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  • 1.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Weighting and valuation in selected environmental systems analysis tools - suggestions for further developments2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 2-3, p. 145-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools like Life Cycle Assessment, strategic environmental assessment, cost benefit analysis and environmental management systems, results need to be presented in a comprehensible way to make alternatives easily comparable. One way of doing this is to aggregate results to a manageable set by using weighting methods.. In this paper, we explore how weighting methods are used in some selected Environmental Systems Analysis Tools (ESATs), and suggest possible developments of their use. We examine the differences in current use patterns, discuss the reasons for and implications of such differences, and investigate whether observed differences in use are necessary. The result of our survey shows that weighting and valuation is broadly used in the examined ESATs. The use of weighting/valuation methods is different in different tools, but these differences are not always related to the application; rather, they are related to traditions and views on valuation and weighting. Also, although the requirements on the weights/values may differ between tools, there are intersections where they coincide. Monetary weights, using either endpoint or midpoint methods, are found to be useful in all the selected tools. Furthermore, the inventory shows that that there is a common need for generic sets of weights. There is a need for further research focusing on the development of consistent value sets derived with a wide range of methods. In parallel to the development of weighting methods it is important with critical evaluations of the weighting sets with regard to scientific quality, consistency and data gaps.

  • 2.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nilsson, Måns
    SEI.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Weightning and valuation in environmental systems analysis toolsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Climate Change Impact of Electronic Media Solutions: Case Study of the Tablet Edition of a Magazine2013In: ICT4S 2013: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14-16, 2013, ETH, Zurich, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifts from print media to electronic media may be regarded as apossibility for promoting sustainability. However, the benefits ofelectronic media are not unquestioned. Previous studies on theenvironmental impacts of print and electronic media have shownthat there is no easy answer. Contributing to this field of research,the present study sought to assess the climate change impact ofthe tablet edition of a magazine using a life cycle perspective.Results showed that with few readers the emerging tablet versionhad a higher potential climate change impact per reader than themature tablet version, although the latter had a substantiallylonger reading time per copy. The contribution of contentproduction, electronic distribution, reading on tablet and wastetreatment of tablet to the impact was analysed. The sensitivityanalysis of electricity mix indicated that this was an importantfactor that clearly influenced the overall results.

  • 4.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Life Cycle Assessment of a Magazine: Part I: Tablet Edition in Emerging and Mature States2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is providing new ways to access media content. ICT has environmental benefits and burdens. The overall goal of the present study was to assess the environmental impacts of production and consumption of magazines read on tablets from a life cycle perspective. Important goals were to identify the activities giving rise to the main impacts and the key factors influencing the overall environmental impacts. Data gaps and uncertainties were also addressed. The results are compared against those for the print edition of the magazine in a separate article (part 2). The methodology used in the study was life cycle assessment. The environmental impacts assessed included climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater/marine eutrophication, fossil depletion, human toxicity, and ecotoxicity. The results indicate that content production can be the major contributor to environmental impacts if readers are few (as for the emerging version of the magazine studied). Assuming more readers (more mature version) or a larger file size for the tablet magazine, electronic storage and distribution may be the major contributor. Thus, in contrast to previous studies on electronic media, which reported a dominant impact of the use phase, this study found a higher impact for content production (emerging version) and electronic storage and distribution (mature version). However, with inefficient, low overall use of the tablet with a mature version of the tablet magazine, the greatest impact was shown to come from the reading activity (i.e., the use phase). In conclusion, the relative impacts of the tablet magazine would decrease considerably with high numbers of readers, their efficient use of the tablet (i.e., for many purposes over a long life of the device), and a smaller magazine file.

  • 5.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hagvall, J.
    A life cycle assessment of destruction of ammunition2009In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 170, no 2-3, p. 1101-1109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have large stocks of ammunition that were produced at a time when decommissioning was not considered. This ammunition will eventually become obsolete and must be destroyed, preferably with minimal impact on the environment and in a safe way for personnel. The aim of this paper is to make a comparison of the environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective of three different methods of decommissioning/destruction of ammunition, and to identify the environmental advantages and disadvantages of each of these destruction methods: open detonation; static kiln incineration with air pollution control combined with metal recycling, and a combination of incineration with air pollution control, open burning, recovery of some energetic material and metal recycling. Data used are for the specific processes and from established LCA databases. Recycling the materials in the ammunition and minimising the spread of airborne pollutants during incineration were found to be the most important factors affecting the life cycle environmental performance of the compared destruction methods. Open detonation with or without metal recycling proved to be the overall worst alternative from a life cycle perspective. The results for the static kiln and combination treatment indicate that the kind of ammunition and location of the destruction plant might determine the choice of method, since the environmental impacts from these methods are of little difference in the case of this specific grenade. Different methods for destruction of ammunition have previously been discussed from a risk and safety perspective. This is however to our knowledge the first study looking specifically on environmentally aspect in a life cycle perspective.

