficient information processing capacity, in terms of memory and speed, with a heuristic program running on a mainframe computer.  The compulsion towards optimisation, rationality and efficiency, for which Alexander’s Notes have often been criticised, have today become naturalised and invisible, embodied as the enunciative modalities of the computer, manifest in todays BIM or Parametricism. This paper will look, using Alexander’s Notes as a point of reference, to the mechanisms through which  the industrialist principles of division of labour, efficiency  or economy, became incorporated and inscribed as the hardware and software in which architecture is presently run.

  • 7.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    By Accident or by Design: Algorithmic creativity and the architectural drawing2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Computer utterances: Sequence and event in digital architecture2017In: International Journal of Architectural Computing, ISSN 1478-0771 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barely a month before the end of World War II, a technical report begun circulating among allied scientists: the ‘First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC’, attributed to John von Neumann, described for the first time the design and implementation of the earliest stored-program computer. The ‘First Draft’ became the template followed by subsequent British and American computers, establishing the standard characteristics of most computing machines to date. This article looks at how the material and design choices described in this report influenced architecture, as it set up the technological matrix onto which a discipline relying on a tradition of drawn geometry would be eventually completely remediated. It consists of two parts: first, a theoretical section, analysing the repercussions for architecture of the type of computer laid out in the ‘First Draft’. Second, a description of a design experiment, a sort of information furniture, that tests and exemplifies some of the observations from the first section. This experiment examines the possibilities of an architecture that, moving beyond geometric representations, uses instead the programming of events as its rationale. The structure of this article reflects a methodology in which theoretical formulation and design experiments proceed in parallel. The theoretical investigation proposes concepts that can be tested and refined through design and conversely design work determines and encourages technical, critical and historical research. This relation is dialogical: theoretical investigation is not simply a rationalisation and explanation of earlier design work; inversely, the role of design is not just to illustrate previously formulated concepts. Both design and theorisation are interdependent but autonomous in their parallel development.

  • 9. Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    Convex maps, some basic concepts and a new method to generate them2013In: Architectural Morphology: Investigative modelling and spatial analysis / [ed] Daniel Koch & Pablo Miranda Carranza, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013, p. 1-6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Convex maps were first introduced by Hillier and Hanson in The social logic of space (1984), and have since become a standard diagram of space syntax, particularly in the analysis of interior of buildings. Despite their extensive use, computer generation of convex maps is a difficult task. The original guidelines to draw convex maps by hand have been shown to be impossible to translate into a formal description of the type necessary for a computer program (Penn 1997). Algorithmic methods for generating convex maps are useful at a prac-tical level, since a rigorous algorithmic description of the process affords a consistent application of the method and the reproducibility of results. Besides its practical importance, the development of algorithmic methods to generate convex partitions implies also a re-examination of their role as diagrams and represent-tations of space, and their difference with other types of diagrams used in spatial analysis.

    Considering the difficulties of translating into an algorithm the original procedure described by Hillier and Hanson, we have looked at alternatives methods for producing convex maps in the field of shape analysis. In particular we have studied a set of problems which deal with the decomposition of shapes into simpler parts and which are conceptually related to the convex map. Our method uses the medial axis transform, a well known shape descriptor first proposed by H.Blum in 1967, to subdivide architectural plans into non overlap-ping, convex partitions. Our method produces convincing convex partitions and maps, which often coincide with those resulting from following the original hand-drawn method. Its results can be used for representing the organisation of spaces at the level of simplicity and abstraction of the original convex partitions proposed by Hillier and Hanson, and to allow the study of their configuration through the application of different graph measures and visualisation techniques.

  • 10.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Design Amok: Architecture after cybernetics2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Out of Control: The media of architecture, cybernetics and design2007In: Material matters: architecture and material practice / [ed] Katie Lloyd Thomas, London: Routledge, 2007, p. 151-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Program matters: architecture under the influence2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Program Matters: From Drawing to Code2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether on paper, on site or mediating between both, means for reading and writing geometry have been central to architecture: the use of compasses and rulers, strings, pins, stakes or plumb-lines enabled the analysis and reproduction of congruent figures on different surfaces since antiquity, and from the renaissance onwards, the consistent planar representation of three-dimensional shapes by means of projective geometry. Tacitly through practice, or explicitly encoded in classical geometry, the operational syntaxes of drawing instruments, real or imaginary, have determined the geometric literacies regulating the production and instruction of architecture. But making marks on the surfaces of paper, stone or the ground has recently given way to the fundamentally different sequential operations of computers as the material basis of architectural inscription. Practices which have dominated architecture since antiquity make little sense in its current reading and writing systems. 

    This thesis examines technologies of digital inscription in a search for literacies equivalent to those of drawn geometry. It particularly looks at programming as a form of notation in close correspondence with its material basis as a technology, and its effects on architecture. It includes prototypes and experiments, graphics, algorithms and software, together with their descriptions and theoretical analyses. While the artefacts and texts respond to the different forms, styles, interests and objectives specific to the fields and contexts in which they have originated, their fundamental purpose is always to critique and propose ways of writing and reading architecture through programming, the rationale of the research and practice they stem from. 

  • 14.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Programs as Paradigms2014In: Architectural Design, ISSN 0003-8504, E-ISSN 1554-2769, Vol. 84, no 5, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How might we synthesise two very different approaches in architecture? One based on programme and another on typology or paradigm. Pablo Miranda Carranza, a researcher at the Architecture School at the RoyalInstitute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, takes his cue from an approach suggested by Colin Rowe in the early 1980s to examine how computation formulates architectural thinking and presentation.

