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  • 1.
    Arvidsson, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Skedung, Lisa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Aikala, Maiju
    Oy Keskuslaboratorio - Centrallaboratorium Ab (KCL), Espoo, Finland.
    Danerlöv, Katrin
    Institute for Surface Chemistry (YTK), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kettle, John
    Oy Keskuslaboratorio - Centrallaboratorium Ab (KCL), Espoo, Finland.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface Chemistry.
    Multidimensional psychophysics: surface feel of printing paper as a function of physical propertiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Arvidsson, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Skedung, Lisa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Aikala, Maiju
    Oy Keskuslaboratorio - Centrallaboratorium Ab.
    Danerlöv, Katrin
    YKI Institute for Surface Chemistry.
    Kettle, John
    Oy Keskuslaboratorio - Centrallaboratorium Ab.
    Rutland, Mark
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Haptic perception of fine surface texture: Psychophysical interpretation of the multidimensional spaceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3. Fathi-Najafi, M.
    et al.
    Persson, K.
    Skedung, Lisa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    A comparative study of the tribological behaviour of a highly viscous Naphthenic oil and Polyisobutenes2011In: NLGI Spokesman, ISSN 0027-6782, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rheological and tribological performances of two different polyisobutenes and a heavy viscous naphthenic oil (T 4000) were studied using a new tribometer. The results were compared with measurements carried out by a more established tribometer, a Mini Traction Machine. A general agreement between the two tribology techniques used, the Mini Traction Machine from PCS Instruments and the tribo-cell from Paar Physica, was obtained. All three high viscosity lubricants showed good lubrication properties at lower speeds for both Steel/PTFE and Steel/Steel contacts. The range of speeds where good lubrication was achieved increased with temperature as the viscosity of the lubricants decreased. The behavior of T 4000 was more or less similar regardless the running temperature, while in the case of polyisobutenes the dependency on the temperature was more obvious.

  • 4. Hansson, Petra M.
    et al.
    Skedung, Lisa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Claesson, Per Martin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Schoelkopf, Joachim
    Gane, Patrick A. C.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Thormann, Esben
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Robust Hydrophobic Surfaces Displaying Different Surface Roughness Scales While Maintaining the Same Wettability2011In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 27, no 13, p. 8153-8159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of surfaces coated with spherical silica particles, covering the size range from nanometer to micrometer, have been produced using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition. The particles were characterized both in suspension and in the Langmuir trough to optimize the surface preparation procedure. By limiting the particle aggregation and surface layer failures during the preparation steps, well-defined monolayers with a close-packed structure have been obtained for all particle sizes. Thus, this procedure led to structured surfaces with a characteristic variation in the amplitude and spatial roughness parameters. In order to obtain robust surfaces, a sintering protocol and an AFM-based wear test to determine the stability of the deposited surface layer were employed. Hydrophobization of the LB films followed by water contact angle measurements showed, for all tested particle sizes, the same increase in contact angle compared to the contact angle of a flat hydrophobic surface. This indicates nearly hexagonal packing and gives evidence for nearly, complete surface wetting of the surface features.

  • 5. Hellborg, Karin
    et al.
    Jacksén, Johan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Skedung, Lisa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Redeby, Therese
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Emmer, Åsa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Evaluation of MALDI matrices and digestion methods aiming at MS analysis of hydrophobic proteins and peptidesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Skedung, Lisa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Tactile Perception - Role of Physical Properties2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to interconnect human tactile perception with various physical properties of materials. Tactile perception necessitates contact and relative motion between the skin and the surfaces of interest. This implies that properties such as friction and surface roughness ought to be important physical properties for tactile sensing. In this work, a method to measure friction between human fingers and surfaces is presented. This method is believed to best represent friction in tactile perception.

    This study is focused on the tactile perception of printing papers. However, the methodology of finger friction measurements, as well as the methodology to link physical properties with human perception data, can be applied to almost whichever material or surfaces.

     

    This thesis is based on three articles.

     

    In Article I, one participant performed finger friction measurements, using a piezoelectric force sensor, on 21 printing papers of different paper grades and grammage (weight of the papers). Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the frictional force and the normal force, shown to have a linear relationship. The values were recorded while stroking the index finger over the surface. The results show that measurements with the device can be used to discriminate a set of similar surfaces in terms of finger friction. When comparing the friction coefficients, the papers group according to paper surface treatment and an emerging trend is that the rougher (uncoated) papers have a lower friction coefficient than the smoother (coated) papers. In the latter case, this is interpreted in terms of a larger contact between the finger and paper surface.

     

    In addition, a decrease in friction coefficient is noted for all papers on repeated stroking, where the coated papers display a larger decrease. XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) reveals that skin lipids are transferred from the finger to the paper surface, acting as a lubricant and hence decrease friction. Nevertheless, there is evidence that mechanical changes of the surface cannot be completely ruled out.

     

    The reproducibility of the finger friction measurements is elaborated in Article II, by using many participants on a selection of eight printing papers out of the 21. The trends in friction are the same; once again, the coated papers display the highest friction. There are notably large variations in the exact value of the friction coefficient, which are tentatively attributed to different skin hydration and stroking modes.