  • 6.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Handling trade-offs in Ecodesign tools for sustainable product development and procurement2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, no 15-16, p. 1420-1430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trade-off situations often occur in the product development and procurement processes when alternative solutions emphasize different aspects that have to be balanced against each other. Ecodesign tools can be used in both product development and purchasing, for example to prescribe design alternatives, assess environmental impacts or to compare environmental improvement alternatives. However, it is not always clear what should be chosen in trade-off situations. In this study, 15 different Ecodesign tools were analyzed to ascertain whether a valuation is included in the tools, in what way the tools give support in different types of trade-off situations and whether the tools provide support from a sustainability perspective.

    Nine of the 15 tools analyzed included a valuation and were able to provide support in a trade-off situation, but the support was not sufficient. The valuation should include a life cycle perspective and a framework for sustainability. Otherwise, it can lead to strategically incorrect decisions from a sustainability perspective with concomitant risks of sub-optimized investment paths and blind alleys. However, all the analyzed tools can be complemented with other tools and methods based on strategic planning towards sustainability in order to include a framework for sustainability.

  • 7.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Alverbro, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hägvall, J
    A Life Cycle Assessment of Destruction of Ammunition2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Alverbro, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hägvall, J
    Environmental Aspects of Disposal of Ammunition2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Engström, R
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Using the thermodynamic approach for characterization of abiotic resources2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Assessment of tools for environmentally preferable procurement with a life cycle perspective: the case of acquisition in Swedish defence2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Procurement in public and non-public organisations has the potential to influence product development towards more environmentally preferable products. In 2003, public procurement in Sweden was 28% of GDP. Different types of approaches can contribute some knowledge and thereby facilitate the choice of environmentally preferable products. The thesis focuses on procurement in Swedish Defence. According to a decision by the Swedish government in 1998, the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) and Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) are required to take environmental consideration in all phases of the acquisition process. The importance of a life cycle perspective is stressed in several SAF and FMV environmental documents. The starting point of this thesis was that environmental consideration should be taken in the Swedish acquisition of defence materiel, considering the whole life cycle of products. The aim was to produce suggestions for how this can be done.

    In order to make this suggestion some Ecodesign tools were reviewed and evaluated and two methods for simplified Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were compared. Suggestions of tools and methodology recommendations for environmentally preferable procurement in the Swedish defence are presented. For this purpose qualitative and/or simplified LCAs were suggested. The suggestions have been evaluated through interviews with actors in the process. When a simplified LCA is needed, the MECO assessment is recommended. Methodology recommendations for use of the MECO method in the Swedish Defence are presented. LCA is an appropriate tool for taking environmental consideration into the acquisition process, since it focuses on a product and includes its life cycle. If the environmental work lacks a life cycle perspective, there is a risk that the most significant aspects will not be considered. Four areas for use of LCA in the acquisition process were identified: Learning about environmental aspects of the product; fulfilling requirements from customers; setting environmental requirements; and choosing between alternatives.

    The actors interviewed were interested in using LCA methods, but there is a need for an initiative by one or several actors if the method is to be used regularly in the process. It is important that the results are communicated within the organisations involved in the procurement process. Environmental consideration should preferably be taken early in the acquisition process and environmental questions should be integrated into other activities of the organisations involved in the procurement process. Such work would be facilitated if there were greater cooperation between the procuring and environmental units, in this case at FMV, SAF and the Swedish Ministry of Defence.

  • 11.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Environmental costs in Life Cycle Costing: A surveyManuscript (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Life Cycle Thinking in Environmentally Preferable Procurement2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Products generate environmental impacts during their life cycle by consuming raw materials and energy, releasing emissions and producing waste. A procurement organisation can be a considerable driving force for more environmentally friendly products e.g. by requiring that products meet certain environmental criteria. The scope for environmental consideration when procuring materiel can be limited by lack of reliable information about the environmental characteristics of the product or service. Different types of tools (e.g. eco-labels, guidelines, checklists and tools for environmental assessment) can contribute some knowledge and help identify environmentally preferable products.

