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• 1.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
Wireless Communication Networks for Time-critical Industrial Applications2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Wireless communication is of paramount importance to enable the vision of Industry 4.0. Compared to mobile communications, industrial communications pose demanding requirements in terms of ultra low latency and high reliability. Currently, for the most time-critical industrial applications, there is no available wireless solutions satisfying these latency requirements. This thesis studies effective techniques to reduce the latency for the time-critical industrial applications, especially from the Physical Layer (PHY) point of view.

The thesis is organized in two main parts. In the first part, the available methods for low latency are surveyed and analyzed in terms of end-to-end latency. It is argued that the enabling techniques should be optimized together to reduce the end-to-end latency while satisfying other requirements such as reliability and throughput. Moreover, the realistic timing constraints of different PHY algorithms, hardware, and mechanisms are derived based on the state-of-art wireless implementations. In the second part, a revision of PHY with an optimized PHY structure is proposed to reduce the latency. It is shown that a PHY with just a short one-symbol preamble and dedicated packet detection and synchronization algorithms for short packets is robust to carrier frequency offsets and false alarms by both theoretical and site experiments.

The investigations of this thesis show that revising the PHY structure/parameters is effective to reduce the packet transmission time, and further improve the latency performance of wireless communication network for time-critical industrial applications. In the future, we include the PHY results of this thesis in the investigation of the Medium Access Control (MAC), for industrial wireless communications with very low latencies.

• 2.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
ABB Corp Res Ctr, Wireless Commun, Vasteras, Sweden.. ABB Corp Res Ctr, Vasteras, Sweden.. Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Natl Key Lab Sci & Technol Commun, Commun & Informat Syst, Chengdu, Sichuan, Peoples R China.. NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 USA.. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering. Synopsys, Mountain View, CA USA.;United Technol Res Ctr, E Hartford, CT 06108 USA..
Using a Large Data Set to Improve Industrial Wireless Communications Latency, Reliability, and Security2019In: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, ISSN 1932-4529, E-ISSN 1941-0115, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 6-12Article in journal (Refereed)

Trealize the Industry 4.0 vision and enable mobile connectivity and flexible deployment in harsh industrial environments, wireless communication is essential. But before wireless communications technology can be widely deployed for critical control applications, first it must be assessed, and that requires a comprehensive characterization of the wireless channel. This can be done by analyzing large amounts of wireless data collected from different industrial environments. In this article, we discuss the possibilities offered by a recently published industrial wireless data set. This data set is more exhaustive than measurements previously reported. We show two cases of how those data have been applied to improve latency performance and to investigate the feasibility of physical-layer security techniques for wireless communication in industrial environments.

• 3.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
ABB Corporate Research, Sweden. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden. University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
Fundamental Constraints for Time-slotted MAC Design in Wireless High Performance : the Realistic Perspective of Timing2018Conference paper (Refereed)
• 4.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
Packet Detection by a Single OFDM Symbol in URLLC for Critical Industrial Control: A Realistic Study2019In: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, ISSN 0733-8716, E-ISSN 1558-0008, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 933-946Article in journal (Refereed)

Ultra-high reliable and low-latency communication (URLLC)is envisaged to support emerging applications with strict latency and reliability requirements. Critical industrial control is among the most important URLLC applications where the stringent requirements make the deployment of wireless networks critical, especially as far as latency is concerned. Since the amount of data exchanged in critical industrial communications is generally small, an effective way to reduce the latency is to minimize the packet's synchronization overhead, starting from the physical layer (PHY). This paper proposes to use a short one-symbol PHY preamble for critical wireless industrial communications, reducing significantly the transmission latency with respect to other wireless standards. Dedicated packet detection and synchronization algorithms are discussed, analyzed, and tuned to ensure that the required reliability level is achieved with such extremely short preamble. Theoretical analysis, simulations, and experiments show that detection error rates smaller than 10(-6) can be achieved with the proposed preamble while minimizing the latencies.