     

    These same participants also took part in a tactile study of perceived paper coarseness (“strävhet” in Swedish). The results reveal that the participants can distinguish a set of printing papers in terms of perceived coarseness. Not unexpectedly, surface roughness appears to be an important property related to perceived coarseness, where group data display that perceived coarseness increases with increasing surface roughness. Interestingly, friction also appears to be a discriminatory property for some subjects. A few participants showed opposite trends, which is evidence for that what is considered coarse is subjective and that different participants “weigh” the importance of the properties differently. This is a good example of a challenge when measuring one-dimensional perceptions in psychophysics.

     

    In Article III, a multidimensional approach was used to explore the tactile perception of printing papers. To do this, the participants scaled similarity among all possible pairs of the papers, and this similarity data are best presented by a three-dimensional space solution. This means that there are three underlying dimensions or properties that the participants use to discriminate the surface feel. Also, there is a distinct perceptual difference between the rougher (uncoated) and smoother (coated) papers. The surface roughness appears to be the dominant physical property when discriminating between a real rough paper and a smooth paper, whereas friction, thermal conductivity and grammage are more important when discriminating among the smooth coated papers.

  • 7.
    Skedung, Lisa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Tactile Perception: Role of Friction and Texture2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tactile perception is considered an important contributor to the overall consumer experience of a product. However, what physical properties that create the specifics of tactile perception, are still not completely understood. This thesis has researched how many dimensions that are required to differentiate the surfaces perceptually, and then tried to explain these dimensions in terms of physical properties, by interconnecting human perception measurements with various physical measurements. The tactile perception was assessed by multidimensional scaling or magnitude estimation, in which methods human participants assign numbers to how similar pairs of surfaces are perceived or to the relative quantity of a specified perceptual attribute, such as softness, smoothness, coarseness and coolness. The role of friction and surface texture in tactile perception was investigated in particular detail, because typically tactile exploration involves moving (at least) one finger over a textured surface. A tactile approach for measuring friction was developed by means of moving a finger over the surfaces, mounted on a force sensor. The contribution of finger friction to tactile perception was investigated for surfaces of printing papers and tissue papers, as well as for model surfaces with controlled topography. The overarching research goal of this thesis was to study, systematically, the role of texture in tactile perception of surfaces.

    The model surfaces displayed a sinusoidal texture with a characteristic wavelength and amplitude, fabricated by surface wrinkling and replica molding techniques. A library of surfaces was manufactured, ranging in wavelengths from 270 nm up to 100 µm and in amplitudes from 7 nm up to 6 µm. These surfaces were rigid and cleanable and could therefore be reused among the participants. To my knowledge, this is the first time in a psychophysical experiment, that the surface texture has been controlled over several orders of magnitude in length scale, without simultaneously changing other material properties of the stimuli.

    The finger friction coefficient was found to decrease with increasing aspect ratio (amplitude/wavelength) of the model surfaces and also with increasing average surface roughness of the printing papers. Analytical modeling of the finger’s interaction with the model surfaces shows how the friction coefficient increases with the real contact area, and that the friction mechanism is the same on both the nanoscale and microscale. The same interaction mechanism also explains the friction characteristics of tissue paper. Furthermore, it was found that the perceptions of smoothness, coarseness, coolness and dryness are satisfactorily related to the real contact area at the finger-surface interface. 

    It is shown that it is possible to discern perceptually among both printing papers and tissue papers, and this differentiation is based on either two or three underlying dimensions. Rough/smooth and thin/thick were the two main dimensions of surface feel found for the printing papers, whereas friction and wavelength were strongly related to the perceptual cues employed in scaling the model surfaces. These experimental results support the duplex theory of texture perception, which holds that both a “spatial sense”; used to discriminate the roughest textures from the others, and a “vibration sense”; used to discriminate among the smoother textures, are involved. The perception of what is considered rough and smooth depends on the experimental stimulus context. It is concluded that friction is important for human differentiation of surface textures below about 10 µm in surface roughness, and for larger surface textures, friction is less important or can even be neglected.

    The finger friction experiments also allowed the following conclusions to be drawn: (i) The interindividual variation in friction coefficients is too large to allow direct comparison; however, the trends in relative friction coefficients for a group of participants are the same. (ii) Lipids are transferred to the test surface of study, and this lowers the friction. (iii) Many of the studies point to a characteristic frequency during sliding of about 30 Hz, which is both characteristic of the resonance frequency of skin and the expected frequency associated with the fingerprints. (iv) The applied load in surface interrogation is in fact regulated in response to the friction force.

    The limits in tactile perception were indirectly researched by similarity scaling experiments on the model surfaces. Wrinkle wavelengths of 760 nm and 870 nm could be discriminated from untextured reference surfaces, whereas 270 nm could not. The amplitude of the wrinkles so discriminated was approximately 10 nm, suggesting that nanotechnology may well have a role to play in haptics and tactile perception.