    This thesis focuses on use of tools for environmental consideration in Swedish defence acquisition but the results are also relevant for other organisations, since the procurement process analysed is rather general and the legal requirements are similar for other public organisations in Europe. A Swedish government decision in 1998 requires the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) and Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) to take environmental consideration in all phases of the acquisition process. The importance of a life cycle perspective is stressed in several SAF and FMV environmental documents. The starting point of this thesis was that environmental consideration should be taken in the Swedish acquisition of defence materiel, considering the whole life cycle of products, with the aim of formulating proposals on environmentally friendly procurement. Some Ecodesign tools were reviewed and evaluated, two methods for simplified Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were compared, tools and methodology were recommended, and used to study military materiel, and environmental Life Cycle Costing (LCC) was examined.

    In environmental work lacking a life cycle perspective, the most significant aspects risk being overlooked. Use of quantitative and/or simplified LCAs and inclusion of environmental costs in LCC are therefore recommended. LCA proved an appropriate tool for involving environmental consideration in the acquisition process, since it focuses on products and their life cycle. The MECO method proved best for simplified LCA. These suggested methods were evaluated by interviews with actors in the acquisition process. Four areas for LCA use in acquisition were identified: learning about environmental aspects of products; fulfilling customer requirements; setting environmental requirements; and choosing between alternatives.

    The interviewees were interested in using LCA, but there is a need for an initiative by one or several actors if the method is to be used regularly and the results must be communicated within the organisations involved in procurement. Environmental consideration should be taken early in the acquisition process and environmental matters integrated into other activities of the organisations involved. Environmental costs are not explicitly considered in the LCCs used by the interviewees today, but internal environmental costs should be included. Costs likely to be internal can also be included.

  • 13.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Dan, György
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Carbon footprint of movie distribution via the internet: a Swedish case study2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 87, p. 197-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) has been suggested as an energy-efficient means of movie distribution, indicating potential environmental benefits. An alternative option for the user would be to stream the movie from an internet protocol television (IPTV) solution. This paper presents an assessment of the carbon footprint of these two alternatives. When studying the environmental impacts of a product (goods or services), it is important to adopt a life cycle perspective in order to avoid moving the potential impacts from one part of the life cycle to another. Therefore the carbon footprint was assessed with a screening life cycle assessment (LCA). The results show that end-use equipment and distribution (in both P2P and IPTV systems) are clearly key aspects. Both manufacturing and use are important. In the use phase, the electricity for using the end-use devices and for distribution is the main contributor to the carbon footprint. For the distribution, another major contributor to the carbon footprint is the construction work involved in installing cables. Downlink/uplink bandwidth and movie size have a major influence on the environmental impact related to watching a movie by P2P, as the total time for which end-use devices need to be used is critical. Movie size determines the impact related to the distribution. In terms of the carbon footprint from the two systems, the P2P system has a higher impact, mainly caused by the end-use devices. Downlink uplink bandwidth and movie size determine the overall impact of the P2P system. The carbon footprint from P2P systems could be lowered either through higher uplink bandwidth or through decreased movie size.

  • 14.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, G
    Life cycle methodology in the acquisition process of defence materiel: Industrial Ecology for a Sustainable Future2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Environmental life cycle methods in the acquisition of defence materiel2004Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Superseded Departments.
    Evaluation of two simplified Life Cycle Assessment methods2003In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 119-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background. Two methods of simplified LCA were evaluated and compared to the results of a quantitative LCA. These are the Environmentally responsible product assessment matrix developed by Graedel and Allenby and the MECO-method developed in Denmark. Methods. We used these in a case study and compared the results with the results from a quantitative LCA. The evaluation also included other criteria, such as the field of application and the level of arbitrariness. Results and Discussion. The MECO-method has some positive qualities compared to the Environmentally responsible product assessment matrix. Examples of this are that it generates information complementary to the quantitative LCA and provides the possibility to consider quantitative information when such is available. Some of the drawbacks with the Environmentally responsible product assessment matrix are that it does not include the whole lifecycle and that it allows some arbitrariness. Conclusions. Our study shows that a simplified and semi-quantitative LCA (such as the MECO-method) can provide information that is complementary to a quantitative LCA. In this case the method generates more information on toxic substances and other impacts, than the quantitative LCA. We suggest that a simplified LCA can be used both as a pre-study to a quantitative LCA and as a parallel assessment, which is used together with the quantitative LCA in the interpretation. Recommendations and Outlook. A general problem with qualitative analyses is how to compare different aspects. Life cycle assessments are comparative. The lack of a quantitative dimension hinders the comparison and can thereby hinder the usefulness of the qualitative method. There are different approaches suggested to semiquantify simplified methods in order to make quantitative comparisons possible. We think that the use of fabricated scoring systems should be avoided. If quantitative information is needed, one should consider performing a simplified quantitative LCA instead.