  • 15.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Software utterances: material logics of digital representation2014In: What’s the Matter?: Materiality and Materialism at the Age of Computation, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Derix, Christian
    Gamlesaeter, Asmund
    Helme, Lucy
    Aedas R&D: Global Practices of Computational Design2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of the approach of working methods at the Aedas R&DComputational Design and Research [CDR] Group. It first contextualizes research inarchitectural practice and tries to propose an explanation for the difficulties inimplementing it; then explains the evolution of the groups’ computing approach frombespoke to heuristic sets of lightweight applications. It concludes with examples of thedeveloped computational design approach.

  • 17.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    A Computational Method For Generating Convex Maps Using the Medial Axis Transform2013In: Proceedings of Ninth International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Young Ook Kim, Hoon Tae Park, Kyung Wook Seo, Seoul: Sejong University Press , 2013, p. 064: 1-064: 11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Convex maps were first introduced by Hillier and Hanson in “The social logic of space”, and have since become a standard diagram of space syntax, particularly in the analysis of interior of buildings. Despite of their extensive use, the computer generation of convex maps turns out to be quite difficult. An  algorithmic description of the process would afford an objective form of reproducing analysis results and the consistent application of the same method on a set of data; unfortunately the original guidelines to draw convex maps by hand have been shown to be impossible to translate into a formal description of the type necessary for a computer program. 

    Thus, rather than attempting a translation of the original procedure, we have looked at alternatives methods for producing convex maps in the field of shape analysis. In particular we have studied a set of problems which deal with the decomposition of shapes into simpler parts and their organisation,and which are conceptually related to the convex map. We have accordingly developed a method for subdividing architectural plans into non overlapping, convex partitions that captures their most salient organisational features, based on the medial axis transform, a well known shape descriptor first proposed by H.Blum in 1967.  Our method is based on adding the simpler convex regions defined through the segments and branching points of the medial axis according to different priorities, under the condition that these additions remain convex. 

    In space syntax the automatic production of convex spaces has often focused on their instrumentality in the calculation of axial maps, and has not have the convex map as the final objective.The method we have developed, in the other hand, produces convincing convex partitions and maps, which often coincide with those resulting from following the original hand-drown method description. Its results can be used for representing the organisation of spaces at the level of simplicity and abstraction of the original convex partitions proposed by Hillier and Hanson, and to allow the study of their configuration through the application of different graph measures and visualisation techniques.

    We have implemented our methods in C++. The effective calculation of the medial axis required the use of robust and reliable computational geometry libraries, and consequently we have based most of our geometric data-structures and algorithms in those provided by CGAL, a well tested and widely used library distributed under GPL/LGPL license. Besides CGAL our tests and demonstration programs also use a number of different libraries, such as Dime, for dxf input and output or Qt, for GUI and interaction.

  • 18.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Izaki, Åsmund
    Aedas R&D.
    Spot with Paths, an Interactive Diagram with a Low Complexity Isovist Algorithm2013In: Proceedings of Ninth International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Young Ook Kim, Hoon Tae Park, Kyung Wook Seo, Seoul: Sejong University Press , 2013, p. 062: 1-062: 13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an often quoted sentence of his 1976 book “The Architecture of Form”, Lionel March drew a clear distinction between science, interested in extant forms, and design, which initiates novel forms. The theories, methods, measures and diagrams of space syntax have often developed following this first more scientific scheme, and they have been concerned with the analysis of existing or projected buildings and cities.This emphasis on analysis is evident in current software, algorithms and measures. But is it possible to think of a space syntax not only as a way of analysing existing situations or validating future designs, but as a form of actually generating architecture?

    In our work we have used space syntax at the early stages of the design process, not so much as a form of analysis, but as a sort of architectural diagram. The shift of space syntax into a generative role has demanded a set of conceptual and technical adjustments: from the emphasis on graphic language and visualisation to the need for fast feedback and interaction.

    In this paper we present an example from our work, and the framework (technical and methodological) necessary to produce it. The digital diagram we have created deals with the design of a new hospital ward. It represents some basic problems we have encountered in the relation of patients, staff and architecture, which are incorporated into the software through 3 basic interactive entities: isovists (from patients positions), the circulation paths of hospital staff (with a calculation of their visibility relations to the patients), and the arrangement of walls to form rooms. All these 3 entity types are interdependent: isovists depend of walls and positions and the visualisation of staff paths depends on the patients isovists. They are also editable in real time, that is, walls, isovists and paths can be added,deleted, or moved, and the effects of any of these actions visualised at once.

    This fast interaction and feedback require efficient algorithms and data structures. In particular we have implemented an algorithm for the calculation of isovists or visibility polygons with a complexity dependent of the size (in terms of visible vertices) of the visibility polygon, rather than being a function of the size of the boundary. This allow us to calculate visibility polygons in real time irrespective of the size of the boundary, may this be a building or a whole city. Our method implements an idea by Åsmund Izaki for the calculation of isovists and visibility graphs, based in the use of an underlying triangulation data structure for the search of all visible vertices from a point. Besides the general interest of our approach to the use of space syntax in a generative rather than in an analytical way, we believe that the algorithms for the calculation of visibility polygons or isovists can find application also into existing space syntax software, improving its performance, and in some cases opening the possibility for an extension of its role from forms of analysis to generative ones.

    Our software has been developed using the C++ programming language, and it makes extensive use of Open Source libraries such as CGAL, Dime, Qt and Boost. 

1 - 18 of 18
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