  • 8.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Arvidsson, Martin
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Young, Jun Chung
    Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    Stafford, Christopher M.
    Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Rutland, Mark
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Feeling small: Exploring the Tactile Perception Limits2013In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, p. 2617-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human finger is exquisitely sensitive in perceiving different materials, but the question remains as to what length scales are capable of being distinguished in active touch. We combine material science with psychophysics to manufacture and haptically explore a series of topographically patterned surfaces of controlled wavelength, but identical chemistry. Strain-induced surface wrinkling and subsequent templating produced 16 surfaces with wrinkle wavelengths ranging from 300 nm to 90 mu m and amplitudes between 7 nm and 4.5 mu m. Perceived similarities of these surfaces (and two blanks) were pairwise scaled by participants, and interdistances among all stimuli were determined by individual differences scaling (INDSCAL). The tactile space thus generated and its two perceptual dimensions were directly linked to surface physical properties - the finger friction coefficient and the wrinkle wavelength. Finally, the lowest amplitude of the wrinkles so distinguished was approximately 10 nm, demonstrating that human tactile discrimination extends to the nanoscale.

  • 9.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Danerlöv, Katrin
    Institute for Surface Chemistry (YTK), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Aikala, Maiju
    Oy Keskuslaboratorio - Centrallaboratorium Ab (KCL), Espoo, Finland.
    Niemi, Kari
    Oy Keskuslaboratorio - Centrallaboratorium Ab (KCL), Espoo, Finland.
    Kettle, John
    Oy Keskuslaboratorio - Centrallaboratorium Ab (KCL), Espoo, Finland.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Finger Friction Measurements on Coated and Uncoated Printing Papers2010In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 389-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A macroscopic finger friction device consisting of a piezoelectric force sensor was evaluated on 21 printing papers of different paper grades and grammage. Friction between a human finger and the 21 papers was measured and showed that measurements with the device can be used to discriminate a set of similar surfaces in terms of finger friction. When comparing the friction coefficients, the papers group according to paper grade and the emerging trend is that the rougher papers have a lower friction coefficient than smoother papers. This is interpreted in terms of a larger contact area in the latter case. Furthermore, a decrease in friction coefficient is noted for all papers on repeated stroking (15 cycles back and forth with the finger). Complementary experiments indicate that both mechanical and chemical modifications of the surface are responsible for this decrease: (1) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that lipid material is transferred from the finger to the paper surface, (2) repeated finger friction measurements on the same paper sample reveal that only partial recovery of the frictional behaviour occurs and (3) profilometry measurements before and after stroking indicate small topographical changes associated with repeated frictional contacts.

  • 10.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Danerlöv, Katrin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Johannesson, Carl Michael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Aikala, Maiju
    Kettle, John
    Arvidsson, Martin
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Discriminating similar surfaces with friction: Finger friction measurements on coated and uncoated printing papers2010In: International Conference on Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry 2010, 2010, p. 121-144Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Danerlöv, Katrin
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Johannesson, Carl Michael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Aikala, Maiju
    Kettle, John
    Arvidsson, Martin
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Tactile perception: Finger friction, surface roughness and perceived coarseness2011In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 505-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finger friction measurements performed on a series of printing papers are evaluated to determine representativeness of a single individual. Results show occasionally large variations in friction coefficients. Noteworthy though is that the trends in friction coefficients are the same, where coated (smoother) papers display higher friction coefficients than uncoated (rougher) papers. The present study also examined the relationship between the measured friction coefficients and surface roughness to the perceived coarseness of the papers. It was found that both roughness and finger friction can be related to perceived coarseness, where group data show that perceived coarseness increases with increasing roughness.

  • 12.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Danerlöv, Katrin
    Institute for Surface Chemistry (YTK), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Johannesson, Carl Michael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Aikala, Maiju
    Oy Keskuslaboratorio - Centrallaboratorium Ab (KCL), Espoo, Finland.
    Kettle, John
    Oy Keskuslaboratorio - Centrallaboratorium Ab (KCL), Espoo, Finland.
    Arvidsson, Martin
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface Chemistry.
    Reproducibility of finger friction, surface roughness and perception of printing papersArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Duvefelt, Kenneth
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Young, Jun Chung
    Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    Stafford, Christopher M.
    Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    Rutland, Mark
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Tactile friction of controlled fine surface textures: Role of real contact area and adhesionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    Ytkemiska institutet, Stockholm.
    Buraczewska-Norin, Izabela
    Malmö högskola.
    Rutland, Mark
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Tactile friction of topical formulations2014In: 5th World Tribology Congress, WTC 2013, 2014, p. 2249-2251Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP Tech Res Inst Sweden.
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    YKI Institute for Surface Chemistry.
    Norin, Izabela
    ACO HUD Nordic AB.
    Rutland, Mark
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP Tech Res Inst Sweden.
    Tactile friction of topical formulations2016In: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 46-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Methods: Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. Results: The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. Conclusion: The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations.

1 - 15 of 15
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