  • 17.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Life Cycle Approach in the procurement process: The case of defence materiel2006In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 200-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background. Procurement in public and non-public organisations has the potential to influence product development towards more environmentally friendly products. This article focuses on public procurement with procurement in Swedish defence as a special case. In 2003, public procurement in Sweden was 28% of the GDP. In the Swedish defence sector the amount was 2% of the GDP. The total emissions from the sector were of the same order of magnitude as from waste treatment (2% of Sweden's emissions). According to an appropriation letter from the Ministry of Defence in 1998, the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) and the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) are required to take environmental issues into consideration during the entire process of acquiring defence materiel. Environmental aspects are considered today, but without a life-cycle perspective. The aims of this article are to recommend suitable tools for taking environmental concerns into account, considering a product's life-cycle, in the procurement process for defence materiel in Sweden; to make suggestions for how these tools could be used in the acquisition process; and to evaluate these suggestions through interviews with actors in the acquisition process. The procurement process does not include aspects specific to Swedish defence, and it is therefore likely to be comparable to processes in other countries. Methods. The method involved a study of current literature and interviews with various actors in the acquisition process. The life cycle methods considered were quantitative Life Cycle Assessments, a simplified LCA-method called the MECO method and Life Cycle Costing (LCC). Results and Discussion. Methodology recommendations for quantitative LCA and simplified LCA are presented in the article, as well as suggestions on how to integrate LCA methods in the acquisition process. We identified four areas for use for LCA in the acquisition process: to learn about environmental aspects of the product; to fulfil requirements from customers; to set environmental requirements and to choose between alternatives. Therefore, tools such as LCAs are useful in several steps in the acquisition process. Conclusion. From the interviews, it became clear that the actors in the acquisition process think that environmental aspects should be included early in the process. The actors are interested in using LCA methods, but there is a need for an initiative from one or several of them if the method is to be used regularly in the process. Environmental and acquisition issues are handled with very little interaction in the controlling and ordering organisation. An integration of environmental and acquisition parts in these organisations is probably needed in order to integrate environmental aspects in general and life-cycle thinking in particular. Other difficulties identified are costs and time constraints. Recommendation and Perspective. In order to include the most significant aspects when procuring materiel, it is important to consider the whole life-cycle of the products. Our major recommendation is that the defence sector should work systematically through different product groups. For each product group, quantitative, traditional LCAs or simplified LCAs (in this case modified MECOs) should be performed for reference products within each product group. The results should be an identification of critical aspects in the life-cycles of the products. The studies will also form a database that can be used when making new LCAs. This knowledge should then be used when writing specifications of what to procure and setting criteria for procurement. The reports should be publicly available to allow reviews and discussions of results. To make the work more cost-effective, international co-operation should be sought. In addition, LCAs can also be performed as an integrated part of the acquisition process in specific cases.

  • 18.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Life Cycle Methodology in theacquisition process of Defence MaterielManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Hägvall, Joakim
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Griffing, Evan
    Overcash, Michael
    Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of a pre- fragmented high explosive grenade2006In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 461-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations today face increasing environmental constraints, e.g. in the form of legal and customer requirements; the defence sector is no exception. There is a need to evaluate and limit environmental effects of defence activities and materiel. In this study we used quantitative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and a method for simplified LCA (the Material, Energy, Chemicals and Others (MECO) method) to assess the environmental impacts of a grenade. The aims of the study are to identify aspects in the grenade's life-cycle that have the largest environmental impact, suggest improvement possibilities, make a comparison between different approaches for waste management of munitions, and to perform a demonstrative case for the application of LCA to munitions. Significant environmental aspects of the grenade's life-cycle include use of metals, use of fossil fuels, and detonation outdoors. The study shows that an LCA can be used to analyse environmental impacts from munitions. The simplified LCA gave information that is complementary to the quantitative LCA.