• 5.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering. KTH. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
Packet Detection by Single OFDM Symbol in URLLC for Critical Industrial Control: a Realistic Study2018In: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, ISSN 0733-8716, E-ISSN 1558-0008Article in journal (Other academic)
• 6.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
A simplified interference model for outdoor millimeter wave networks2018In: 9th International Conference on Wireless Internet, WICON 2016, Springer, 2018, Vol. 214, p. 101-108Conference paper (Refereed)

Industry 4.0 is the emerging trend of the industrial automation. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is a prominent technology for wireless networks to support the Industry 4.0 implementation. The availability of tractable accurate interference models would greatly facilitate the design of these networks. In this paper, we investigate the accuracy of an interference model that assumes impenetrable obstacles and neglects the sidelobes. We quantify the error of such a model in terms of statistical distribution of the signal to noise plus interference ratio for outdoor mmWave networks under different antenna array settings. The results show that assuming impenetrable obstacle comes at almost no accuracy penalty, and the accuracy of neglecting antenna sidelobes can be guaranteed with sufficiently large number of antenna elements.

• 7.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems Engineering. KTH.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems Engineering. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems Engineering. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
A Simplified Interference Model for Outdoor Millimeter-waveNetworks2019In: Mobile Networks and Applications, ISSN 1383-469X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 983-990Article in journal (Refereed)

Industry 4.0 is the emerging trend of the industrial automation. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is a prominent technology for wireless networks to support the Industry 4.0 requirements. The availability of tractable accurate interference models would greatly facilitate performance analysis and protocol development for these networks. In this paper, we investigate the accuracy of an interference model that assumes impenetrable obstacles and neglects the sidelobes. We quantify the error of such a model in terms of statistical distribution of the signal to noise plus interference ratio and of the user rate for outdoor mmWave networks under different carrier frequencies and antenna array settings. The results show that assuming impenetrable obstacle comes at almost no accuracy penalty, and the accuracy of neglecting antenna sidelobes can be guaranteed with sufficiently large number of antenna elements. The comprehensive discussions of this paper provide useful insights for the performance analysis and protocol design of outdoor mmWave networks.

• 8.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering. Ericsson Research, Kista, Sweden.. Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.. ABB AB, Corporate Research, 721 78 Västerås, Sweden.. Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, 35131 Padua, Italy.. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
Low-Latency Networking: Where Latency Lurks and How to Tame It2018In: Proceedings of the IEEE, ISSN 0018-9219, E-ISSN 1558-2256, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)

While the current generation of mobile and fixed communication networks has been standardized for mobile broadband services, the next generation is driven by the vision of the Internet of Things and mission-critical communication services requiring latency in the order of milliseconds or submilliseconds. However, these new stringent requirements have a large technical impact on the design of all layers of the communication protocol stack. The cross-layer interactions are complex due to the multiple design principles and technologies that contribute to the layers' design and fundamental performance limitations. We will be able to develop low-latency networks only if we address the problem of these complex interactions from the new point of view of submilliseconds latency. In this paper, we propose a holistic analysis and classification of the main design principles and enabling technologies that will make it possible to deploy low-latency wireless communication networks. We argue that these design principles and enabling technologies must be carefully orchestrated to meet the stringent requirements and to manage the inherent tradeoffs between low latency and traditional performance metrics. We also review currently ongoing standardization activities in prominent standards associations, and discuss open problems for future research.

• 9. Luvisotto, M.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
Physical Layer Design of High-Performance Wireless Transmission for Critical Control Applications2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 2844-2854, article id 7924385Article in journal (Refereed)

The next generations of industrial control systems will require high-performance wireless networks (named WirelessHP) able to provide extremely low latency, ultrahigh reliability, and high data rates. The current strategy toward the realization of industrial wireless networks relies on adopting the bottom layers of general purpose wireless standards and customizing only the upper layers. In this paper, a new bottom-up approach is proposed through the realization of a WirelessHP physical layer specifically targeted at reducing the communication latency through the minimization of packet transmission time. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed design allows a substantial reduction in packet transmission time, down to 1 $\mu$ s, with respect to the general purpose IEEE 802.11 physical layer. The design is validated by an experimental demonstrator, which shows that reliable communications up to 20 m range can be established with the proposed physical layer.

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