  • 20.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hägvall, Joakim
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency. .
    Roth, Liselott
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Tryman, Rolf
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency. .
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Reference report on the use of environmental life cycle methodologies in procurement in the Swedish defence2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Dán, György
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    LCA of IPTV and Peer-to-peer2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Noring, M
    A case study with environmental LCC in the Swedish building and construction sector2011In: SB11 Helsinki World Sustainable Building Conference, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish building and construction sector contributes greatly to negative environmental impacts, while its environmental protection measures are marginal. Life cycle costing (LCC) has been used successfully for procurement and investment decisions, but its use within the Swedish building and construction sector is limited. This paper combines LCC with an environmental approach employing monetised environmental impacts. The prototype developed was evaluated in a case study. The aim was to investigate the cost items that could be educed, how the results were perceived, the problems encountered and the kind of results that can be obtained using the tool. The case study, at a Swedish housing company, showed that data about the investment (costs and quantities) were readily available. Data on quantities are important for deriving the environmental impact. A greater understanding of external costs as a valuation of the environmental impact is needed in order for the results to be used efficiently. However, it is important to bear in mind the crucial importance of sensitivity analyses, e.g. varying the interest rate or future cost changes, and of dividing internal and external costs in order to avoid double-counting.

  • 23.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Noring, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Practitioners' use of life cycle costing with environmental costs - a Swedish study2011In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 16, no 9, p. 897-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe life cycle costing (LCC) practices in some Swedish organisations, investigate probable changes and determine whether and how environmental costs (internal and/or external) are considered in current LCC. This paper is based on interviews with LCC practitioners working in authorities and companies in Sweden, mainly the Swedish defence sector, but also other sectors to broaden the study. Those interviewees who use LCC all employ their own particular method, adjusted from case to case. Inclusion of future costs and use of interest rate is also decided from case to case. The inclusion of direct, indirect, contingent and intangible costs differs between organisations. Even when environmental costs are considered in the LCC, not all the internal (environmental) costs are included. All interviewees believe that LCC can be important for decision making and most also believe that environmental costs, like other costs, influence final decisions, but still LCC is not always performed or used. The companies represented are large, and a particular individual cannot have insights into all methods or procedures used in different departments. The results are thus based upon interviews with individuals representing the companies and the responses might have been different if different individuals had been interviewed. However, since the answers between the different time periods and between the organisations point in the same direction, we found no need to make further interviews.

  • 24.
    Hägvall, Joakim
    et al.
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency..
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Finnveden G, Göran
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Overcash, Michael
    Dep of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State Univeristy, USA.
    Griffing, Evan
    Dep of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State Univeristy, USA.
    Life Cycle Assessment of a PFHE Shell Grenade2004Report (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Höjer, Mattias
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Hjelm, Olof
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Palm, Viveka
    Scenarios in selected tools for environmental systems analysis2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 18, p. 1958-1970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of different tools for analysing environmental impacts of different systems have been developed. These include procedural tools such as strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and environmental management systems (EMS) as well as analytical ones such as life cycle assessment (LCA), life cycle costing (LCC), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and the system of economic and environmental accounts (SEEA) including input-output analysis (IOA). Descriptions or scenarios of the future are typically relevant elements in these tools, since they are often used to describe impacts in the future. For futures studies a number of different approaches and techniques have been developed. In an earlier paper we have presented a typology of different types of scenarios that respond to different types of questions. These include predictive scenarios, explorative scenarios and normative scenarios. The aim of this paper is to explore connections between selected tools for environmental systems analysis and different scenario types. Although there is a clear need for futures studies in several tools for environmental systems analysis, it is interesting to note that the literature on methodologies for and case studies of combinations of futures studies and environmental systems analysis tools is rather limited. This suggests that there is a need for further research in this area including both methodoloy and practical case studies.

  • 26.
    Tyskeng, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hägvall, Joakim
    Tryman, R.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Methods to identify components with an environmental impact in defence material2007Report (Other academic)
1 - 26 of 26
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